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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647858/counter-intuitive-plasma-vitamin-d-and-zinc-status-in-hiv-1-infected-adults-with-persistent-low-level-viraemia-after-treatment-initiation-a-pilot-case-control-study
#1
H Melliez, A Duhamel, O Robineau, L Bocket, I Kim, E Sauser, F Loiseleur, N Viget, A Pasquet, E Senneville, D Seguy
Determinants of persistent low-level viraemia [PLLV, a viral load (VL) of between 50 and 500 copies/mL] have not been elucidated. In a case-control study, we evaluated the influence of micronutrients on PLLV in a population of 454 HIV-1 adults having initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2007 and December 2011. Plasma levels of retinol (vitamin A), 25-OH vitamin D2 + D3, vitamin E and zinc were measured at ART initiation in cases (PLLV after 6 months of ART) and in controls (VL <50 copies/mL after 6 months)...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647791/premonitory-symptoms-of-migraine-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#2
REVIEW
N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premonitory symptoms in migraine; symptoms occurring before the onset of migraine pain or aura, are an increasingly recognised area of interest within headache research. It has been recently documented in the literature that these symptoms also occur in children and adolescents, with a comparable phenotype to adults. This review discusses the wide presentation of premonitory symptoms in migraine in children and adolescents, and the importance of understanding how these early symptoms are mediated in order to ensure that targeted abortive therapies are developed in the future...
July 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#3
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647646/the-secreted-protein-wnt5a-regulates-condylar-chondrocyte-proliferation-hypertrophy-and-migration
#4
Xianpeng Ge, Ruirui Shi, Xuchen Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our previous study showed that WNT5A, a member of the noncanonical WNT pathway, is involved in interleukin-1beta induced matrix metalloproteinase expression in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar chondrocytes. The purpose of this study is to further explore the roles of WNT5A in cartilage biology of the TMJ. METHODS: An early TMJ osteoarthritis-like rat model was constructed by a mechanical method (steady mouth-opening). The gene and protein levels of WNT5A during the condylar cartilage changes were measured...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647496/a-comprehensive-complex-systems-approach-to-the-study-and-analysis-of-mammalian-cell-cycle-control-system-in-the-presence-of-dna-damage-stress
#5
Ali Abroudi, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri
Not many models of mammalian cell cycle system exist due to its complexity. Some models are too complex and hard to understand, while some others are too simple and not comprehensive enough. Moreover, some essential aspects, such as the response of G1-S and G2-M checkpoints to DNA damage as well as the growth factor signalling, have not been investigated from a systems point of view in current mammalian cell cycle models. To address these issues, we bring a holistic perspective to cell cycle by mathematically modelling it as a complex system consisting of important sub-systems that interact with each other...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647454/elevated-serum-met-5-enkephalin-levels-correlate-with-improved-clinical-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
Methionine enkephalin ([Met(5)]-enkephalin, Opioid growth factor (OGF)) is a small neuropeptide with growth-related as well as immunomodulatory properties. OGF is distributed widely throughout the body, is both autocrine and paracrine produced, and has a very short half-life in serum. In addition to its neurotransmitter functions, OGF inhibits cell replication of a wide variety of cells involved in the autoimmune process. In this preclinical study, mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) to establish a chronic progressive form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and serum enkephalin levels were assessed throughout the disease as well as in response to OGF therapy in order to determine whether OGF may be a biological marker for EAE and multiple sclerosis...
June 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647212/combined-primary-hepatic-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-aggressive-biological-behavior-adverse-clinical-course-a-case-report
#7
Yukihiko Okumura, Kenichi Kohashi, Huanlin Wang, Masaki Kato, Yoshihiko Maehara, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Yoshinao Oda
Combined primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PHNEC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare malignant hepatic tumor. Its prognosis and histological features are uncertain. Here we report the case of such a tumor in a 70-year-old male Japanese patient with adverse prognosis. The patient underwent a right hepatic lobectomy for a tumor mass that measured 11×10cm in diameter located in the right lobe of the liver, treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (PTPE) therapy five weeks before the operation...
