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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912987/performance-of-point-of-care-birth-hiv-testing-in-primary-health-care-clinics-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
Bindiya Meggi, Lara Vojnov, Nedio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Alcina Zitha, Ocean Tobaiwa, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, Dadirayi Mutsaka, Timothy Bollinger, Osvaldo Loquiha, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
BACKGROUND: Failure to timely diagnose HIV in infants is a major barrier for scaling-up paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART). WHO recommends birth testing for earlier diagnosis and to improve test coverage, but current diagnosis takes 2-3 weeks to complete, thereby limiting the ability of care givers to provide follow-on care, especially in low-resource settings. We evaluated the benefit of implementing rapid diagnosis of HIV at birth in primary health care maternity wards in Mozambique...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912465/prevalence-and-pattern-of-psychosocial-disorders-among-caregivers-of-hiv-infected-children-in-enugu-south-eastern-nigeria
#2
I F Ogbonna, I J Emodi, A N Ikefuna, N C Ojinnaka
Background: Nigeria has the highest burden of paediatric HIV in the world. HIV infection may result in significant life stressors, on both the infected children and their caregivers. Methods: This included a hospital-based cross-sectional and comparative study. Subjects and controls who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled consecutively. Their socio-demographic variables were obtained and GHQ-28 was used to assess their psychosocial status. Results: A total of 154 caregivers of HIV-infected children (subjects) and 154 caregivers of HIV-negative children (controls) were enrolled into this study...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873796/cytomegalovirus-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-a-single-centre-clinical-experience-over-23-years
#3
Deepti Suri, Ankur K Jindal, Aman Gupta, Anju Gupta, Priya Bajgai, Ramandeep Singh, Mini P Singh, Ranjana W Minz, Sunil Arora, Surjit Singh
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) results in significant morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. There is paucity of literature on paediatric CMV disease, especially from developing countries. Methods: A retrospective review of records of all HIV-infected children with evidence of CMV disease was done. Results: A total of 15 children were found to have CMV disease (retinitis in all, pneumonia in two and invasive gastrointestinal disease in one)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872513/bedside-paediatric-hiv-testing-in-malawi-impact-on-testing-rates
#4
Marita Macken, James Chan, Bernadette O'Hare, Hannah V Thornton, Queen Dube, Neil Kennedy
Background: Provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is recommended for all inpatients in Malawi if they have not been tested in the previous 3 months. However testing rates remain low among children. We audited the effect of implementing a bedside diagnostic HIV testing service to determine if it would improve testing rates amongst paediatric inpatients. Methods: We audited the existing HIV testing service to determine the numbers of children being tested for HIV...
September 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859589/radiological-differences-between-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-children-with-cholesteatoma
#5
J K McGuire, J J Fagan, M Wojno, K Manning, T Harris
INTRODUCTION: HIV-positive children are possibly more prone to developing cholesteatoma. Chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft may be more common in patients with HIV and this may predispose HIV-positive children to developing cholesteatoma. There are no studies that describe the radiological morphology of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. OBJECTIVES: Compare the radiological differences of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843859/short-term-outcomes-of-down-referral-in-provision-of-paediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-at-red-cross-war-memorial-children-s-hospital-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
J Copelyn, P Apolles, M-A Davies, B Eley
BACKGROUND: The large scale-up of paediatric HIV care necessitated down-referral of many children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) from Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCWMCH), Cape Town, South Africa. Few published data exist on the outcomes of these children. OBJECTIVES: To assess outcomes of children receiving ART in the first 12 months after down-referral to primary healthcare (PHC) clinics and identify determinants of successful down-referral...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843858/the-costs-and-outcomes-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-treatment-at-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#7
E P Budgell, D Evans, R Leuner, L Long, S Rosen
BACKGROUND: Little up-to-date information is available about the costs of providing drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB) treatment to paediatric patients in South Africa (SA), nor have actual costs incurred at clinics been compared with costs expected from guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To estimate actual and guideline treatment costs by means of a retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS: We report patient characteristics, outcomes and treatment costs from a retrospective cohort of paediatric and adolescent (<18 years) DS-TB patients registered for treatment from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2013 at three primary healthcare clinics in Johannesburg, SA...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783991/admission-eeg-findings-in-diverse-paediatric-cerebral-malaria-populations-predict-outcomes
#8
Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge...
May 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781680/provision-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-in-nelson-mandela-bay-health-care-professionals-challenges
#9
Margaret Williams, Dalena R M Van Rooyen, Esmeralda J Ricks
BACKGROUND:  The human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, particularly in South Africa, and includes the often overlooked paediatric population. The provision of paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) is as essential for children as for adults, and has numerous obstacles, not least of which is lack of decentralisation of facilities to provide essential treatment. Optimising ART, care and support for HIV-positive children, and their caregivers, at public sector primary health care (PHC) clinics is crucial to improve morbidity and mortality rates in children...
