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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474261/pharmacokinetics-short-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-approved-once-daily-darunavir-r-dosing-regimen-in-hiv-infected-children
#1
Diane E T Bastiaans, Sibyl P M Geelen, Eline G Visser, Michiel van der Flier, Clementien L Vermont, Angela P H Colbers, Monique Roukens, David M Burger, Annemarie M C van Rossum
In this multicenter pharmacokinetic study in HIV-infected children (6-12 years), we validated the approved once-daily darunavir/ritonavir dosing recommendations.The geometric mean darunavir area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 63.1 h.mg/l, substantially lower than the mean value observed in adults. However, all trough levels were adequate and short-term virological outcome was good. These data support the use of the darunavir/ritonavir once-daily dosing recommendations.
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452597/evidence-of-reduced-treatment-adherence-among-hiv-infected-paediatric-and-adolescent-populations-in-nairobi-at-the-onset-of-the-unaids-universal-test-and-treat-program
#2
Joseph Kabogo, Erastus Muniu, Fred Wamunyokoli, Rachel Musoke, Elijah Songok
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO) "Universal Test and Treat" (UTT) policy, initiated in Kenya in September 2016. Under this policy, every human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected person should be initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared intra- and inter-group viral suppression and ART adherence rates for pre-UTT (initiated on ART in March-August 2016) and UTT groups (initiated in September 2016)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429441/characteristics-and-early-outcomes-of-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-darunavir-ritonavir-raltegravir-or-etravirine-containing-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#3
J Nuttall, V Pillay
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for third-line treatment regimens in HIV-infected children with antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Data are limited on darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r)-, raltegravir (RAL)- and etravirine (ETR)-containing regimens in treatment-experienced children from resource-constrained settings receiving these drugs as part of routine care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and early outcomes of treatment-experienced children (<20 years of age) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa treated with DRV/r-, RAL- or ETR-containing regimens...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429440/neonatal-and-paediatric-bloodstream-infections-pathogens-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-and-prescribing-practice-at-khayelitsha-district-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#4
H Crichton, N O'Connell, H Rabie, A C Whitelaw, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of neonatal and paediatric community-acquired and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) at South African (SA) district hospitals is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective review of neonatal and paediatric BSI (0 - 13 years) at Khayelitsha District Hospital, Cape Town, SA, over 3 years (1 March 2012 - 28 February 2015). METHODS: We used laboratory, hospital, patient and prescription data to determine BSI rates, blood culture yield and contamination rates, pathogen profile, antimicrobial resistance, patient demographics, BSI outcome and antibiotic prescribing practice...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401288/describing-the-retention-in-care-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-young-adults-who-transition-from-adolescent-to-adult-care
#5
Barbara Castelnuovo, Frank Mubiru, Shadia Nakalema, Adelline Twimukye, Agnes Kiragga
Background: There is a high rate of lost to programme (LTP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive young adults transitioning from paediatric/adolescent to adult care. Methods: We describe and identify risk factors for LTP in all patients 18-23 y of age at the Infectious Diseases Institute (Kampala, Uganda) from 2010 to 2014. Results: A total of 260 of 907 young adults (28.6%) became LTP. Among those on antiretroviral treatment, 39...
February 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400261/psychosocial-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-in-western-jamaica
#6
Tracy Evans-Gilbert, Kazie Kasimbie, Gail Reid, Shelly Ann Williams
Background Psychosocial factors interact with adolescent development and affect the ability of HIV-infected adolescents to cope with and adhere to treatment. Aim To evaluate psychosocial outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVAs) in Western Jamaica after psychosocial intervention. Methods The Bright Futures Paediatric Symptom Checklist (BF-PSC) was used for psychological screening of PHIVAs in Western Jamaica. Referred patients were evaluated using the Youth version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS)...
