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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549377/biocompatibility-of-liposome-nanocarriers-in-the-rat-inner-ear-after-intratympanic-administration
#1
Jing Zou, Hao Feng, Rohit Sood, Paavo K J Kinnunen, Ilmari Pyykko
Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The aim of the present study is to document the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear after intratympanic delivery. LPNs with or without gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA) were delivered to the rats through transtympanic injection...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548903/microenvironment-of-a-tumor-organoid-system-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-malignancy-related-hallmarks
#2
Yang Wang, Kazuki Takeishi, Zhao Li, Eduardo Cervantes-Alvarez, Alexandra Collin de l'Hortet, Jorge Guzman-Lepe, Xiao Cui, Jiye Zhu
Organ-like microenviroment and 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture conformations have been suggested as promising approaches to mimic in a micro-scale a whole organ cellular functions and interactions present in vivo. We have used this approach to examine biologic features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In this study, we demonstrate that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and extracellular matrix can generate organoid-like spheroids that enhanced numerous features of human HCC observed in vivo...
May 26, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548702/p16-loss-and-e2f-cell-cycle-deregulation-in-infant-posterior-fossa-ependymoma
#3
Seth C Lummus, Andrew M Donson, Katherine Gowan, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas (EPNs) in infants less than 1 year of age (iEPN-PF) have a poorer clinical outcome than EPNs in older children. While radiation therapy is the standard of care for the latter, it is withheld in infants to avoid neurotoxicity to immature brain. It is unknown whether the adverse outcome in iEPN-PFs is due to treatment differences or aggressive biology. We examined this question using molecular profiling. METHODS: Six anaplastic iEPN-PFs were subjected to transcriptomic analysis and FISH for p16 loss and gains of 1q, and compared with anaplastic PF EPNs from older children...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548675/inducible-bcl-2-gene-rna-interference-mediated-by-aptamer-integrated-hdv-ribozyme-switch
#4
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jine Wang, Hui Cheng, Na Sun, Min Liu, Zhengyan Wu, Renjun Pei
The regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) could be a powerful method for the study of temporal and dose dependent effects of gene expression. In this study, we designed the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer as the sensor domain and the pri-miRNA of endogenous gene Bcl-2 as the effector domain to engineer an RNAi-regulatory device in MCF-7 cells. The system allowed us to control gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in a dose dependent fashion...
May 26, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548193/-therapeutic-potential-of-cannabis-sativa
#5
Marcia Avello L, Edgar Pastene N, Pola Fernández R, Pia Córdova M
Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548125/next-generation-sequencing-based-molecular-characterization-of-primary-urinary-bladder-adenocarcinoma
#6
Somak Roy, Dinesh Pradhan, Wayne L Ernst, Stephanie Mercurio, Yana Najjar, Rahul Parikh, Anil V Parwani, Reetesh K Pai, Rajiv Dhir, Marina N Nikiforova
Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcomes and no standard of care therapy. Molecular biology of this tumor is unknown due to the lack of comprehensive molecular profiling studies. The study aimed to identify genomic alterations of clinical and therapeutic significance using next-generation sequencing and compare genomic profile of primary bladder adenocarcinoma with that of high-grade urothelial carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. A cohort of 15 well-characterized primary bladder adenocarcinoma was subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing for the identification of mutations and copy-number changes in 51 cancer-related genes...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547860/inhibition-of-melanoma-metastasis-by-dual-peptide-plga-nps
#7
Denise Costa Arruda, Thaís Dolzany de Oliveira, Patrícia Harume Fukuda Cursino, Vera Susana Carneiro Maia, Rodrigo Berzaghi, Luiz R Travassos, Dayane Batista Tada
Despite the positive results observed in vitro and in vivo, clinical trials with bioactive peptides are generally hampered by their fast degradation in the biological system. Two bioactive peptides, P20 (CSSRTMHHC) and the combined peptide C (CVNHPAFACGYGHTMYYHHYQHHL) have been identified as anticancer therapeutics. Combined peptide C consists of peptide C (CVNHPAFAC), a tumor-homing peptide, conjugated to the antiangiogenic peptide HTMYYHHYQHHL with a GYG. In this work, PLGA NPs with peptide C were applied as a dual-peptide carrier for application in cancer therapy...
