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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039686/prevention-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-neonates-evidence-base-for-existing-who-dosing-recommendations-and-implementation-considerations
#1
Diana F Clarke, Martina Penazzato, Edmund Capparelli, Tim R Cressey, George Siberry, Nandita Sugandhi, Mark Mirochnick
Antiretroviral drugs are used in neonates for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Use of antiretrovirals to prevent perinatal HIV transmission is well established. Early identification of neonates infected with HIV and rapid initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment during the neonatal period is now recommended by WHO and DHHS. However, few antiretrovirals are available in formulations suitable for neonates and there are limited safety and pharmacokinetic data for most antiretrovirals in neonates...
October 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029056/time-to-switch-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-children-with-hiv-in-europe-and-thailand
#2
Intira Jeannie Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988435/triple-therapy-of-vincristine-bleomycin-and-etoposide-for-children-with-kaposi-sarcoma-results-of-a-study-in-malawian-children
#3
Marita Macken, Helen Dale, Dominic Moyo, Eunice Chakmata, Sarita Depani, Trijn Israels, Dalida Niyrenda, Simon Bailey, George Chagaluka, Elizabeth M Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common paediatric cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemic countries of sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little research on management and outcomes. METHODS: Children with KS at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi treated between August 2012 and March 2015 with six courses of vincristine, bleomycin and etoposide combination chemotherapy, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV infected, were studied and outcomes compared with previously reported results...
October 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953325/multicentre-analysis-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-at-high-risk-of-failure
#4
Ragna S Boerma, Torsak Bunupuradah, Dorothy Dow, Joseph Fokam, Azar Kariminia, Dara Lehman, Cissy Kityo, Victor Musiime, Paul Palumbo, Annelot Schoffelen, Sam Sophan, Brian Zanoni, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Job C J Calis, Kim C E Sigaloff
INTRODUCTION: The number of HIV-infected children and adolescents requiring second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) is increasing in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, the effectiveness of paediatric second-line ART and potential risk factors for virologic failure are poorly characterized. We performed an aggregate analysis of second-line ART outcomes for children and assessed the need for paediatric third-line ART. METHODS: We performed a multicentre analysis by systematically reviewing the literature to identify cohorts of children and adolescents receiving second-line ART in LMIC, contacting the corresponding study groups and including patient-level data on virologic and clinical outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935629/paediatric-advance-care-planning-survey-a-cross-sectional-examination-of-congruence-and-discordance-between-adolescents-with-hiv-aids-and-their-families
#5
Maureen E Lyon, Ronald H Dallas, Patricia A Garvie, Megan L Wilkins, Ana Garcia, Yao Iris Cheng, Jichuan Wang
OBJECTIVES: To identify patient-reported paediatric advance care planning (pACP) needs of adolescents living with HIV and to examine the congruence with their family's perception of their needs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among six paediatric hospital-based outpatient HIV specialty clinics. Participants included 48 adolescent/family dyads (n=96 participants) within a larger study facilitating pACP. The main outcome measure was the Lyon Advance Care Planning Survey - Adolescent and Surrogate Versions-Revised...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893009/intracranial-aneurysms-involving-circle-of-willis-in-a-child-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculitis-a-rare-case-report
#6
Amol Madanlal Lahoti, Abhijit Kishor Taori, Avinash Parashuram Dhok, Jitesh Subhash Rawat, Nihar Umakant Chandak