February 5, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381702/long-term-trends-in-mortality-and-aids-defining-events-after-combination-art-initiation-among-children-and-adolescents-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-in-17-middle-and-high-income-countries-in-europe-and-thailand-a-cohort-study
#7
Ali Judd, Elizabeth Chappell, Anna Turkova, Sophie Le Coeur, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Tessa Goetghebuer, Katja Doerholt, Luisa Galli, Dasja Pajkrt, Laura Marques, Intira J Collins, Diana M Gibb, Maria Isabel González Tome, Marisa Navarro, Josiane Warszawski, Christoph Königs, Vana Spoulou, Filipa Prata, Elena Chiappini, Lars Naver, Carlo Giaquinto, Claire Thorne, Magdalena Marczynska, Liubov Okhonskaia, Klara Posfay-Barbe, Pradthana Ounchanum, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Galina Kiseleva, Ruslan Malyuta, Alla Volokha, Luminita Ene, Ruth Goodall
BACKGROUND: Published estimates of mortality and progression to AIDS as children with HIV approach adulthood are limited. We describe rates and risk factors for death and AIDS-defining events in children and adolescents after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in 17 middle- and high-income countries, including some in Western and Central Europe (W&CE), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine), and Thailand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children with perinatal HIV aged <18 years initiating cART were followed until their 21st birthday, transfer to adult care, death, loss to follow-up, or last visit up until 31 December 2013...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353488/a-comparative-study-of-the-psychological-problems-of-hiv-infected-and%C3%A2-hiv-uninfected-children-in-a-south-african-sample
#8
M J Visser, H E Hecker, J Jordaan
According to research children living with HIV experience elevated levels of depression, anxiety, ADHD and disruptive behavioural disorders. Although South Africa's paediatric population that is infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the largest worldwide, little research has been conducted on their mental health challenges. However, attributing high levels of mental health problems solely to their HIV status can be problematic as there may be other contributory factors. This research explored the mental health problems of HIV-infected children and compared these to the mental health problems of their HIV-unaffected peers from similar backgrounds...
January 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324811/scale-up-of-kenya-s-national-hiv-viral-load-program-findings-and-lessons-learned
#9
Matilu Mwau, Catherine Akinyi Syeunda, Maureen Adhiambo, Priska Bwana, Lucy Kithinji, Joy Mwende, Laura Oyiengo, Martin Sirengo, Caroline E Boeke
OBJECTIVES: Kenya is one of the first African countries to scale up a national HIV viral load monitoring program. We sought to assess program scale up using the national database and identify areas for systems strengthening. METHODS: Data from January 2012 to March 2016 were extracted from Kenya's national viral load database. Characteristics of 1,108,356 tests were assessed over time, including reason for testing, turnaround times, test results, treatment regimens, and socio-demographic information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321046/application-of-causal-inference-methods-in-the-analyses-of-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ruth E Farmer, Daphne Kounali, A Sarah Walker, Jelena Savović, Alison Richards, Margaret T May, Deborah Ford
BACKGROUND: Applications of causal inference methods to randomised controlled trial (RCT) data have usually focused on adjusting for compliance with the randomised intervention rather than on using RCT data to address other, non-randomised questions. In this paper we review use of causal inference methods to assess the impact of aspects of patient management other than the randomised intervention in RCTs. METHODS: We identified papers that used causal inference methodology in RCT data from Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from 1986 to September 2014, using a forward citation search of five seminal papers, and a keyword search...