May 25, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547750/management-of-long-term-therapy-with-biological-drugs-in-psoriatic-patients-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-real-life-setting
#8
Andrea Conti, Stefano Piaserico, Paolo Gisondi, Giulia Odorici, Giovanna Galdo, Claudia Lasagni, Giovanni Pellacani
Psoriatic patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) need a prophylaxis before starting a treatment with biological drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of prophylaxis of LTBI in psoriatic patients receiving long-term biological drugs. The study included 56 patients (42 male and 14 female) affected by moderate-to-severe psoriasis (mean PASI: 12.8 ± 6.9 SD) treated with anti-TNF-α and/or anti IL 12, 23 and/or anti-CD11 drugs with a diagnosis of LTBI. LTBI diagnosis was based on tuberculin skin test and/or QuantiFERON TB Gold test positivity and chest X-ray suggestive, without clinical, or microbiological evidence of active disease...
May 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546917/challenges-in-the-delivery-of-therapies-to-melanoma-brain-metastases
#9
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Brynna-Wilken Resman, Karen E Parrish, Svetomir N Markovic, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced melanoma. Recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents and biologics has brought hope to patients with this previously untreatable disease. However, patients with symptomatic melanoma brain metastases have often been excluded from pivotal clinical trials. This may be in part attributed to the fact that several of the approved small molecule molecularly-targeted agents are substrates for active efflux at the blood-brain barrier, limiting their effective delivery to brain metastases...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546502/can-we-design-a-better-anti-cytokine-therapy
#10
Marina S Drutskaya, Grigory A Efimov, Andrei A Kruglov, Sergei A Nedospasov
Cytokine neutralization is successfully used for treatment of various autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. The complex biology of the two well-characterized proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 implicates unavoidable consequences when it comes to their global blockade. Because systemic cytokine ablation may result in unwanted side effects, efforts have been made to develop more specific cytokine inhibitors, which would spare the protective immunoregulatory functions of a given cytokine...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546332/establishing-177-lu-psma-617-radioligand-therapy-in-a-syngeneic-model-of-murine-prostate-cancer
#11
Wolfgang P Fendler, Andreea D Stuparu, Susan Evans-Axelsson, Katharina Lückerath, Liu Wei, Woosuk Kim, Soumya Poddar, Jonathan Said, Caius G Radu, Matthias Eiber, Johannes Czernin, Roger Slavik, Ken Herrmann
Clinical (177)Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (RLT) is applied in advanced stage prostate cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge murine models to study the biological effects of various activity levels have not been established. AIM: To optimize specific and total activity for (177)Lu-PSMA-617 RLT in a syngeneic model of murine prostate cancer. Methods: 0.1x106 murine reconstituted, oncogene-driven prostate cancer cells (RM1), transduced to express human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), were injected into the left flank of C57Bl6 immunocompetent mice...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#12
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545823/novel-molecular-subgroups-for-clinical-classification-and-outcome-prediction-in-childhood-medulloblastoma-a-cohort-study
#13
Edward C Schwalbe, Janet C Lindsey, Sirintra Nakjang, Stephen Crosier, Amanda J Smith, Debbie Hicks, Gholamreza Rafiee, Rebecca M Hill, Alice Iliasova, Thomas Stone, Barry Pizer, Antony Michalski, Abhijit Joshi, Stephen B Wharton, Thomas S Jacques, Simon Bailey, Daniel Williamson, Steven C Clifford
BACKGROUND: International consensus recognises four medulloblastoma molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGrp3), and group 4 (MBGrp4), each defined by their characteristic genome-wide transcriptomic and DNA methylomic profiles. These subgroups have distinct clinicopathological and molecular features, and underpin current disease subclassification and initial subgroup-directed therapies that are underway in clinical trials. However, substantial biological heterogeneity and differences in survival are apparent within each subgroup, which remain to be resolved...
