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Four principles healthcare ethics

Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar
Substance use disorders are among the most prevalent and emergent public health problems in India. The treatment of individuals with these disorders is associated with many ethical dilemmas. Due to the pervasiveness of substance use disorders, the majority of mental health professionals working in the area of addiction medicine face several ethical dilemmas. When discussing substance use disorders, it must be borne in mind that there are important differences between India and the western countries in terms of the social and cultural aspects, as well as the legislative framework and healthcare delivery system...
April 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Saad Ahmed Khan, Min Li Liew, Hanan Omar
INTRODUCTION: Dental care has remained as an unmet need for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Dental students are considered as future healthcare workforce and having beliefs which are discriminating may have negative attitudes towards providing care to these individuals (Azodo et al., 2010). The study aimed to assess the ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students towards PLWHAs for providing care. METHODS: It is a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study...
January 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
Gaston De Serres, Danuta M Skowronski, Brian J Ward, Michael Gardam, Camille Lemieux, Annalee Yassi, David M Patrick, Mel Krajden, Mark Loeb, Peter Collignon, Fabrice Carrat
BACKGROUND: Four cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) conducted in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have reported reductions in patient risk through increased healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination. This evidence has led to expansive policies of enforcement that include all staff of acute care hospitals and other healthcare settings beyond LTCFs. We critique and quantify the cRCT evidence for indirect patient benefit underpinning policies of mandatory HCW influenza vaccination...
2017: PloS One
Dominic Wilkinson, Julian Savulescu
Clinical guidelines summarise available evidence on medical treatment, and provide recommendations about the most effective and cost-effective options for patients with a given condition. However, sometimes patients do not desire the best available treatment. Should doctors in a publicly-funded healthcare system ever provide sub-optimal medical treatment? On one view, it would be wrong to do so, since this would violate the ethical principle of beneficence, and predictably lead to harm for patients. It would also, potentially, be a misuse of finite health resources...
January 6, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Alireza Sabzevari, Mohammad Ali Kiani, Masumeh Saeidi, Seyed Ali Jafari, Hamidreza Kianifar, Hamid Ahanchian, Lida Jarahi, Mohsen Zakerian
INTRODUCTION: To supply quality services and healthcare, it is evident that medical ethics and patients' rights, while providing medical and healthcare services need to be observed. This study was conducted to evaluate observance of the Patients' Rights Charter among medical staff of educational hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in four educational hospitals in Mashhad on eighty physicians, nurses, nurse aids and medical students...
October 2016: Electronic Physician
Ramesh P Aacharya, Sanjeeb Tiwari, Tirtha M Shrestha
The Nepal earthquake was one of the biggest natural calamities of the year 2015. This paper attempts to explore the ethical issues involved in the humanitarian services rendered during the crisis and thereafter. The four principles of biomedical ethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice - are discussed in relation to the relief activities immediately following the disaster and the subsequent long-term activities, such as rehabilitation, wherever applicable. The discussion touches upon public health components such as vulnerable populations, environmental ethics and justice for the future...
October 19, 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Aun Lor, James C Thomas, Drue H Barrett, Leonard W Ortmann, Dionisio J Herrera Guibert
BACKGROUND: Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions...
May 17, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Cristina Longo, Vasiliki Rahimzadeh, Kieran O'Doherty, Gillian Bartlett
AIM: Primary care physicians will play a central role in the successful implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx); however, important challenges remain. We explored the perspectives of stakeholders on key challenges of the PGx translation process in primary care using deliberative consultations. METHODS: Primary care physicians, patients and policy-makers attended deliberations, where they discussed four ethical questions raised by PGx research and implementation in the primary care context...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Hossein Ebrahimi, Hadi Hassankhani, Reza Negarandeh, Carol Jeffrey, Azim Azizi
BACKGROUND: Ethical studies in nursing are very important topics, and it is particularly crucial with vulnerable populations such as new graduated nurses. Neglecting ethical principles and violence toward graduates can lead to their occupational burnout, job dissatisfaction, and leaving the nursing profession. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed with the aim of understanding the experience of Iranian experienced nurses' use of lateral and horizontal violence against new graduated nurses...
January 24, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Fiona Webster, Charles Weijer, Laura Todd, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Andrea P Marshall, Deborah Cook, Graeme MacLennan, Brian H Cuthbertson, Jill J Francis
BACKGROUND: The decision to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in a field raises ethical as well as scientific issues. From the clinical equipoise literature, future trials are justifiable if there is "honest, professional disagreement in the community of expert practitioners as to the preferred treatment". Empirical data are sparse about how clinicians apply the principles of equipoise to the justification of future RCTs. For example, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is not widely used in critical care practice despite the strength of the evidence base and therefore provides a unique opportunity to learn how clinicians think about the ethics of further RCTs in critical care...
