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Four principles healthcare ethics

Cristina Longo, Vasiliki Rahimzadeh, Kieran O'Doherty, Gillian Bartlett
AIM: Primary care physicians will play a central role in the successful implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx); however, important challenges remain. We explored the perspectives of stakeholders on key challenges of the PGx translation process in primary care using deliberative consultations. METHODS: Primary care physicians, patients and policy-makers attended deliberations, where they discussed four ethical questions raised by PGx research and implementation in the primary care context...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Hossein Ebrahimi, Hadi Hassankhani, Reza Negarandeh, Carol Jeffrey, Azim Azizi
BACKGROUND: Ethical studies in nursing are very important topics, and it is particularly crucial with vulnerable populations such as new graduated nurses. Neglecting ethical principles and violence toward graduates can lead to their occupational burnout, job dissatisfaction, and leaving the nursing profession. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed with the aim of understanding the experience of Iranian experienced nurses' use of lateral and horizontal violence against new graduated nurses...
January 24, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Fiona Webster, Charles Weijer, Laura Todd, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Andrea P Marshall, Deborah Cook, Graeme MacLennan, Brian H Cuthbertson, Jill J Francis
BACKGROUND: The decision to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a field raises ethical as well as scientific issues. From the clinical equipoise literature, future trials are justifiable if there is "honest, professional disagreement in the community of expert practitioners as to the preferred treatment". Empirical data are sparse about how clinicians apply the principles of equipoise to the justification of future RCTs. For example, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is not widely used in critical care practice despite the strength of the evidence base and therefore provides a unique opportunity to learn how clinicians think about the ethics of further RCTs in critical care...
2016: Trials
N N Chigbo, E R Ezeome, T C Onyeka, C C Amah
Physiotherapy has been widely defined as a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and works to prevent disease and disability through physical means. The World Confederation for Physical Therapy describes physiotherapy as providing services to people and populations to develop, maintain, and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. Physiotherapists working with terminally ill patients face a myriad of ethical issues which have not been substantially discussed in bioethics especially in the African perspective...
December 2015: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
(no author information available yet)
The pHealth 2015 Conference is the 12th in a series of scientific events bringing together expertise from medical, technological, political, administrative, and social domains, and even from philosophy or linguistics. It opens a new chapter in the success story of the series of international conferences on wearable or implantable micro and nano technologies for personalized medicine by presenting keynotes, invited talks, oral presentations, and short poster presentations provided by close to 100 authors from 20 countries from various parts of the world...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
G I Serour
Good medical ethics should aim at ensuring that all human beings enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. With the development of medical technology and health services, it became necessary to expand the four basic principles of medical ethics and link them to human rights. Despite the claim of the universality of those ethical principles, their perception and application in healthcare services are inevitably influenced by the religious background of the societies in which those services are provided...
January 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
Antonia J Cronin
Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable...
September 2014: Journal of Renal Care
Kari Brodtkorb, Anne Valen-Sendstad Skisland, Åshild Slettebø, Ragnhild Skaar
BACKGROUND: Situations where patients resist necessary help can be professionally and ethically challenging for health professionals, and the risk of paternalism, abuse and coercion are present. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine ethical challenges in situations where the patient resists healthcare. RESEARCH DESIGN: The method used was clinical application research. Academic staff and clinical co-researchers collaborated in a hermeneutical process to shed light on situations and create a basis for new action...
September 2015: Nursing Ethics
Linying Hu, Xiuyun Yin, Xiaolei Bao, Jin-Bao Nie
BACKGROUND: Medical professionalism has been developing in the Peoples' Republic of China as one way to better address perennial and new challenges in healthcare in an ever-changing society. Among many recent developments in this area is promotion by the national Chinese Medical Doctor Association of the principles and values contained in the international document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter." OBJECTIVE: To discover Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism...