June 10, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647110/success-of-tardive-electroconvulsive-therapy-sessions-after-loxapine-induced-malignant-syndrome-in-the-context-of-very-poor-metabolisation
#8
Juliette Descoeur, Laurent Philibert, Kevin Chalard, Jérôme Attal, Pierre Petit, Kada Klouche, Mathieu Olivier
We report the success of tardive electroconvulsive therapy in a case of loxapine malignant syndrome with catatonia. Loxapine and its metabolites were measured in biological samples by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Genes were studied by sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasmatic drug concentrations showed a supratherapeutic concentration of loxapine with a very low 8-hydroxyloxapine/loxapine ratio (range from 0.32 to 0.66, normal value>2 for 100mg) and a very long elimination half-life of loxapine (half-life>140h, normal value from 1 to 4hours)...
May 29, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647092/regulating-secretory-proteostasis-through-the-unfolded-protein-response-from-function-to-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Lars Plate, R Luke Wiseman
Imbalances in secretory proteostasis induced by genetic, environmental, or aging-related insults are pathologically associated with etiologically diverse protein misfolding diseases. To protect the secretory proteome from these insults, organisms evolved stress-responsive signaling pathways that regulate the composition and activity of biologic pathways involved in secretory proteostasis maintenance. The most prominent of these is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR), which functions to regulate ER proteostasis in response to ER stress...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647084/bioprinted-three-dimensional-human-tissues-for-toxicology-and-disease-modeling
#10
REVIEW
Deborah G Nguyen, Stephen L Pentoney
The high rate of attrition among clinical-stage therapies, due largely to an inability to predict human toxicity and/or efficacy, underscores the need for in vitro models that better recapitulate in vivo human biology. In much the same way that additive manufacturing has revolutionized the production of solid objects, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is enabling the automated production of more architecturally and functionally accurate in vitro tissue culture models. Here, we provide an overview of the most commonly used bioprinting approaches and how they are being used to generate complex in vitro tissues for use in toxicology and disease modeling research...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646805/natural-cancer-therapy-and-prevention-targeted-on-cancer-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-based-on-the-cytochrome-p45o-enzyme-cyp1b1-a-commentary
#11
William R Ware
The importance of the P450 enzyme CYP1B1 in both cancer therapy and prevention are reviewed and evidence is discussed, which provides strong biological plausibility for the therapeutic merits of this approach. The significant resistance to chemotherapy among common cancers, and the realization that in many cases chemotherapy leaves behind drug-resistant cancer cells that eventually cause recurrence and metastatic disease, has recently prompted the search for natural compounds that would circumvent this problem...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646801/the-effects-of-exposure-to-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-male-fertility
#12
Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Ashok Agarwal, Ralf Henkle, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi
Context • People are increasingly exposed to low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), mainly from electricity distribution networks and electronic devices. Critics of this widespread exposure believe that it can have detrimental effects on the human body. On the other hand, many in vivo and in vitro studies have claimed that low frequency electromagnetic therapy can function as a form of alternative medicine and that therapists can treat disease by applying electromagnetic radiation or pulsed EMFs to the body or cells...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646389/photodynamic-therapy-controls-of-staphylococcus-aureus-intradermal-infection-in-mice
#13
Palloma Porto Almeida, Ítalo Sousa Pereira, Karine Bitencourt Rodrigues, Lorena Santos Leal, Andressa Souza Marques, Luciano Pereira Rosa, Francine Cristina da Silva, Robson Amaro Augusto da Silva
Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus lead to skin infections, as well as soft tissues and bone infections. Given the communal resistance to antibiotics developed by strains of this bacterium, photodynamic therapy emerges as a promising alternative treatment to control and cure infections. Females of the Balb/C mice were infected with 10(8) CFU of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and divided into four distinct groups: P-L- (negative control group), P+L- (group exposed only to curcumin), P-L+ (group exposed only to LED incidence of 450 nm, 75 mW/cm(2), and 54 J/cm(2) for 10 min), and P+L+ (group exposed to curcumin followed by 10 min of LED irradiation) (n = 24)...
June 23, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646304/ndrg2-knockdown-promotes-fibrosis-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-through-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway
#14
Zhibo Jin, Chaohui Gu, Fengyan Tian, Zhankui Jia, Jinjian Yang
Renal fibrosis is a common pathological pathway of various chronic kidney diseases progressing to end-stage renal disease and is characterized by tubular atrophy, fibroblast/myofibroblast activation and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-2 (NDRG2) is reported to be associated with liver fibrosis in rats. However, the biological function of NDRG2 in renal fibrosis remains unclear. Therefore, we investigate the effect of NDRG2 on renal fibrosis and the underlying mechanism of NDRG2 in TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2)...
