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Biologic therapy

Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Antonino Neri, Katia Todoerti, Marta Lionetti, Vittorio Simeon, Marzia Barbieri, Filomena Nozza, Gabriella Vona, Alessandra Pompa, Luca Baldini, Pellegrino Musto
Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma. The introduction of novel agents and modern technologies has recently partially changed the clinical and biological scenario of this malignancy, allowing limited, but not negligible, progresses. Areas covered: We will discuss the complex landscape of genetic alterations in PPCL, derived from conventional and high-throughput technologies; the best available treatments for PPCL; the possible future therapeutic perspectives...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Zhen-Yao Chen, Xin Chen, Zhao-Xia Wang
MicroRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that have emerged as regulators of various biological processes, especially carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Recent evidence has shown that microRNA-196a (miR-196a) is upregulated in most types of tumors and involved in multiple biological processes via translational inhibition and mRNA cleavage, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, mostly functioning as an oncogene. Dysregulation of miR-196a promotes oncogenesis and tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the upstream regulators, target genes, signaling pathways, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of miR-196a, which collectively affect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
October 18, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Jeganathan Manivannan, Manjunath Prashanth, Venkatesan Saravana Kumar, Manickaraj Shairam, Jayachandran Subburaj
Since there is no precise therapy for treating vascular calcification by directly targeting the vascular wall, we aim to unveil novel drug targets through mining the molecular effect of a high phosphate environment on vascular cells through computational methods. Here, we hypothesize that manipulation of the vascular pathogenic network by small molecule therapeutics predicted from prior knowledge might offer great promise. With this, we intend to understand the publicly available transcriptomic data of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exposed to the high phosphate induced vascular calcification milieu and to re-examine the above published experiments for reasons different from those examined in the previous studies through multilevel systems biological understanding...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Michael Medinger, Claudia Lengerke, Jakob Passweg
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a biologically complex and molecularly and clinically heterogeneous disease, and its incidence is increasing as the population ages. Cytogenetic anomalies and mutation testing remain important prognostic tools for tailoring treatment after induction therapy. Despite major advances in understanding the genetic landscape of AML and its impact on the pathophysiology and biology of the disease, as well as the rapid development of new drugs, standard treatment options have not experienced major changes during the past three decades...
2016: Leukemia Research Reports
Matthew L Paff, Scott L Nuismer, Andrew D Ellington, Ian J Molineux, Ryan H May, James J Bull
BACKGROUND: We propose, model, and implement a novel system of population-level intervention against a virus. One context is a treatment against a chronic infection such as HIV. The underlying principle is a form of virus 'wars' in which a benign, transmissible agent is engineered to protect against infection by and spread of a lethal virus. In our specific case, the protective agent consists of two entities, a benign virus and a gene therapy vector mobilized by the benign virus. RESULTS: Numerical analysis of a mathematical model identified parameter ranges in which adequate, population-wide protection is achieved...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Ming-Shyen Yen, Jen-Ruei Chen, Peng-Hui Wang, Kuo-Chang Wen, Yi-Jen Chen, Heung-Tat Ng
Uterine sarcoma is a very aggressive and highly lethal disease. Even after a comprehensive staging surgery or en block cytoreduction surgery followed by multimodality therapy (often chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy), many patients relapse or present with distant metastases, and finally die of diseases. The worst outcome of uterine sarcomas is partly because of their rarity, unknown etiology, and highly divergent genetic aberration. Uterine sarcomas are often classified into four distinct subtypes, including uterine leiomyosarcoma, low-grade uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Taehwan Park, Chang-Ju Choi, Yeera Choi, Dong-Churl Suh
Cetuximab is a novel biological agent with superior therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer treatment. This study aimed to systematically review the existing evidence related to the cost-effectiveness of cetuximab. Areas covered: Using Medline and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, a total of 12 articles were identified. Previous studies have shown mixed results on the cost-effectiveness of first-line cetuximab combined with FOLFIRI (5-Fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan). However, cetuximab-irinotecan therapy as third-line treatment has consistently been found to be cost-ineffective compared to best supportive care or no third-line therapy...
