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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681168/hiv-associated-cognitive-disorders-in-perinatally-infected-children-and-adolescents-a-novel-composite-cognitive-domains-score
#1
Nicole J Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, Dan J Stein, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Kevin G F Thomas
Accurate assessment of HIV-associated cognitive disorders in perinatally infected children and adolescents is challenging. Assessments of general intellectual functioning, or global cognition, may not provide information regarding domain-specific strengths and weaknesses, and may therefore fail to detect, impaired trajectories of development within particular cognitive domains. We compare the efficacy of global cognitive scores to that of composite cognitive domain scores in detecting cognitive disorders in a sample of perinatally HIV-infected children, and a demographically matched HIV negative control group, drawn from the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC) study...
April 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673395/shorter-treatment-for-minimal-tuberculosis-tb-in-children-shine-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Chishala Chabala, Anna Turkova, Margaret J Thomason, Eric Wobudeya, Syed Hissar, Vidya Mave, Marieke van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Monica Kapasa, Perumal K Bhavani, Sarath Balaji, Priyanka A Raichur, Anne-Marie Demers, Graeme Hoddinott, Ellen Owen-Powell, Aarti Kinikar, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Rob Aarnoutse, Helen McIlleron, Anneke Hesseling, Angela M Crook, Mark Cotton, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is frequently paucibacillary and non-severe forms of pulmonary TB are common. Evidence for tuberculosis treatment in children is largely extrapolated from adult studies. Trials in adults with smear-negative tuberculosis suggest that treatment can be effectively shortened from 6 to 4 months. New paediatric, fixed-dose combination anti-tuberculosis treatments have recently been introduced in many countries, making the implementation of World Health Organisation (WHO)-revised dosing recommendations feasible...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629679/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-conducting-hiv-vaccine-trials-in-adolescents-in-south-africa-going-beyond-willingness-to-participate-towards-implementation
#3
M Wallace, K Middelkoop, P Smith, C Pike, T Bennie, J Chandia, G Churchyard, G Gray, M H Latka, M Mathebula, M Nchabeleng, S Roux, C Slack, A Strode, L-G Bekker
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death in adolescents (aged 15 - 25 years), and in sub-Saharan Africa HIV-related deaths continue to rise in this age group despite a decline in both adult and paediatric populations. This is attributable in part to high adolescent infection rates and supports the urgent need for more efficacious prevention strategies. In particular, an even partially effective HIV vaccine, given prior to sexual debut, is predicted to significantly curb adolescent infection rates...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621302/factors-associated-with-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-in-children-on-antiretroviral-care-in-mingalardon-specialist-hospital-myanmar-2006-2016
#4
Kay Khaing Kaung Nyunt, Wai Wai Han, Srinath Satyanarayana, Petros Isaakidis, San Hone, Aye Aye Khaing, Hoa Nguyen Binh, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment into ART care with adverse outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617438/lipoatrophy-lipohypertrophy-outcomes-after-antiretroviral-therapy-switch-in-children-in-the-uk-ireland
#5
Steve Innes, Justin Harvey, Intira Jeannie Collins, Mark Fredric Cotton, Ali Judd
BACKGROUND: Following widespread use of stavudine, a thymidine analogue, in antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, up to a third of children developed lipoatrophy (LA) and/or lipohypertrophy (LH). Following phasing-out of stavudine, incidence of newly-diagnosed LA and LH declined dramatically. However, the natural history of existing cases should be explored, particularly with prolonged protease inhibitor exposure. METHODS: The Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) is a multicentre cohort study of most HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595094/paediatric-hiv-1-infection-updated-strategies-of-prevention-mother-to-child-transmission
#6
Alessandra Lumaca, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 epidemiology is changing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies have been continuously optimized over time. However, the correct management of infected women during pregnancy is crucial for PMTCT and cases of vertical transmission continue to occur. OBJECTIVE: To review the most recent evidence regarding the prevention of MTCT in resource-rich and resource-limited settings, focalizing on new possible approaches. RESULTS: New issues regard the optimal antiretroviral therapy regimen for pregnant women with good immunological control, the use of intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnant women with low viral load, the optimization of prophylaxis in the settings where breastfeeding is recommended and use of combined neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high-risk for MTCT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576815/modification-of-initial-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-regimen-in-paediatric-hiv-patients
#7
Yee Shan Low, Farida Islahudin, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Shafnah Adnan
Background: Treatment options among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected children are limited as only a few Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) are approved worldwide for paediatric use. Among children, frequent changes in HAART regimen can rapidly exhaust treatment options, and information addressing this issue is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with the modification of initial HAART regimen modification among HIV-infected children...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566695/cerebrospinal-fluid-plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#8
Kiran T Thakur, Jimmy Vareta, Kathryn A Carson, Samuel Kampondeni, Michael J Potchen, Gretchen L Birbeck, Ian MacCormick, Terrie Taylor, David J Sullivan, Karl B Seydel
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) causes a rapidly developing coma, and remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic regions. This study sought to determine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and clinical, laboratory and radiographic features in a cohort of children with retinopathy-positive CM. METHODS: Patients included in the study were admitted (2009-2013) to the Pediatric Research Ward (Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi) meeting World Health Organization criteria for CM with findings of malarial retinopathy...
