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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933432/lupus-pathobiology-based-on-genomics
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Saeed
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with complex genetic underpinnings. This review attempts to assemble the myriad of genomic findings to build a clearer picture of the pathobiology of SLE to serve as a guide for therapeutics. Over 100 genes are now known for SLE, and several more penetrant ones have led to the emergence of more defined lupus phenotypes. Also discussed here are the targeted therapies that have come up on the horizon and the specific biologic mechanisms of more traditional therapies which have only recently been explored...
December 8, 2016: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933391/-tapering-and-termination-of-immunosuppressive-treatment-in-spondyloarthritides-including-psoriatic-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
G Scholz, B Möller
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory long-term treatment has also become the standard treatment for spondyloarthritides (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis (PsA); however, uncertainty exists about dose reduction or termination of treatment after remission or low disease activity. OBJECTIVE: When is it possible to reduce medication or terminate treatment for SpA? MATERIAL AND METHODS: An extensive non-systematic literature search was performed focusing on practice guidelines, systematic meta-analyses and clinical trials on medicinal long-term treatment and voluntary medication reduction in axial and peripheral SpA, including PsA...
December 8, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933273/prognostic-value-of-plasma-and-urine-glycosaminoglycan-scores-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Francesco Gatto, Marco Maruzzo, Cristina Magro, Umberto Basso, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) vastly improved since the introduction of antiangiogenic-targeted therapy. However, it is still unclear which biological processes underlie ccRCC aggressiveness and affect prognosis. Here, we checked whether a recently discovered systems biomarker based on plasmatic or urinary measurements of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) aggregated into diagnostic scores correlated with ccRCC prognosis. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of ccRCC (23 metastatic) were prospectively enrolled, and their urine and plasma biomarker scores were correlated to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as either a dichotomous ("Low" vs...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933213/molecular-pathology-of-cancer-how-to-communicate-with-disease
#4
REVIEW
Peter Birner, Gerald Prager, Berthold Streubel
: Recent technical advances have brought insights into the biology of cancer in human, establishing it as a disease driven by genetic mutations. Beside inherited family tumour syndromes caused by germline mutations, somatic genetic alterations occur early in tumourigenesis, which accumulate during the progression of the disease and its treatment. Based on these observations, medical oncology has started to enter an era of stratified medicine, where treatment selection is becoming tailored to drugable molecular pathways...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933170/growth-of-a-progesterone-receptor-positive-meningioma-in-a-female-patient-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#5
T O'Shea, R K Crowley, M Farrell, S MacNally, P Govender, J Feeney, J Gibney, M Sherlock
: Meningioma growth has been previously described in patients receiving oestrogen/progestogen therapy. We describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and pathologic findings in a 45-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to a defect in the 21-hydroxylase enzyme who had chronic poor adherence to glucocorticoid therapy with consequent virilisation. The patient presented with a frontal headache and marked right-sided proptosis. Laboratory findings demonstrated androgen excess with a testosterone of 18...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932423/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-survival-outliers-in-glioblastoma
#6
Sen Peng, Harshil Dhurv, Brock Armstrong, Bodour Salhia, Christophe Legendre, Jeffrey Kiefer, Julianna Parks, Selene Virk, Andrew E Sloan, Quinn T Ostrom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Nhan L Tran, Michael E Berens
BACKGROUND: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10). METHODS: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients...
December 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932276/the-why-and-how-of-amino-acid-analytics-in-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Friederike Manig, Konstantin Kuhne, Cläre von Neubeck, Uwe Schwarzenbolz, Zhanru Yu, Benedikt M Kessler, Jens Pietzsch, Leoni A Kunz-Schughart
Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932166/renal-allograft-failure-after-ipilimumab-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
A Jose, P Yiannoullou, S Bhutani, H Denley, M Morton, M Picton, A Summers, D van Dellen, T Augustine
Transplant recipients are at an increased risk of malignant melanoma, a result of chronic immunosuppression. Ipilimumab is a newer biological agent targeting T lymphocytes to potentiate an immune response against melanoma, and the use of this agent results in a new adverse effect profile that the clinician must be aware of while a patient is on therapy. We report the case of a male renal transplant recipient who developed graft failure while treated with ipilimumab and minimal immunosuppressive therapy for metastatic ocular melanoma, with biopsy evidence of glomerulonephritis and acute rejection...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932046/stereotactic-ablative-body-radiosurgery-sabr-or-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#9
REVIEW
Michael R Folkert, Robert D Timmerman
While conventional treatment relies on protracted courses of therapy using relatively small dose-per-fraction sizes of 1.8-2Gy, there is substantial evidence gathered over decades that this may not be the optimal approach for all targetable disease. Stereotactic ablative body radiosurgery (SABR) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a technique which uses precise targeting to deliver high doses of radiation capable of ablating tumors directly. In this review, we will discuss the justification for and techniques used to deliver ablative doses to improve treatment outcomes, interactions with biological and immunologic therapy, and special procedures to spare normal tissue, which have facilitated the expanding role for these techniques in the management of a wide range of malignant histologies and disease states...
December 5, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931968/borderline-resectable-pancreatic-cancer-more-than-an-anatomical-concept
#10
Fausto Petrelli, Alessandro Inno, Sandro Barni, Antonio Ghidini, Roberto Labianca, Massimo Falconi, Michele Reni, Stefano Cascinu
Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) accounts for about 10-15% of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer, and its management requires a skilled multidisciplinary team. The main definition of BRPC refers to resectability, but also a high risk of positive surgical margins and recurrence. This raises questions about the value of surgery and suggests an opportunity to utilize preoperative treatment in this subset of patients. Besides technical borderline resectable disease which is defined on anatomical and radiological criteria, there is also a biological borderline resectable disease which is defined on clinical and biological prognostic factors...