Intracranial Arterial Aneurysms (IAAs) are relatively rare in paediatric population and they account for at least 10%-15% of haemorrhagic strokes which occur during the first two decades of life. Here we present a unique and unusual case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected child who presented with intracranial aneurysms with formation of collaterals and vasculopathy, demonstrating low viral count despite receiving adequate antiretroviral treatment. Intracranial vascular involvement, their complications and its incidence in these patients may become increasingly common as the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to improve and afflicted patients survive for longer periods because of advancement in the antiretroviral treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876567/a-review-of-presentations-to-the-surgical-research-society-of-southern-africa-and-the-association-of-surgeons-of-south-africa-from-2010-to-2016
#7
S Burger, S van Straten, S Rayne
This paper looks at research done in South Africa from 2010 to 2016. We reviewed a total of 679 abstracts, posters and oral presentations submitted to the SAJS and the ASSA congresses during this time. During this time 21945 patients were investigated with an average of 577,5 patients per study. Each paper had on average 3,5 authors. The most popular topics are trauma (23%), gastrointestinal surgery (18%) and breast (11%). Upcoming topics include: reducing sepsis, global surgery, procedural discussion, infectious diseases (HIV/ TB), post-operative healing, ENT, neuro, plastic surgery, cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872281/transitioning-young-adults-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-and-the-hiv-care-continuum-in-atlanta-georgia-usa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Sophia A Hussen, Rana Chakraborty, Andrea Knezevic, Andres Camacho-Gonzalez, Eugene Huang, Rob Stephenson, Carlos Del Rio
INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult HIV care is a particularly high-risk time for disengagement among young adults; however, empirical data are lacking. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 72 youth seen in both the paediatric and the adult clinics of the Grady Infectious Disease Program in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from 2004 to 2014. We abstracted clinical data on linkage, retention and virologic suppression from the last two years in the paediatric clinic through the first two years in the adult clinic...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872278/hiv-misdiagnosis-in-paediatrics-unpacking-the-complexity
#9
REVIEW
Emma Sacks, Jennifer Cohn, Martina Penazzato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855305/field-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-alere-and-cepheid-qualitative-hiv-assays-for-paediatric-point-of-care-testing-in-a-soweto-academic-hospital-south-africa
#10
Tanya Y Murray, Gayle G Sherman, Firdose Nakwa, William B MacLeod, Nosisa Sipambo, Sithembiso Velaphi, Sergio Carmona
Point-of-care (POC) technologies for HIV diagnosis in infants have the potential to overcome logistical challenges that delay treatment initiation and prevent improvements in morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of two POC technologies against the current standard of care (SOC) laboratory-based assay in South Africa, when operated by nurses in a hospital environment. Children <18 months of age that were treatment naïve (excluding prophylaxis) and in whom an HIV PCR test was indicated, were eligible for the study...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841850/implementing-the-who-integrated-tool-to-assess-quality-of-care-for-mothers-newborns-and-children-results-and-lessons-learnt-from-five-districts-in-malawi
#11
Helen Smith, Atnafu Getachew Asfaw, Kyaw Myint Aung, Lastone Chikoti, Florence Mgawadere, Luigi d'Aquino, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new tool to be used to assess the quality of care for mothers, newborns and children provided at healthcare facility level. This paper reports on the feasibility of using the tool, its limitations and strengths. METHODS: Across 5 districts in Malawi, 35 healthcare facilities were assessed. The WHO tool includes checklists, interviews and observation of case management by which care is assessed against agreed standards using a Likert scale (1 lowest: not meeting standard, 5 highest: compliant with standard)...
