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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#1
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139826/neonatal-nonepileptic-myoclonus-is-a-prominent-clinical-feature-of-kcnq2-gain-of-function-variants-r201c-and-r201h
#2
Sarah B Mulkey, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Joost Nicolai, John L Carroll, Sabine Grønborg, Yong-Hui Jiang, Nishtha Joshi, Megan Kelly, David A Koolen, Mohamad A Mikati, Kristen Park, Phillip L Pearl, Ingrid E Scheffer, Rebecca C Spillmann, Maurizio Taglialatela, Silvia Vieker, Sarah Weckhuysen, Edward C Cooper, Maria Roberta Cilio
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether KCNQ2 R201C and R201H variants, which show atypical gain-of-function electrophysiologic properties in vitro, have a distinct clinical presentation and outcome. METHODS: Ten children with heterozygous, de novo KCNQ2 R201C or R201H variants were identified worldwide, using an institutional review board (IRB)-approved KCNQ2 patient registry and database. We reviewed medical records and, where possible, interviewed parents and treating physicians using a structured, detailed phenotype inventory focusing on the neonatal presentation and subsequent course...
January 31, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#3
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087365/parasite-induced-increases-in-the-energy-costs-of-movement-of-host-freshwater-fish
#4
Ondřej Slavík, Pavel Horký, Karel Douda, Josef Velíšek, Jitka Kolářová, Pavel Lepič
Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption...
January 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067582/the-relationship-of-hip-muscle-performance-to-leg-ankle-and-foot-injuries-a-systematic-review
#5
Nili Steinberg, Gali Dar, Martin Dunlop, James Edmund Gaida
OBJECTIVES: Hip control affects movement and muscle firing patterns in the leg, ankle and foot, and may contribute to overuse injuries. Muscle performance can be measured as strength, endurance or muscle activation patterns. Our objective was to systematically review whether hip muscle performance is associated with leg, ankle and foot injuries. DATA SOURCES: A structured and comprehensive search of six medical literature databases was combined with forward and backward citation tracking (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and SportDiscus)...
January 19, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059473/striosomal-dysfunction-affects-behavioral-adaptation-but-not-impulsivity-evidence-from-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#6
Christian Beste, Moritz Mückschel, Raymond Rosales, Aloysius Domingo, Lillian Lee, Arlene Ng, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
BACKGROUND: Executive functions including behavioral adaptation and impulse control are commonly impaired in movement disorders caused by striatal pathology. However, as yet it is unclear what aspects of behavioral abnormalities are related to pathology in which striatal subcomponent, that is, the matrix and the striosomes. We therefore studied cognitive control in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, a model disease of striosomal degeneration, using behavioral paradigms and EEG. METHODS: We studied genetically confirmed X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patients (N = 21) in their early disease stages and healthy matched controls...
January 6, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058736/effect-of-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-glycolysis-inhibition-on-ram-sperm-functionality
#7
Jda Losano, Dsr Angrimani, A Dalmazzo, B R Rui, M M Brito, C M Mendes, Gkv Kawai, C I Vannucchi, Meoa Assumpção, V H Barnabe, M Nichi
Studies have demonstrated the importance of mitochondria to sperm functionality, as the main source of ATP for cellular homoeostasis and motility. However, the role of mitochondria on sperm metabolism is still controversial. Studies indicate that, for some species, glycolysis may be the main mechanism for sperm energy production. For ram sperm, such pathway is not clear. Thus, we evaluated ram sperm in response to mitochondrial uncoupling and glycolysis inhibition aiming to assess the importance of each pathway for sperm functionality...
January 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025542/impact-of-spinal-manipulation-on-cortical-drive-to-upper-and-lower-limb-muscles
#8
Heidi Haavik, Imran Khan Niazi, Mads Jochumsen, Diane Sherwin, Stanley Flavel, Kemal S Türker
This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input-output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days...
December 23, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943468/progression-of-subcortical-atrophy-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-impact-on-cognition
#9
H Foo, E Mak, T T Yong, M C Wen, R J Chander, W L Au, Y Y Sitoh, L C S Tan, N Kandiah
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with pronounced grey matter atrophy in various brain regions. However, the association between atrophy patterns and progression from no cognitive impairment (NCI) to Parkinson's disease (PD)-MCI is not clearly known. We investigated the pattern and progression of atrophy in subcortical structures and its impact on cognition in patients with mild PD. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with mild PD with baseline and longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904795/the-nine-test-screening-battery-normative-values-on-a-group-of-recreational-athletes
#10
Frida Flodström, Annette Heijne, Mark E Batt, Anna Frohm
BACKGROUND: A variety of risk factors predispose athletes to injury, such as impaired neuromuscular control, insufficient core stability, and muscular imbalances. The goal of assessing functional movement patterns is to detect imbalances and correct them with prevention strategies and thereby decrease injuries, and improve performance and quality of life. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to generate normative values for the 'Nine Test Screening Battery' (9TSB) in a group of recreational athletes...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862279/pet-and-mri-detection-of-early-and-progressive-neurodegeneration-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-36
#11
Pablo Aguiar, Julio Pardo, Manuel Arias, Beatriz Quintáns, Montse Fernández-Prieto, Rocío Martínez-Regueiro, José-Manuel Pumar, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Álvaro Ruibal, María-Jesús Sobrido, Julia Cortés
BACKGROUND: The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) form a clinically, genetically, and pathological heterogeneous group of autosomal-dominant degenerative diseases. In particular, SCA36 is characterized by a late-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome typically associated with sensorineural hearing loss. This study was aimed at analyzing the neurodegenerative process underlying SCA36 through fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and MRI scans. METHODS: Twenty SCA36 patients underwent a study consisting of FDG-PET and MRI scans...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859650/profile-of-cognitive-impairment-and-underlying-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#12
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank...