December 5, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931841/new-molecular-therapies-in-patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-cancer-in-second-line-of-treatment-is-a-real-defeat-results-from-a-literature-based-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#11
REVIEW
Giandomenico Roviello, Laura Zanotti, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Angela Gobbi, Giulia Borsella, Chiara Pacifico, Andrea Giovanni Multari, Daniele Generali
Several new biological agents have been investigated as second line of treatment in advanced Hepatocellular Cancer (HCC). We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of targeted therapies in advanced HCC patients beyond the first line of treatment. A literature-based metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials was undertaken. The primary outcome was the overall survival. The secondary endpoints were the progression-free survival (PFS), the response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) and the safety...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931616/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Temo Barwari, Abhishek Joshi, Manuel Mayr
Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are in the spotlight as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. More than 1,000 miRNAs are encoded in the human genome. In this review, we provide an introduction to miRNA biology and research methodology, and highlight advances in cardiovascular research to date. This includes the potential of miRNAs as therapeutic targets in cardiac and vascular disease, and their use as novel biomarkers. Although some miRNA therapies are already undergoing clinical evaluation, we stress the importance of integrating current knowledge of miRNA biology into a systemic context...
December 13, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931520/translational-potential-of-long-term-decreases-in-mitochondrial-lipids-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#13
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Utsav Joshi, Gogce Crynen, Jon Reed, Benoit Mouzon, Stephan Baumann, Hannah Montague, Zuchra Zakirova, Tanja Emmerich, Corbin Bachmeier, Nancy Klimas, Kimberly Sullivan, Michael Mullan, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Fiona Crawford
Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931289/measures-to-reduce-maintenance-therapy-with-oral-corticosteroid-in-adults-with-severe-asthma
#14
Vivi Q Nguyen, Charlotte S Ulrik
BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy with oral corticosteroid (OCS) is used, although not based on evidence, for patients with severe asthma, but OCS is associated with serious adverse effects; therefore, management strategies aimed at steroid sparing are important. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evidence for OCS-sparing strategies in adults with severe asthma. METHODS: A systematic literature review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931132/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-during-adalimumab-therapy-for-crohn%C3%A2-s-disease-coincidence-or-consequence
#15
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
We report the case of a 64-year-old patient diagnosed with extensive ileal Crohn´s disease who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome after starting biological therapy with adalimumab. Neurologic involvement associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is recognized as an extra-intestinal manifestation. After the breakthrough of antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents, an increasing number of cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies have been reported; however, only one case has been described in a patient with Crohn´s disease...
December 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930613/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#16
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930408/vedolizumab-as-induction-and-maintenance-therapy-for-crohn-s-disease-in-patients-na%C3%A3-ve-to-or-who-have-failed-tumor-necrosis-factor-antagonist-therapy
#17
Bruce E Sands, William J Sandborn, Gert Van Assche, Milan Lukas, Jing Xu, Alexandra James, Brihad Abhyankar, Karen Lasch
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab is a gut-selective α4β7 integrin antagonist for the treatment of moderately to severely active Crohn's disease (CD). Aims of this study were to characterize the efficacy and safety of vedolizumab induction and maintenance therapy in patients who were naïve to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist therapy (TNF-naïve) or who had discontinued TNF-α antagonist therapy because of inadequate response (i.e., primary nonresponse), loss of response, or intolerance (collectively classified as the TNF-failure population)...
December 7, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929800/harnessing-benefit-from-targeting-tumor-associated-carbohydrate-antigens
#18
Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Bejatohlah Monzavi-Karbassi, Laura F Hutchins, Angela Pennisi, Issam Makhoul
Integrating additive or synergistic antitumor effects that focus on distinct elements of tumor biology are the most rational strategies for cancer treatment. Treatments for breast cancer have increased overall survival, but remain limited by lack of efficacy in a subset of breast cancer patients. The real challenge is to define what elements of tumor biology make the most sense to be integrated. An emerging strategy is to consider a systems biology approach to impact multiple interactions in networks as compared to hitting a specific protein-protein interaction target...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928959/potential-application-of-5-aryl-substituted-2-amino-benzamide-type-of-hdac1-2-selective-inhibitors-to-pharmaceuticals
#19
Shinichi Uesato, Yoshiyuki Hirata, Tsutomu Sasaki
Diverse histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been developed to date. They control not only histone modification but also gene expression of diverse proteins and thus are expected to provide useful therapeutic effects on various diseases, including cancers, psychiatric and cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cardiovascular and diabetic diseases. Some isoform-nonselective HDAC inhibitors have been successfully used for clinical treatments of the haematological malignancies, including advanced forms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928956/chemical-properties-of-caffeic-and-ferulic-acids-in-biological-system-implications-in-cancer-therapy-a-review
#20
Sarah S Damasceno, Bruna B Dantas, Demetrius Antônio M Araújo, José Galberto M da Costa
Caffeic and ferulic acids have been extensively evaluated for their antioxidant properties in biological system, such activity is responsible for limiting the excessive production of free radical species, that are associated with cell proliferation. However, more recent studies suggest chemopreventive action of these phenolic acids through the regulation of gene expression, chelation and / or reduction of transition metals, covalent adduct formation (which damage DNA) and toxicity. The biological efficacy of these promising chemopreventive agents depends strongly on their chemical structure...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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