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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441513/antibody-persistence-following-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#1
Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Lee H Harrison, Bianca Ferreira, Daniela Menna-Barreto, Raquel Bernardo Nana de Castro, Giselle Pereira da Silva, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita F Abreu, Lucimar G Milagres, Cristina B Hofer
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected individuals (HIVI) are threatened by meningococcal infection and presented lower response to vaccines. Data are scarce on long-term persistence of human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) after a meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in HIVI youth; the authors aimed to describe this persistence in HIVI. METHODS: HIVI and HIV uninfected individuals (HIVU), aged 2-18 years, CD4 >15% were recruited. Seroprotection (hSBA ≥1:4) at baseline and at 12-18 months after immunization was evaluated and the association of the different factors with the long-term persistence was calculated using logistic regression...
April 22, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#2
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-a-general-population-cohort-in-zimbabwe
#3
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424970/neighborhood-environments-and-sexual-risk-behaviors-for-hiv-infection-among-u-s-women-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Chanelle J Howe, Hayley Siegel, Akilah Dulin-Keita
Empirical evidence indicates that aspects of the neighborhood environment may affect HIV prevention efforts. Therefore, the neighborhood environment should be considered when implementing prevention interventions. However, much of the empirical evidence is derived from studies conducted among drug users, men, or adolescents. Such evidence may not be as applicable to adult women whose primary risk for HIV infection is via heterosexual sexual behavior. Therefore, a systematic review examining the relationship between neighborhood environments and HIV sexual risk behaviors among adult U...
April 19, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419007/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immunity-following-3-dose-infant-primary-series-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents-and-immunologic-response-to-revaccination
#5
Keswadee Lapphra, Paveena Oungkananukit, Supawan Saihongthong, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Orasi Wittawatmongkol, Supattra Rungmaitree, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may alter immunologic response and the establishment of immune memory to infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. This study aimed to determine the need to revaccinate perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional serologic tests for HBV, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag), anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were performed in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419006/plasma-interferon-gamma-inducible-protein-10-ip10-level-associates-with-abnormal-memory-b-cells-phenotypes-in-perinatal-hiv-infection
#6
German A Contreras, James R Murphy, Gloria P Heresi
We demonstrate for perinatally HIV infected children and adolescents receiving cART and in good clinical status with respect to HIV disease that high concentrations of IP10 associate with increased exhausted memory B cells.
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418524/evaluating-testing-strategies-for-identifying-youths-with-hiv-infection-and-linking-youths-to-biomedical-and-other-prevention-services
#7
Robin Lin Miller, Cherrie B Boyer, Danielle Chiaramonte, Peter Lindeman, Kate Chutuape, Bendu Cooper-Walker, Bill G Kapogiannis, Craig M Wilson, J Dennis Fortenberry
Importance: Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youths are unaware of their serostatus (approximately 60%) and therefore not linked to HIV medical or prevention services. The need to identify promising and scalable approaches to promote uptake of HIV testing among youths at risk is critical. Objective: To evaluate a multisite HIV testing program designed to encourage localized HIV testing programs focused on self-identified sexual minority males and to link youths to appropriate prevention services after receipt of their test results...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416040/effect-of-early-sexual-debut-on-high-school-completion-in-south-africa
#8
A V Bengesai, H T A Khan, R Dube
Early sexual debut is of major concern because it is a correlate for health and economic shocks experienced in adulthood. In South Africa, this concern has provided impetus for research directed at the HIV and AIDS epidemic, teenage pregnancy and the effect of adolescent sexual behaviour on persistence in school. Of interest to the present study is high school completion, which is a well-established empirical barometer of adult socioeconomic opportunities. Using data from the five waves of the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), this paper examines the association between sexual behaviours initiated in pre- and early adolescence and high school completion rates...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414685/association-of-state-mandated-abstinence-only-sexuality-education-with-rates-of-adolescent-hiv-infection-and-teenage-pregnancy
#9
L M Elliot, M M Booth, G Patterson, M Althoff, C K Bush, M A Dery
INTRODUCTION: Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. METHODS: Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409026/antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-knowledge-and-experiences-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-soweto-south-africa
#10
Stefanie Hornschuh, Janan Janine Dietrich, Celokuhle Tshabalala, Fatima Laher
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is particularly pertinent to sub-Saharan Africa, where the pediatric HIV burden is marked. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence is a major challenge for AYAs. This qualitative study explored knowledge and experiences of adherence amongst AYAs attending treatment at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU), Soweto, South Africa. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with HIV-infected 15-25-year-old ART recipients...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406597/adolescents-experience-of-a-rapid-hiv-self-testing-device-in-youth-friendly-clinic-settings-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-community-based-usability-study
#11
Philip Smith, Melissa Wallace, Linda-Gail Bekker
Introduction: Since HIV testing in South African adolescents and young adults is sub-optimal, the objective of the current study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV rapid self-testing device in adolescents and young people at the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre and Mobile Clinic. Methods: Self-presenting adolescents and young adults were invited to participate in a study investigating the fidelity, usability and acceptability of the AtomoRapid HIV Rapid self-testing device...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406275/high-self-reported-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-amongst-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-malawi-barriers-and-associated-factors
#12
Maria H Kim, Alick C Mazenga, Xiaoying Yu, Saeed Ahmed, Mary E Paul, Peter N Kazembe, Elaine J Abrams
INTRODUCTION: Globally adolescents and young adults account for more than 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV-related deaths amongst adolescents increased by 50% from 2005 to 2012. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical to control viral replication and preserve health; however, there is a paucity of research on adherence amongst the growing population of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS (ALHIV) in Southern Africa. We examined levels of self-reported ART adherence, barriers to adherence, and factors associated with non-adherence amongst ALHIV in Malawi...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404502/modelling-adverse-treatment-outcomes-of-hiv-infected-adolescents-attending-public-sector-hiv-clinics-in-lusaka
#13
I Fwemba, P Musonda
BACKGROUND: In resource-limited setting, there is scarce evidence comparing antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents to that of other age groups. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We analysed data from 25 ART facilities in Lusaka District, comparing treatment-naïve ART-eligible young adolescents (10-14 years), older adolescents (15-19) and young adults (20-24 years) initiating first-line ART to those aged 24 years or older. The adjusted relative risk (RR) of failure to achieve an adequate CD4 response (defined as failure to increase CD4 count by ≥ 50 cells/mm(3) at 6 months or by ≥ 100 cells/mm(3)) at 6 or 12 months after ART initiation was modelled using log-binomial regression...