2014: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Neena Modi
Evidence-based medicine has been embraced wholeheartedly, and rightly so, as the best approach for reducing clinical uncertainty and ensuring that patients receive treatment and care that are efficacious (i.e. they work) and effective (i.e. they work in real life). High-quality evidence comes from high-quality clinical research. It would hence be reasonable to assume that these two would form a closely integrated partnership. Alas, this is not yet the case. So many uncertainties in medical care relate to treatments and practices already widely in use...
2014: Neonatology
Susanne L van den Hooff, Anne Goossensen
AIM: This study explores experiences of patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. It contributes to improved reflection on the value of patient knowledge. BACKGROUND: An ethics of care perspective states the importance of moving to patients in their vulnerable state of being, and to figure out patients' individual needs necessary to provide good care. The information given by patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome might be mistaken, invented and even not true...
May 2015: Nursing Ethics
Miriam J Gent, Sarah Fradsham, Graham M Whyte, Catriona R Mayland
BACKGROUND: An equivocal evidence base on the use of Clinically Assisted Hydration (CAH) in the last days of life presents a challenge for clinicians. In an attempt to provide clarity, the General Medical Council (GMC) has produced reasoned guidelines which identify that clinical vigilance is paramount, but that healthcare professionals should consider patient and family beliefs, values and wishes when making a decision to commence, withhold or withdraw CAH. AIMS: To describe the attitudes and knowledge of patients, families, healthcare professionals and the general public regarding CAH in the care of dying patients...
September 2015: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Hannah Selinger
Caesarean section (CS) is a method of delivering a baby through a surgical incision into the abdominal wall. Until recently in the UK, it was preserved as a procedure which was only carried out in certain circumstances. These included if the fetus lay in a breech position or was showing signs of distress leading to a requirement for rapid delivery. CS is perceived as a safe method of delivery due to the recommendation by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in these situations. As a result, the opportunity for maternal request for CS arose, whereby the mother requests the operation despite no medical indication...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
M Daher
Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery...
October 2013: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
A E Hall, S Chowdhury, N Hallowell, N Pashayan, T Dent, P Pharoah, H Burton
BACKGROUND: The identification of common genetic variants associated with common cancers including breast, prostate and ovarian cancers would allow population stratification by genotype to effectively target screening and treatment. As scientific, clinical and economic evidence mounts there will be increasing pressure for risk-stratified screening programmes to be implemented. METHODS: This paper reviews some of the main ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) raised by the introduction of genotyping into risk-stratified screening programmes, in terms of Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice...
June 2014: Journal of Public Health
Yassar Mustafa
The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory...
July 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
Emilie Robert, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: Since the advent of health user fees in low- and middle-income countries in the 1980s, the discourse of global health actors (GHAs) has changed to the disadvantage of this type of healthcare financing mechanism. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the stance of GHAs in the debate on user fees. METHODS: We conducted documentary research using public documents published by and officially attributed to GHAs from 2005 to 2011. We categorized GHAs into four groups: intergovernmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and working groups and networks...
2013: Globalization and Health
J Watermeyer, J Barratt
INTRODUCTION: Locally and internationally, there have been renewed calls for equitable access to healthcare services. Simultaneously, caseloads have become more challenging and contexts more complex, which may be overwhelming to new graduates. The South African context offers a particularly interesting example of these challenges. Educators need to use innovative ways to ensure that curricula adequately prepare students for rural community work, while developing a sense of leadership that links clinical practice to theory, policy, ethics and social responsibility...
January 2013: Rural and Remote Health
P W Thevissen, S I Kvaal, G Willems
Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors...
November 2012: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Bridget Pratt, Deborah Zion, Bebe Loff
This article investigates whether or not theories of justice from political philosophy, first, support the position that health research should contribute to justice in global health, and second, provide guidance about what is owed by international clinical research (ICR) actors to parties in low- and middle-income countries. Four theories-John Rawls's theory of justice, the rights-based cosmopolitan theories of Thomas Pogge and Henry Shue, and Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm-are evaluated. The article shows that three of the four theories require the conduct of health research for justice in global health...
2012: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
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