January 6, 2016: Trials
N N Chigbo, E R Ezeome, T C Onyeka, C C Amah
Physiotherapy has been widely defined as a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and works to prevent disease and disability through physical means. The World Confederation for Physical Therapy describes physiotherapy as providing services to people and populations to develop, maintain, and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. Physiotherapists working with terminally ill patients face a myriad of ethical issues which have not been substantially discussed in bioethics especially in the African perspective...
December 2015: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
(no author information available yet)
The pHealth 2015 Conference is the 12th in a series of scientific events bringing together expertise from medical, technological, political, administrative, and social domains, and even from philosophy or linguistics. It opens a new chapter in the success story of the series of international conferences on wearable or implantable micro and nano technologies for personalized medicine by presenting keynotes, invited talks, oral presentations, and short poster presentations provided by close to 100 authors from 20 countries from various parts of the world...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
G I Serour
Good medical ethics should aim at ensuring that all human beings enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. With the development of medical technology and health services, it became necessary to expand the four basic principles of medical ethics and link them to human rights. Despite the claim of the universality of those ethical principles, their perception and application in healthcare services are inevitably influenced by the religious background of the societies in which those services are provided...
January 2015: Journal of Medical Ethics
Antonia J Cronin
Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable...
September 2014: Journal of Renal Care
Kari Brodtkorb, Anne Valen-Sendstad Skisland, Åshild Slettebø, Ragnhild Skaar
BACKGROUND: Situations where patients resist necessary help can be professionally and ethically challenging for health professionals, and the risk of paternalism, abuse and coercion are present. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine ethical challenges in situations where the patient resists healthcare. RESEARCH DESIGN: The method used was clinical application research. Academic staff and clinical co-researchers collaborated in a hermeneutical process to shed light on situations and create a basis for new action...
September 2015: Nursing Ethics
Linying Hu, Xiuyun Yin, Xiaolei Bao, Jin-Bao Nie
BACKGROUND: Medical professionalism has been developing in the Peoples' Republic of China as one way to better address perennial and new challenges in healthcare in an ever-changing society. Among many recent developments in this area is promotion by the national Chinese Medical Doctor Association of the principles and values contained in the international document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter." OBJECTIVE: To discover Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism...
2014: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Neena Modi
Evidence-based medicine has been embraced wholeheartedly, and rightly so, as the best approach for reducing clinical uncertainty and ensuring that patients receive treatment and care that are efficacious (i.e. they work) and effective (i.e. they work in real life). High-quality evidence comes from high-quality clinical research. It would hence be reasonable to assume that these two would form a closely integrated partnership. Alas, this is not yet the case. So many uncertainties in medical care relate to treatments and practices already widely in use...
2014: Neonatology
Susanne L van den Hooff, Anne Goossensen
AIM: This study explores experiences of patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. It contributes to improved reflection on the value of patient knowledge. BACKGROUND: An ethics of care perspective states the importance of moving to patients in their vulnerable state of being, and to figure out patients' individual needs necessary to provide good care. The information given by patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome might be mistaken, invented and even not true...
May 2015: Nursing Ethics
Miriam J Gent, Sarah Fradsham, Graham M Whyte, Catriona R Mayland
BACKGROUND: An equivocal evidence base on the use of Clinically Assisted Hydration (CAH) in the last days of life presents a challenge for clinicians. In an attempt to provide clarity, the General Medical Council (GMC) has produced reasoned guidelines which identify that clinical vigilance is paramount, but that healthcare professionals should consider patient and family beliefs, values and wishes when making a decision to commence, withhold or withdraw CAH. AIMS: To describe the attitudes and knowledge of patients, families, healthcare professionals and the general public regarding CAH in the care of dying patients...
September 2015: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Hannah Selinger
Caesarean section (CS) is a method of delivering a baby through a surgical incision into the abdominal wall. Until recently in the UK, it was preserved as a procedure which was only carried out in certain circumstances. These included if the fetus lay in a breech position or was showing signs of distress leading to a requirement for rapid delivery. CS is perceived as a safe method of delivery due to the recommendation by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in these situations. As a result, the opportunity for maternal request for CS arose, whereby the mother requests the operation despite no medical indication...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
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