May 22, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545651/the-dichotomy-of-placenta-derived-cells-in-cancer-growth
#14
Antonietta R Silini, Sara Cancelli, Patrizia Bonassi Signoroni, Anna Cargnoni, Marta Magatti, Ornella Parolini
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have often been considered to linger behind their equivalents from other tissues, such as MSC from bone marrow, in many aspects including their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Nowadays however, it is clear that certain aspects make placental MSC attractive as a cellular therapy, such as their lack of ethical concerns and ease of isolation from human term placenta, a material long regarded as biological waste. Moreover, placental MSC virtually lack expression of human leukocyte antigens and co-stimulatory molecules, making them very attractive for transplantation in allogeneic settings...
May 18, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545581/increased-serum-level-of-soluble-interleukin-2-receptor-is-associated-with-a-worse-response-of-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-to-interferon-alpha-and-sequential-vegf-targeting-therapy
#15
Akinori Nukui, Akinori Masuda, Hideyuki Abe, Kyoko Arai, Ken-Ichiro Yoshida, Takao Kamai
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor with immunogenic properties. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) has a role in T cell activation and may be important for immune regulation in various conditions, including infections, transplantation rejection, autoimmune inflammatory states, and cancer. We investigated the prognostic value of the serum sIL-2R level in patients with metastatic RCC receiving IFN-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting therapy...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545509/ultrasound-detected-bone-erosion-is-a-relapse-risk-factor-after-discontinuation-of-biologic-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drugs-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-whose-ultrasound-power-doppler-synovitis-activity-and-clinical-disease-activity-are-well
#16
Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Keita Fujikawa, Ayako Nishino, Akitomo Okada, Toshiyuki Aramaki, Toshimasa Shimizu, Masataka Umeda, Shoichi Fukui, Takahisa Suzuki, Tomohiro Koga, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Akinari Mizokami, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Yukitaka Ueki, Kiyoshi Aoyagi, Takahiro Maeda, Atsushi Kawakami
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we explored the risk factors for relapse after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose ultrasound power Doppler (PD) synovitis activity and clinical disease activity were well controlled. METHODS: In this observational study in clinical practice, the inclusion criteria were based on ultrasound disease activity and clinical disease activity, set as low or remission (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate <3...
May 25, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545462/sequence-based-prediction-of-protein-protein-interaction-using-a-deep-learning-algorithm
#17
Tanlin Sun, Bo Zhou, Luhua Lai, Jianfeng Pei
BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are critical for many biological processes. It is therefore important to develop accurate high-throughput methods for identifying PPI to better understand protein function, disease occurrence, and therapy design. Though various computational methods for predicting PPI have been developed, their robustness for prediction with external datasets is unknown. Deep-learning algorithms have achieved successful results in diverse areas, but their effectiveness for PPI prediction has not been tested...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545380/from-stem-cell-biology-to-the-treatment-of-lung-diseases
#18
Dorina Esendagli, Aysen Gunel-Ozcan
The exposure of lung to noxious agents or gasses leads to injury, which further enhances repair mechanisms by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of lung stem cells. These cells could help preserve the anatomical structure and the function of the organ. Unfortunately in many lung diseases 'this scenario' is changed and injury progresses despite repair mechanisms or conventional treatment. This review summarizes the research on lung stem cells by giving an overview to the biology, function, niches and signaling that play role in lung stem cells and further to the regeneration of the lung...
May 23, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#19
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545025/oncogenic-mnk-signalling-regulates-the-metastasis-suppressor-ndrg1
#20
Shuye Tian, Xuemin Wang, Christopher G Proud
The protein N-myc down-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) represses tumour metastasis. It is phosphorylated at several sites by serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). Here we show that NDRG1 is also regulated by the oncogenic MAP kinase-interacting kinase (MNK) pathway, a target for cancer therapy.Inhibiting MNKs increases the expression of NDRG1 protein and mRNA in breast cancer cells. MNK inhibition also decreases the phosphorylation of NDRG1. Phosphorylation of NDRG1 is reduced in cells lacking MNK1, but not MNK2-knockout cells, indicating that NDRG1 phosphorylation is a specific target for MNK1...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
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