March 12, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758064/risk-perception-and-sex-behaviour-in-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-programmatic-implications-for-prep-delivery
#10
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Catriona Towriss, Yolanda Gomba, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Steven Shoptaw, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner's serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#11
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739700/catalysing-the-development-and-introduction-of-paediatric-drug-formulations-for-children-living-with-hiv-a-new-global-collaborative-framework-for-action
#12
Martina Penazzato, Melynda Watkins, Sébastien Morin, Linda Lewis, Fernando Pascual, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, Sally Hargreaves, Meg Doherty, George K Siberry
Progress in the development and introduction of paediatric formulations for key infectious diseases is poor in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although major steps have been made in the scale-up of antiretroviral medicines in LMICs, the development and deployment of formulations for infants and children is suboptimal. Of the children living with HIV globally (most in Africa), only 43% are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), many with suboptimal formulations. These shortfalls pose a series of challenges to meeting global treatment targets of 1·6 million children (aged 0-14 years) on ART by the end of 2018 (95% coverage) and to ensuring that 95% of those on ART are virologically suppressed...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734220/recovery-of-effective-hiv-specific-cd4-t-cell-activity-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-paediatric-infection-requires-sustained-suppression-of-viraemia
#13
Emily Adland, Luisa Mori, Leana Laker, Anna Csala, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Alice Swordy, Masa Mori, Philippa Matthews, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Pieter Jooste, Philip Goulder
: The success of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in paediatric HIV infection prompts the question of the potential for eradication of HIV infection in this age group. 'Shock-and-kill' HIV cure approaches, currently in development, may depend upon an effective antiviral T-cell response to eradicate virus-infected cells. We here investigate the ability of HIV-infected children receiving ART from early childhood (median 24 months' age) to generate effective HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses that would facilitate future immune-based cure therapies...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720077/australian-paediatric-surveillance-unit-annual-report-2016
#14
Marie Deverell, Amy Phu, Yvonne Zurynski, Elizabeth Elliott
This report summarises the cases reported to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) of rare infectious diseases or rare complications of more common infectious diseases in children. During the calendar year 2016, there were approximately 1500 paediatricians reporting to the APSU and the monthly report card return rate was 90%. APSU continued to provide unique national data on the perinatal exposure to HIV, congenital rubella, congenital cytomegalovirus, neonatal and infant herpes simplex virus, and congenital and neonatal varicella...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707387/completeness-of-the-road-to-health-booklet-and-road-to-health-card-results-of-cross-sectional-surveillance-at-a-provincial-tertiary-hospital
#15
Harishia Naidoo, Theunis Avenant, Ameena Goga
Background: Accurate record-keeping is important for continuity and quality of care. Completing a child's Road-to-Health Booklet (RTHB), or the older, less detailed, Road-to-Health Card/Chart (RTHC), immediate interpretation thereof and appropriate action facilitates comprehensive care, which could contribute to a decline in child morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study aimed to assess the extent to which healthcare personnel working in catchment clinics of Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital (KPTH), Tshwane district, South Africa, complete HIV-related, sociodemographic, neonatal, growth and immunisation information in the RTHC and/or RTHB...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681168/hiv-associated-cognitive-disorders-in-perinatally-infected-children-and-adolescents-a-novel-composite-cognitive-domains-score
#16
Nicole J Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Kevin G F Thomas
Accurate assessment of HIV-associated cognitive disorders in perinatally infected children and adolescents is challenging. Assessments of general intellectual functioning, or global cognition, may not provide information regarding domain-specific strengths and weaknesses, and may therefore fail to detect, impaired trajectories of development within particular cognitive domains. We compare the efficacy of global cognitive scores to that of composite cognitive domain scores in detecting cognitive disorders in a sample of perinatally HIV-infected children, and a demographically matched HIV negative control group, drawn from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) study...
April 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629679/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-hiv-vaccine-trials-in-adolescents-in-south-africa-going-beyond-willingness-to-participate-towards-implementation
#18
M Wallace, K Middelkoop, P Smith, C Pike, T Bennie, J Chandia, G Churchyard, G Gray, M H Latka, M Mathebula, M Nchabeleng, S Roux, C Slack, A Strode, L-G Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death in adolescents (aged 15 - 25 years), and in sub-Saharan Africa HIV-related deaths continue to rise in this age group despite a decline in both adult and paediatric populations. This is attributable in part to high adolescent infection rates and supports the urgent need for more efficacious prevention strategies. In particular, an even partially effective HIV vaccine, given prior to sexual debut, is predicted to significantly curb adolescent infection rates...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621302/factors-associated-with-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-in-children-on-antiretroviral-care-in-mingalardon-specialist-hospital-myanmar-2006-2016
#19
Kay Khaing Kaung Nyunt, Wai Wai Han, Srinath Satyanarayana, Petros Isaakidis, San Hone, Aye Aye Khaing, Hoa Nguyen Binh, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment into ART care with adverse outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617438/lipoatrophy-lipohypertrophy-outcomes-after-antiretroviral-therapy-switch-in-children-in-the-uk-ireland
#20
Steve Innes, Justin Harvey, Intira Jeannie Collins, Mark Fredric Cotton, Ali Judd
BACKGROUND: Following widespread use of stavudine, a thymidine analogue, in antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, up to a third of children developed lipoatrophy (LA) and/or lipohypertrophy (LH). Following phasing-out of stavudine, incidence of newly-diagnosed LA and LH declined dramatically. However, the natural history of existing cases should be explored, particularly with prolonged protease inhibitor exposure. METHODS: The Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) is a multicentre cohort study of most HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland...
2018: PloS One
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