November 15, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859565/anhidrosis-in-multiple-system-atrophy-involves-pre-and-postganglionic-sudomotor-dysfunction
#13
Elizabeth A Coon, Robert D Fealey, David M Sletten, Jay N Mandrekar, Eduardo E Benarroch, Paola Sandroni, Phillip A Low, Wolfgang Singer
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to characterize the degree, pattern, lesion site, and temporal evolution of sudomotor dysfunction in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and to evaluate differences by parkinsonian (MSA-parkinsonism) and cerebellar (MSA-cerebellar) subtypes. METHODS: All cases of MSA evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2010 with postganglionic sudomotor testing and thermoregulatory sweat test were reviewed. Pattern and lesion site (preganglionic, postganglionic, or mixed) were determined based on thermoregulatory sweat test and postganglionic sudomotor testing...
November 10, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852775/eeg-oscillations-are-modulated-in-different-behavior-related-networks-during-rhythmic-finger-movements
#14
Martin Seeber, Reinhold Scherer, Gernot R Müller-Putz
: Sequencing and timing of body movements are essential to perform motoric tasks. In this study, we investigate the temporal relation between cortical oscillations and human motor behavior (i.e., rhythmic finger movements). High-density EEG recordings were used for source imaging based on individual anatomy. We separated sustained and movement phase-related EEG source amplitudes based on the actual finger movements recorded by a data glove. Sustained amplitude modulations in the contralateral hand area show decrease for α (10-12 Hz) and β (18-24 Hz), but increase for high γ (60-80 Hz) frequencies during the entire movement period...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813160/subcortical-18-f-av-1451-binding-patterns-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#15
Hanna Cho, Jae Yong Choi, Mi Song Hwang, Seung Ha Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of cortical and subcortical tau pathology is the primary pathological substrate for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). (18) F-AV-1451, a radiotracer that binds to the pathological tau protein, may be helpful for in vivo visualization and quantitation of tau pathology in PSP. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate cortical and subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding patterns in patients with PSP. METHODS: We recruited 14 PSP patients and compared their cortical and subcortical binding patterns in (18) F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies with those of 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744136/do-subjects-with-acute-subacute-temporomandibular-disorder-have-associated-cervical-impairments-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Harry von Piekartz, Ani Pudelko, Mira Danzeisen, Toby Hall, Nikolaus Ballenberger
BACKGROUND: There is preliminary evidence of cervical musculoskeletal impairment in some temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain states. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether people with TMD, classified as either mild or moderate/severe TMD, have more cervical signs of dysfunction than healthy subjects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: Based on the Conti Amnestic Questionnaire and examination of the temporomandibular joint (Axis I classification of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD), of 144 people examined 59 were classified to a mild TMD group, 40 to a moderate/severe TMD group and 45 to an asymptomatic control group without TMD...
December 2016: Manual Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719879/imaging-studies-of-functional-neurologic-disorders
#17
S Aybek, P Vuilleumier
Brain imaging techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying functional neurologic disorder (FND, or conversion disorder), which have long remained a mystery and clinical challenge for physicians, as they arise with no apparent underlying organic disease. One of the first questions addressed by imaging studies concerned whether motor conversion deficits (e.g., hysteric paralysis) represent a form of (perhaps unconscious) simulation, a mere absence of voluntary movement, or more specific disturbances in motor control (such as abnormal inhibition)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715316/using-the-research-domain-criteria-framework-to-explore-associations-between-mmpi-2-rf-constructs-and-physiological-variables-assessed-by-eye-tracker-technology
#18
David M McCord, Margaret C Achee, Elissa M Cannon, Tiffany M Harrop, William D Poynter
The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658946/how-consistent-are-lordosis-range-of-movement-and-lumbo-pelvic-rhythm-in-people-with-and-without-back-pain
#19
Robert A Laird, Peter Kent, Jennifer L Keating
BACKGROUND: Comparing movements/postures in people with and without lower back pain (LBP) may assist identifying LBP-specific dysfunction and its relationship to pain or activity limitation. This study compared the consistency in lumbo-pelvic posture and movement (range and pattern) in people with and without chronic LBP (>12 week's duration). METHODS: Wireless, wearable, inertial measurement units measured lumbar lordosis angle, range of movement (ROM) and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in adults (n = 63)...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633348/evaluating-the-relationship-between-muscle-activation-and-spine-kinematics-through-wavelet-coherence
#20
Dean C Hay, Mark P Wachowiak, Ryan B Graham
Advances in time-frequency analysis can provide new insights into the important, yet complex relationship between muscle activation (ie, electromyography [EMG]) and motion during dynamic tasks. We use wavelet coherence to compare a fundamental cyclical movement (lumbar spine flexion and extension) to the surface EMG linear envelope of 2 trunk muscles (lumbar erector spinae and internal oblique). Both muscles cohere to the spine kinematics at the main cyclic frequency, but lumbar erector spinae exhibits significantly greater coherence than internal oblique to kinematics at 0...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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