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Shanshan Xu, Lanlan Dong, Yingying Shi, Liujun Chen, Peipei Yuan, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a complex and unique retrovirus with the longest genomes among retroviruses used as vectors for gene therapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as key regulators that involved in diverse biological processes during viral infection. However, the role of lncRNAs in HFV infection remains unknown. In this study, we utilized next-generation sequencing to first characterize lncRNAs in 293T cells after HFV infection, evaluating length distribution, exon number distribution, volcano picture and lncRNA class distribution...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Sahishnu Patel, Anthony P Gualtieri, Helen H Lu, William N Levine
Rotator cuff tear is a very common shoulder injury that often necessitates surgical intervention for repair. Despite advances in surgical techniques for rotator cuff repair, there is a high incidence of failure after surgery because of poor healing capacity attributed to many factors. The complexity of tendon-to-bone integration inherently presents a challenge for repair because of a large biomechanical mismatch between the tendon and bone and insufficient regeneration of native tissue, leading to the formation of fibrovascular scar tissue...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Pedro David Carvalho, Cátia Duarte, Elsa Vieira-Sousa, Luís Cunha-Miranda, Pedro Avila-Ribeiro, Helena Santos, Miguel Bernardes, Maria José Santos, Marcos Cerqueira, Margarida Mateus, Patrícia Nero, Ana Águeda, José António Pereira da Silva, Pedro Machado
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease with a broad clinical spectrum. PsA can affect the axial skeleton, peripheral joints, entheses, synovial sheaths of tendons, skin, nails and extra-articular organs. Tumour necrosis factor alpha blockers (TNF blockers) were a breakthrough development in the treatment of PsA. Identifying predictors of response to biological therapies in patients with PsA is of utmost importance, especially in view of the costs and potential side effects of these agents...
August 17, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Bishoy M Faltas, Davide Prandi, Scott T Tagawa, Ana M Molina, David M Nanus, Cora Sternberg, Jonathan Rosenberg, Juan Miguel Mosquera, Brian Robinson, Olivier Elemento, Andrea Sboner, Himisha Beltran, Francesca Demichelis, Mark A Rubin
Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights: (i) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intra-patient mutational heterogeneity, and the majority of mutations are not shared; (ii) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (iii) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and integrin signaling pathways; and (iv) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime...
October 17, 2016: Nature Genetics
Alan N Barkun, Viviane Adam, Yidan Lu, Yen-I Chen, Myriam Martel
GOALS: We compared the cost-effectiveness of traditional recommended endoscopic hemostatic therapies and Hemospray alone or in combination when treating nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). BACKGROUND: Hemospray (TC-325) is a novel endoscopic hemostatic powder, achieving hemostasis through adherence to actively bleeding biological surfaces. STUDY: A decision tree of patients with NVUGIB assessed 4 possible treatment strategies: traditional therapy alone (T), Hemospray alone (H), traditional therapy completed by Hemospray if needed (T+H), or Hemospray completed by traditional therapy if needed (H+T)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Leticia Leon, Jose Ivorra-Cortes, Alejandro Gómez, Jose Ramon Lamas, Esperanza Pato, Juan Angel Jover, Lydia Abásolo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the mortality rate (MR) and the mortality risk of a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) inception cohort, with and without biologic agents (BAs). Other factors associated to mortality were also investigated. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal study of RA patients, attending the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary Hospital (Madrid), collected over 5 years (2000-2004), and followed from the diagnosis of RA up to the patients' death, lost to follow-up or September 2013...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Mei Jiang, Feifeng Ren, Yaning Zheng, Ruyu Yan, Wenhan Huang, Ning Xia, Lei Luo, Jun Zhou, Lin Tang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of down-titration (dose reduction/tapering) strategies compared with continuation of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved and maintained low disease activity or remission. METHODS: We searched the following electronic database up to March 2016: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and conference proceedings of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR)...
September 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Julie A Birt, YingMeei Tan, Neelufar Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the real-world characteristics and costs of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: Analysing the MarketScan Commercial Claims database from Jan. 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2011, we identified 10,414 patients ≥18 years old newly diagnosed with SS. Patient characteristics, drugs (commonly used for SS), resource utilisation, and medical costs were evaluated for 12 months pre- and post-diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean age was 55 years; 90% were female...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Marlène Genty, Bernard Combe, Marie Kostine, Elodie Ardouin, Jacques Morel, Cédric Lukas
OBJECTIVES: To assess predictive factors of improvement in related fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients newly receiving biologic therapy, and specifically the influence of the improvement of the quality of sleep. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre prospective study in RA patients requiring initiation or change of biologic therapy. The improvement in fatigue, sleep disorders and depression was assessed respectively by the FACIT fatigue scale, Spiegel scale and Beck Depression Inventory at inclusion (M0) and 3 months (M3) after the beginning of treatment...
October 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Gerd Horneff, Ariane Klein, Prasad T Oommen, Anton Hospach, Ivan Foeldvari, Isa Feddersen, Kirsten Minden
OBJECTIVES: While tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-inhibitor treatment improved outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) management markedly, concerns have been raised about an association of TNF-α-inhibitor treatment and an increased risk for malignancies especially lymphoma. METHODS: Cases of suspected malignancies documented in the German Biker Registry are reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Until Dec 31, 2015, 3695 JIA patients were prospectively followed with a total of more than 13,198 observation years...
September 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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