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unshod running

Wolfgang Seiberl, Elisabeth Jensen, Josephine Merker, Marco Leitel, Ansgar Schwirtz
Force plates represent the "gold standard" in measuring running kinetics to predict performance or to identify the sources of running-related injuries. As these measurements are generally limited to laboratory analyses, wireless high-quality sensors for measuring in the field are needed. This work analysed the accuracy and precision of a new wireless insole forcesensor for quantifying running-related kinetic parameters. Vertical ground reaction force (GRF) was simultaneously measured with pit-mounted force plates (1 kHz) and loadsol® sensors (100 Hz) under unshod forefoot and rearfoot running-step conditions...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pedro Á Latorre-Román, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Ignacio Guardia-Monteagudo, Felipe García-Pinillos
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. METHODS: A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Pedro Ángel Latorre Román, Fernando Redondo Balboa, Felipe García Pinillos
The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m(2), 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
Adam J Berrones, Stephanie P Kurti, Korey M Kilsdonk, Delonyx J Cortez, Flavia F Melo, Michael Whitehurst
Berrones, AJ, Kurti, SP, Kilsdonk, KM, Cortez, DJ, Melo, FF, and Whitehurst, M. Barefoot running reduces the submaximal oxygen cost in female distance runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2348-2353, 2016-Being a competitive distance runner is, in part, attributable to a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. However, running economy (RE) is a more robust indicator of distance running performance among endurance athletes of similar V[Combining Dot Above]O2max levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of unshod (barefoot) vs...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Qichang Mei, Justin Fernandez, Weijie Fu, Neng Feng, Yaodong Gu
Running is one of the most accessible physical activities and running with and without footwear has attracted extensive attention in the past several years. In this study 18 habitually male unshod runners and 20 habitually male shod runners (all with dominant right feet) participated in a running test. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematics of each participant's lower limb. The in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system was employed to measure the pressure and force exerted on the pressure sensors of the insole...
August 2015: Human Movement Science
M Muñoz-Jimenez, P A Latorre-Román, V M Soto-Hermoso, F García-Pinillos
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of barefoot running on foot-strike patterns, eversion-inversion, running speed and vertical foot rotation in endurance runners. Eighty healthy recreational runners (age = 34.11 ± 12.95 years old, body mass index = 22.56 ± 2.65 kg · m(-2)) performed trials in shod/unshod running conditions on a treadmill at comfortable and competitive self-selected speeds. Data were collected by systematic observation of lateral and back recordings at 240 Hz. McNemar's test indicated significant differences between shod/unshod conditions and foot strike at comfortable and competitive speeds (P < 0...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
Kryztopher David Tung, Jason R Franz, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of surface and shoe cushioning on the metabolic cost of running. In running, the leg muscles generate force to cushion the impact with the ground. External cushioning (surfaces or shoes) may reduce the muscular effort needed for cushioning and thus reduce metabolic cost. Our primary hypothesis was that the metabolic cost of unshod running would decrease with a more cushioned running surface. We also hypothesized that because of the counteracting effects of shoe cushioning and mass, unshod running on a hard surface would have approximately the same metabolic cost as running in lightweight, cushioned shoes...
February 2014: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kevin G Hatala, Heather L Dingwall, Roshna E Wunderlich, Brian G Richmond
Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way...
2013: PloS One
Everett B Lohman, Kanikkai Steni Balan Sackiriyas, R Wesley Swen
Recreational running has many proven benefits which include increased cardiovascular, physical and mental health. It is no surprise that Running USA reported over 10 million individuals completed running road races in 2009 not to mention recreational joggers who do not wish to compete in organized events. Unfortunately there are numerous risks associated with running, the most common being musculoskeletal injuries attributed to incorrect shoe choice, training errors and excessive shoe wear or other biomechanical factors associated with ground reaction forces...
November 2011: Physical Therapy in Sport
Tim Blackmore, Nick Ball, Joanna Scurr
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that socks may have the potential for injury protection through the absorption and/or redistribution of impact forces. However, there is limited research regarding the shock attenuation qualities of athletic socks in sporting populations and previously observed pressure reductions have not been quantified using a force plate. OBJECTIVE: Firstly to identify the effect of specialist athletic socks on vertical and anteroposterior ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking and running...
March 2011: Foot
Jo L Tweed, Jackie A Campbell, Steven J Avil
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between functional and static foot posture and medial tibial stress syndrome in distance runners. METHODS: Twenty-eight runners with a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome and 12 asymptomatic runners were assessed with the Foot Posture Index to measure static overpronation. Range of motion was measured at the talocrural joint, with the knee extended and flexed as was range of motion at the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the angular difference between the neutral and relaxed calcaneal stance positions...
November 2008: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
J A Peel, M B Peel, H M S Davies
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The economic impact of soundness problems in racehorses is very high and low hoof angle at the toe has been associated with a lack of soundness. However, it is not clear what environmental and management factors might contribute to a low hoof angle. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that the hooves of racehorses become flatter when in gallop training, as well as to determine factors contributing to this trend. METHODS: Weekly hoof measurements were taken with a hoof gauge from 45 Thoroughbred racehorses; 4 Thoroughbred show horses kept in consistent conditions and shod by the same farrier as some of the racehorses; and 6 unshod free-ranging horses...
August 2006: Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement
Janice M Flynn, Jeffrey D Holmes, David M Andrews
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of localized leg muscle fatigue on tibial acceleration following impact. BACKGROUND: Peak tibial accelerations measured just distal to the knee joint during running have been shown to increase with general body fatigue. However, the role that local leg muscle fatigue plays in shock attenuation is not clear. METHODS: The unshod, dominant foot of 24 healthy women in two different age groups was impacted into a vertical force plate, using a human pendulum method...
August 2004: Clinical Biomechanics
M Ogon, A R Aleksiev, K F Spratt, M H Pope, C L Saltzman
Use of modified shoes and insole materials has been widely advocated to treat low back symptoms from running impacts, although considerable uncertainty remains regarding the effects of these devices on the rate of shock transmission to the spine. This study investigated the effects of shoes and insole materials on a) the rate of shock transmission to the spine, b) the temporal response of spinal musculature to impact loading, and c) the time interval between peak lumbar acceleration and peak lumbar muscle response...
August 2001: International Journal of Sports Medicine
J E Perry, J S Ulbrecht, J A Derr, P R Cavanagh
We compared the plantar pressures generated by walking in leather-soled Oxford-style shoes and by walking in inexpensive running shoes with those generated by walking in thin socks on a hard surface for thirty-nine individuals (thirteen who had diabetes and neuropathy, and thirteen who had diabetes without neuropathy, and thirteen who had neither diabetes nor neuropathy [controls]). Except for two anatomical regions, the plantar pressure associated with the Oxford-style shoes were not different from those associated with walking without shoes...
December 1995: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
S E Robbins, A M Hanna
A number of reports indicate an extremely low running-related injury frequency in barefoot populations in contrast to reports about shod populations. It is hypothesized that the adaptations which produce shock absorption, an inherent consequence of barefoot activity and a mechanism responsible for the low injury frequency in unshod populations, are related to deflection of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot on loading. It is also hypothesized that the known inability of this arch of the shod foot to deflect without failure (foot rigidity) is responsible for the high injury frequency in shod populations...
April 1987: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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