August 25, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817675/deaths-during-tuberculosis-treatment-among-paediatric-patients-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-nigeria
#12
Aishatu L Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Muktar A Gadanya, Auwalu U Gajida, Taiwo G Amole, Imam W Bello, Safiya Gambo, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective cure, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children. In many high-burden countries, childhood TB is underdiagnosed and underreported, and care is often accessed too late, resulting in adverse treatment outcomes. In this study, we examined the time to death and its associated factors among a cohort of children that commenced TB treatment in a large treatment centre in northern Nigeria. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of children that started TB treatment between 2010 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807188/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-mortality-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#13
Peter J Dodd, Courtney M Yuen, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon, Helen E Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis in children is increasingly recognised as an important component of the global tuberculosis burden, with an estimated 1 million cases in 2015. Although younger children are vulnerable to severe forms of tuberculosis disease, no age-disaggregated estimates of paediatric tuberculosis mortality exist, and tuberculosis has never been included in official estimates of under-5 child mortality. We aimed to produce a global mortality burden estimate in children using a complementary approach not dependent on vital registration data...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780547/paediatric-asthma-control-under-a-community-management-model-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#14
Juan Xu, Yong Yin, Hao Zhang, Wen Wei Zhong, Lei Zhang, Jing Zhang, Shu Hua Yuan, Fen Zhang, Li Xia Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Childhood asthma is globally one of the most common respiratory disorders and accounts for more school absences and more hospitalizations than any other chronic illness. The worldwide economic burden of this disease exceeds those of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Proper intervention and effective management is of paramount importance for the control and prognosis of paediatric asthma. Unfortunately, the rate of uncontrolled and partially controlled paediatric asthma in China is >90%...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758024/serum-lipid-and-glucose-profiles-in-hiv-positive-nigerian-children
#15
EDITORIAL
Olukemi O Ige, Christopher S Yilgwan, Augustine O Ebonyi, Ruth Adah, Idris Adedeji, Esther S Yiltok, Stephen Oguche, Fidelia Bode-Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To describe the fasting serum lipid and glucose profiles of HIV-positive Nigerian children and determine the prevalence and risk factors for dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia, which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This was a comparative cross-sectional study carried out at the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic (PIDC) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) for HIV-positive children and at two primary schools in Jos for HIV-negative children as controls...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750070/low-hiv-incidence-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-receiving-a-community-based-combination-hiv-prevention-intervention-in-a-high-hiv-incidence-setting-in-south-africa
#16
Geoffrey Fatti, Najma Shaikh, Debra Jackson, Ameena Goga, Jean B Nachega, Brian Eley, Ashraf Grimwood
BACKGROUND: Young Southern African women have the highest HIV incidence globally. Pregnancy doubles the risk of HIV acquisition further, and maternal HIV acquisition contributes significantly to the paediatric HIV burden. Little data on combination HIV prevention interventions during pregnancy and lactation are available. We measured HIV incidence amongst pregnant and postpartum women receiving a community-based combination HIV prevention intervention in a high HIV incidence setting in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723709/delivering-preexposure-prophylaxis-to-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-implementation-science-frontier
#17
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina M Gorbach, Thomas J Coates, Landon Myer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715157/use-of-the-shangring-circumcision-device-in-boys-below-18-years-old-in-kenya-results-from-a-pilot-study
#18
Quentin D Awori, Richard K Lee, Phillip S Li, Jared N Moguche, Dan Ouma, Betsy Sambai, Marc Goldstein, Mark A Barone
INTRODUCTION: Male circumcision is a proven prevention strategy against the spread of HIV. The World Health Organization's new 2016-2021 strategic framework on voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) targets 90% of males aged 10-29 years to receive circumcision by 2021 in 14 priority sub-Saharan countries while anticipating an increase in the demand for infant circumcision. It also states that the use of circumcision devices is a safe and efficient innovation to accelerate attainment of these goals...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711527/paediatric-hiv-the-unfinished-business
#19
Martina Penazzato, Frank Lule, Shaffiq Essajee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708808/hiv-viral-load-suppression-in-adults-and-children-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-results-from-the-iedea-collaboration
#20
Awachana Jiamsakul, Azar Kariminia, Keri N Althoff, Carina Cesar, Claudia P Cortes, Mary-Ann Davies, Viet Chau Do, Brian Eley, John Gill, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Daisy Maria Machado, Richard Moore, Hans Prozesky, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Matthew Law
BACKGROUND: Having 90% of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieving an undetectable viral load (VL) is 1 of the 90:90:90 by 2020 targets. In this global analysis, we investigated the proportions of adult and paediatric patients with VL suppression in the first 3 years after ART initiation. METHODS: Patients from the IeDEA cohorts who initiated ART between 2010 and 2014 were included. Proportions with VL suppression (<1000 copies/mL) were estimated using (1) strict intention to treat (ITT)-loss to follow-up (LTFU) and dead patients counted as having detectable VL; and (2) modified ITT-LTFU and dead patients were excluded...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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