March 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562993/performance-measurement-of-a-canadian-provincial-tuberculosis-programme-manitoba-2008-2012
#9
C A Basham, B Elias, A Fanning, C Cook, P Orr
BACKGROUND: Performance measurement assists tuberculosis (TB) programmes in understanding areas of strength and weakness, and planning for improvements. Canada currently does not have a national comprehensive system for the measurement and analysis of TB programme performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of a Canadian provincial TB programme using measures and targets based on those published by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control for 2015...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558972/dolutegravir-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-is-effective-and-safe-in-hiv-infected-paediatric-patients
#10
Eugenia Bruzzese, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Andrea Smarrazzo, Orsola Tambaro, Giulia Palmiero, Giovanni Bonadies, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV infection in adolescents is challenging due to long duration of therapy and poor adherence. Recently, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has been approved for the use in adolescents with HIV, but evidence in clinical practice is very limited. METHODS: We describe six cases of HIV-infected children/adolescents successfully treated with DTG-based regimen. Data relative to children/adolescents managed at the Referral Center for Pediatric HIV/AIDS of the University of Naples were reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547411/novel-therapies-hopes-for-hiv-cure-in-perinatally-acquired-hiv-positive-adolescents
#11
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522530/impact-of-a-family-clinic-day-intervention-on-paediatric-and-adolescent-appointment-adherence-and-retention-in-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#12
Justin C Graves, Peter Elyanu, Christine J Schellack, Barbara Asire, Margaret L Prust, Marta R Prescott, Esther Mirembe, Ivan Lukabwe, Betty Mirembe, Joshua Musinguzi, Sarah A Moberley
BACKGROUND: In 2013, Uganda adopted a test-and-treat policy for HIV patients 15 years or younger. Low retention rates among paediatric and adolescent antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiates could severely limit the impact of this new policy. This evaluation tested the impact of a differentiated care model called Family Clinic Day (FCD), a family-centered appointment scheduling and health education intervention on patient retention and adherence to monthly appointment scheduling. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, from October 2014 to March 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494593/the-epidemiology-of-adolescents-living-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-cross-region-global-cohort-analysis
#13
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485744/evolution-or-extinction-paediatric-and-adolescent-hiv-responses-in-the-agenda-2030-era
#14
EDITORIAL
Douglas Webb, Lucie Cluver, Chewe Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485739/sustainable-survival-for-adolescents-living-with-hiv-do-sdg-aligned-provisions-reduce-potential-mortality-risk
#15
Lucie Cluver, Marija Pantelic, Mark Orkin, Elona Toska, Sally Medley, Lorraine Sherr
INTRODUCTION: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. METHODS: Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485735/equity-of-child-and-adolescent-treatment-continuity-of-care-and-mortality-according-to-age-and-gender-among-enrollees-in-a-large-hiv-programme-in-tanzania
#16
Sumona Chaudhury, Ellen Hertzmark, Aisa Muya, David Sando, Nzovu Ulenga, Lameck Machumi, Donna Spiegelman, Wafaie W Fawzi
INTRODUCTION: Global scale up of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has led to expansion of HIV treatment and prevention across sub-Saharan Africa. However, age and gender-specific disparities persist leading to failures in fulfillment of Sustainability Development Goals, including SDG3 (achieving healthy lives and wellbeing for all, at all ages) and SDG5 (gender equality). We assessed ART initiation and adherence, loss to follow-up, all-cause death and early death, according to SDG3 and SDG5 indicators among a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents enrolled in care in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania METHODS: SDG3 indicators included young (<5 years) and older paediatric children (5 to <10 years), early adolescent (10 to <15 years) and late adolescent (15 to <20 years) age group divisions and the SDG5 indicator was gender...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485727/shortening-the-decade-long-gap-between-adult-and-paediatric-drug-formulations-a-new-framework-based-on-the-hiv-experience-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Martina Penazzato, Linda Lewis, Melynda Watkins, Vineet Prabhu, Fernando Pascual, Martin Auton, Wesley Kreft, Sébastien Morin, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, David Jamieson, George K Siberry
INTRODUCTION: Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485724/inequality-in-outcomes-for-adolescents-living-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-collaborative-initiative-for-paediatric-hiv-education-and-research-cipher-cohort-collaboration-analysis
#18
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Eighty percent of adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a continent with marked economic inequality. As part of our global project describing adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APH), we aimed to assess whether inequality in outcomes exists by country income group (CIG) for APH within SSA. METHODS: Through the CIPHER cohort collaboration, individual retrospective data from 7 networks and 25 countries in SSA were included...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479861/where-have-all-the-children-gone-high-hiv-prevalence-in-infants-attending-nutrition-and-inpatient-entry-points
#19
Charles Kiyaga, Brittany Urick, Youyi Fong, Christopher Okiira, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Denis Nansera, Emmanuel Ochola, Julius Nteziyaremye, Victor Bigira, Isaac Ssewanyana, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Trevor Peter, Anisa Ghadrshenas, Lara Vojnov
INTRODUCTION: Despite notable progress towards PMTCT, only 50% of HIV-exposed infants in sub-Saharan Africa were tested within the first 2 months of life and only 30% of HIV-infected infants are on antiretroviral treatment. This study assessed HIV prevalence in infants and children receiving care at various service entry points in primary healthcare facilities in Uganda. METHODS: A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age were systematically enrolled and tested at four regional hospitals across Uganda...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474261/pharmacokinetics-short-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-approved-once-daily-darunavir-r-dosing-regimen-in-hiv-infected-children
#20
Diane E T Bastiaans, Sibyl P M Geelen, Eline G Visser, Michiel van der Flier, Clementien L Vermont, Angela P H Colbers, Monique Roukens, David M Burger, Annemarie M C van Rossum
In this multicenter pharmacokinetic study in HIV-infected children (6-12 years), we validated the approved once-daily darunavir/ritonavir dosing recommendations.The geometric mean darunavir area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 63.1 h.mg/l, substantially lower than the mean value observed in adults. However, all trough levels were adequate and short-term virological outcome was good. These data support the use of the darunavir/ritonavir once-daily dosing recommendations.
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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