January 10, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297442/the-significance-of-cytomegalovirus-in-children-with-pneumonia-admitted-for-mechanical-ventilation
#11
P M Jeena, K Govender, R Parboosing, M Adhikari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and children with pneumonia and CMV infection (CMV DNA PCR-positive without clinical and imaging features of CMV and not on ganciclovir therapy) at a paediatric intensive care unit in South Africa between 2011 and 2013...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286013/outbreak-of-severe-hepatitis-a-in-eastern-piedmont-italy
#12
Antonella Rossati, Olivia Bargiacchi, Vesselina Kroumova, Claudio Nebbiolo, Maria Grazia Tacca, Sonia Pratillo, Pietro Luigi Garavelli
Hepatitis A (HA) is caused by a hepatovirus from the family Picornaviridae (Hepatitis A Virus, HAV). Transmission occurs mainly by the orofaecal route through food or water contaminated by faeces. Sexual transmission has also been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM). From February to May 2017, 14 patients with HA were hospitalized at the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità", Novara (Eastern Piedmont), Italy. One patient was two years old and was therefore admitted to the Paediatric Unit, the remaining 13 to the Infectious Disease Unit...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282882/recent-progress-in-immune-based-interventions-to-prevent-hiv-1-transmission-to-children
#13
Yegor Voronin, Ilesh Jani, Barney S Graham, Coleen K Cunningham, Lynne M Mofenson, Philippa M Musoke, Sallie R Permar, Gabriella Scarlatti
Globally, 150,000 new paediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in 2015. There remain complex challenges to the global elimination of paediatric HIV-1 infection. Thus, for the global community to achieve elimination of new paediatric HIV-1 infections, innovative approaches need to be explored. Immune-based approaches to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) may help fill some of the remaining gaps and provide new opportunities to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Immune-based interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV-1 may include paediatric HIV vaccines and passive immunization approaches...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273539/effectiveness-of-who-s-pragmatic-screening-algorithm-for-child-contacts-of-tuberculosis-cases-in-resource-constrained-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#14
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Andreas Handel, Srijita Chakraburty, Catherine M Stein, LaShaunda L Malone, W Henry Boom, Frederick D Quinn, Moses L Joloba, Christopher C Whalen, Sarah Zalwango
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality; however, interventions to detect undiagnosed tuberculosis in children are underused. Child contact tracing has been widely recommended but poorly implemented in resource-constrained settings. WHO has proposed a pragmatic screening approach for managing child contacts. We assessed the effectiveness of this screening approach and alternative symptom-based algorithms in identifying secondary tuberculosis in a prospectively followed cohort of Ugandan child contacts...
December 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#16
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210712/optimizing-hiv-transition-services-for-young-adults
#17
Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A total of 1.8 million adolescents live with HIV and constitute the only age group in which HIV-associated mortality continues to rise. Meeting their healthcare needs as they transition from paediatric services to adult care is vital for their own health and in prevention of onward transmission to partners and offspring. In this review, we discuss the issues around transition, both within HIV health care and the wider transitions adolescents negotiate as they move out of childhood and into adult life...
November 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209922/altered-brain-morphometry-in-7-year-old-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#18
Emmanuel C Nwosu, Frances C Robertson, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Els Dobbels, Francesca Little, Barbara Laughton, Andre van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Even with the increased roll out of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), paediatric HIV infection is associated with neurodevelopmental delays and neurocognitive deficits that may be accompanied by alterations in brain structure. Few neuroimaging studies have been done in children initiating ART before 2 years of age, and even fewer in children within the critical stage of brain development between 5 and 11 years. We hypothesized that early ART would limit HIV-related brain morphometric deficits at age 7...
December 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190337/optimizing-research-to-speed-up-availability-of-pediatric-antiretroviral-drugs-and-formulations
#19
Martina Penazzato, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Pablo Rojo, Marc Lallemant, Linda L Lewis, Francesca Rocchi, Agnes Saint Raymond, Nathan Ford, Rohan Hazra, Carlo Giaquinto, Yodit Belew, Diana M Gibb, Elaine J Abrams
Globally 1.8 million children are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet only 51% of those eligible actually start treatment. Research and development (R&D) for pediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a lengthy process and lags considerably behind drug development in adults. Providing safe, effective, and well-tolerated drugs for children remains critical to ensuring scale-up globally. We review current approaches to R&D for pediatric ARVs and suggest innovations to enable simplified, faster, and more comprehensive strategies to develop optimal formulations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181714/discontinuation-of-efavirenz-in-paediatric-patients-why-do-children-switch
#20
Elke Wynberg, Eleri Williams, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Hermione Lyall, Caroline Foster
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is used globally as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in combination with a dual nucleoside backbone in adults and children from 3 years of age. Up to 40% of adults taking efavirenz report central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects, and the rates of discontinuation of efavirenz-based treatment are higher than other first-line regimens. Data on efavirenz discontinuation are more limited for children and adolescents...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
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