June 23, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646258/selective-survival-advantage-associated-with-primary-tumor-resection-for-metastatic-gastric-cancer-in-a-western-population
#15
René Warschkow, Matthias Baechtold, Kenneth Leung, Bruno M Schmied, Daniel P Nussbaum, Beat Gloor, Dan G Blazer Iii, Mathias Worni
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of metastatic gastric cancer (GC) remains dismal, with a median survival of 10 months. Historically, primary tumor resection was not thought to confer any survival benefit. Although high-level data exist guiding treatment of metastatic GC for patients in the East, no such data exist for Western patients despite inherent ethnic differences in GC biology. METHODS: The 2006-2012 National Cancer Database was queried for adult patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma...
June 23, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645874/attenuated-il-2r-signaling-in-cd4-memory-t-cells-of-t1d-subjects-is-intrinsic-and-dependent-on-activation-state
#16
Katharine Schwedhelm, Jerill Thorpe, Sara A Murray, Marc Gavin, Cate Speake, Carla Greenbaum, Karen Cerosaletti, Jane Buckner, S Alice Long
The IL-2/IL-2R pathway is implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). While its role in regulatory T cell (Treg) biology is well characterized, mechanisms that influence IL-2 responses in effector T cells (Teff) are less well understood. We compared IL-2 responses in 95 healthy control and 98 T1D subjects. In T1D, low IL-2 responsiveness was most pronounced in memory Teff. Unlike Treg, CD25 expression did not influence the Teff responses. Reduced IL-2 responses in memory Teff were not rescued by resting, remained lower after activation and proliferation, and were absent in type 2 diabetes...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645565/from-the-outside-from-within-biological-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-signal-transduction-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
REVIEW
Mariana L Oliveira, Padma Akkapeddi, Isabel Alcobia, Afonso R Almeida, Bruno A Cardoso, Rita Fragoso, Teresa L Serafim, João T Barata
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological cancer that arises from clonal expansion of transformed T-cell precursors. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the external stimuli and cell-intrinsic lesions that drive aberrant activation of pivotal, pro-tumoral intracellular signaling pathways in T-cell precursors, driving transformation, leukemia expansion, spread or resistance to therapy. In addition to their pathophysiological relevance, receptors and kinases involved in signal transduction are often attractive candidates for targeted drug development...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645468/aldhs-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoietic-cells-potential-new-avenues-for-treatment-of-aml-and-other-blood-cancers
#18
Maura Gasparetto, Clayton A Smith
Multiple studies have demonstrated that ALDH1A1 is elevated in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). As a means to better characterize such cells, we previously developed the fluorescent ALDH1A1 substrate Aldefluor to facilitate HSC identification and isolation. This has proven useful for counting and isolating HSCs from human bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood as well as stem cells in other tissues and organisms. Given the high level expression of ALDH1A1, we explored its biology and that of other ALDHs in HSCs and found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 were important in metabolizing reactive aldehydes (RAlds) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645312/phf21b-overexpression-promotes-cancer-stem-cell-like-traits-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-activating-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#19
Qiji Li, Liping Ye, Wei Guo, Min Wang, Shuai Huang, Xinsheng Peng
BACKGROUND: PHF21B is newly identified to be involved in the tumor progression; however, its biological role and molecular mechanism in prostate cancer have not been defined. This study is aimed to study the role of PHF21B in the progression of prostate cancer. METHODS: Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were used to determine PHF21B expression in prostate cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. The role of PHF21B in maintaining prostate cancer stem cell-like phenotype was examined by tumor-sphere formation assay and expression levels of stem cell markers...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644953/helping-induced-hpscs-clean-up-their-act
#20
Ho-Chang Jeong, Hyuk-Jin Cha
Inhibition of the tumorigenic potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) remains critically important for safe hPSC-based therapy. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Kuang et al. (2017) reveal that the phospho-D-peptide D-3 efficiently induces death of residual hPSCs, but not of differentiated progenies, through high alkaline phosphatase activity in hPSCs.
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
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