March 6, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399423/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-concentration-the-challenges-in-taking-care-of-children-and-adolescents-infected-with-hiv
#14
Fabiana Bononi Carmo, Maria Teresa Terreri, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi, Suenia Vasconcelos Beltrão, Aida de Fátima Tomé Barbosa Gouvea, Erica Regina Cruz Paulino, Daisy Maria Machado
The increase in life expectancy for patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in health complications related to a chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of bone mineral density (BMD) alterations and vitamin D concentrations in HIV-infected children and adolescents and to verify the variations in those parameters during a 12-month interval. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a dual period of evaluation was conducted in 57 patients perinatally HIV-infected and one patient with sexual abuse in early infancy...
April 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398998/pediatric-treatment-scale-up-the-unfinished-agenda-of-the-global-plan
#15
Martina Penazzato, Anouk Amzel, Elaine J Abrams, Karusa Kiragu, Shaffiq Essajee, Irene Mukui, Peter Elyanu, Anath A Rwebembera, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha
Five million children have died of AIDS-related causes since the beginning of the epidemic. In 2011, the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan) created the political environment to catalyze both the resources and commitment to end pediatric AIDS. Implementation and scale-up have encountered substantial hurdles, however, which have resulted in slow progress. Reasons include a lack of emphasis on testing outside of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, an overall lack of integration and coordination with other services, a lack of training among providers, low confidence in caring for children living with HIV, and a lack of appropriate formulations for pediatric antiretrovirals...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398993/prevention-of-hiv-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-key-to-an-aids-free-generation
#16
Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Cheryl Baxter, Deborah Birx
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) has ensured that more infants in high-HIV burden countries survive childhood HIV-free. Although equal numbers of boy and girl children have survived to age 10, a gender divergence starts to emerge as they enter adolescence. Up to 3 times as many young women aged 15-24 years in eastern and southern Africa are living with HIV compared with their male peers. Further, more adolescent girls and young women are sick and/or dying from AIDS-related or HIV-related complications during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, underscoring the importance of strengthening HIV treatment and prevention services for this group...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393664/use-of-placebo-pills-before-treatment-initiation-in-youth-with-hiv-are-they-ready
#17
Lisa M Ingerski, Megan L Wilkins, Amanda M Rach, Nehali Patel, Aditya H Gaur
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) nonadherence is related to negative health outcomes and is well-documented in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with behaviorally acquired HIV. Few studies describe methods to improve adherence in this population. This retrospective study describes placebo pill trial use (ie, pills with inert substance prescribed to practice taking HAART) in AYAs initiating HAART and its relation to disease outcomes. Sixty-two AYAs initiated HAART during the review period. Disease outcomes during the first year of standard clinical care were abstracted from medical records...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391964/associations-between-fathers-and-sons-sexual-risk-in-rural-kenya-the-potential-for-intergenerational-transmission
#18
Ali M Giusto, Eric P Green, Eve S Puffer
PURPOSE: Despite high rates of HIV in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and men's role in driving the epidemic, little is known about whether or how sexual risk-both behaviors and beliefs-may be passed down through generations of males. This study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and sex-related beliefs of adolescent males and those of their male caregivers in Kenya, as well as the potential moderating effects of parenting characteristics and father-son relationship quality...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388947/prevalence-of-and-barriers-to-the-disclosure-of-hiv-status-to-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-a-district-of-ghana
#19
Eric Gyamfi, Paul Okyere, Acheampong Enoch, Emmanuel Appiah-Brempong
BACKGROUND: Globally there are about 3.3million children under the age of 15 years living with HIV. Of this number, 88% live in sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, an estimated 33,000 children were said to be living with the HIV infection in 2012. Lack of disclosure adversely affects the well-being of the child, including access to paediatric HIV treatment and care and adherence to treatment. However, the greatest psychosocial challenges that parents and caregivers of HIV-infected children face is disclosure of HIV status to their infected children...
April 8, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387654/ending-aids-as-a-public-health-threat-by-2030-scientific-developments-from-the-2016-interest-conference-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#20
Catherine A Hankins, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Peter Kilmarx, Guido Ferrari, Mauro Schechter, Coumba Touré Kane, François Venter, Charles Ab Boucher, Anna-Laura Ross, Debrework Zewdie, Serge Paul Eholié, Elly Katabira
The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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