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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099407/ocular-motor-dysfunction-due-to-brainstem-disorders
#1
Seung-Han Lee, Hyo-Jung Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: The brainstem contains numerous structures including afferent and efferent fibers that are involved in generation and control of eye movements. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: These structures give rise to distinct patterns of abnormal eye movements when damaged. Defining these ocular motor abnormalities allows a topographic diagnosis of a lesion within the brainstem. RESULTS: Although diverse patterns of impaired eye movements may be observed in lesions of the brainstem, medullary lesions primarily cause various patterns of nystagmus and impaired vestibular eye movements without obvious ophthalmoplegia...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082658/cognitive-impairment-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-is-associated-with-tau-burden
#2
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Koji Kasanuki, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Matthew C Baker, Keith A Josephs, J Eric Ahlskog, Ryan J Uitti, Neill Graff-Radford, Jay A van Gerpen, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Rosa Rademakers, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is one of the core features of progressive supranuclear palsy. This study aimed to clarify the profile of cognitive impairment and its underlying pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records to evaluate the pattern and severity of cognitive impairment in 121 autopsy-confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy patients. A subset of 37 patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation as part of their clinical workup...
October 30, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031741/further-evidences-for-sleep-instability-and-impaired-spindle-delta-dynamics-in-schizophrenia-a-whole-night-polysomnography-study-with-neuroloop-gain-and-sleep-cycle-analysis
#3
Arun Sasidharan, Sunil Kumar, Ajay Kumar Nair, Ammu Lukose, Vrinda Marigowda, John P John, Bindu M Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Sleep offers a unique window into the brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Many past sleep studies have reported abnormalities in both macro-sleep architecture (like increased awakenings) as well as micro-sleep-architecture (like spindle deficits) in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ). The present study attempts to replicate previous reports of macro- and micro-sleep-architectural abnormalities in schizophrenia. In addition, the study also examined sleep-stage changes and spindle-delta dynamics across sleep-cycles to provide further evidence in support of the dysfunctional thalamocortical mechanisms causing sleep instability and poor sleep maintenance associated with schizophrenia pathophysiology...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983420/velopharyngeal-dystonia-an-unusual-focal-task-specific-dystonia
#4
Amar S Patel, Lucian Sulica, Steven J Frucht
BACKGROUND: Velopharyngeal dysfunction produces a nasal speech pattern because of the inability to close the nasal airway during speech, most often associated with anatomical abnormalities of the palate. CASE REPORT: We describe two cases of possible velopharyngeal dystonia, a task-specific movement disorder causing a speech pattern similar to velopharyngeal dysfunction. Both patients experienced treatment response with anticholinergic medication. DISCUSSION: Dystonia affecting speech via involvement of the pharyngeal musculature may be an unrecognized etiology of voice disorders...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965701/environmental-exposure-to-manganese-in-air-tremor-motor-and-cognitive-symptom-profiles
#5
E S Kornblith, S L Casey, D T Lobdell, M A Colledge, R M Bowler
BACKGROUND: Excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause parkinsonian-like motor and tremor symptoms and adverse cognitive effects, including problems with executive functioning (EF), resembling those found in later-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies seeking to differentiate PD patients into subgroups with associated cognitive and functional outcomes using motor and tremor symptoms identified tremor-dominant (TD) and non-tremor dominant (NTD) subtypes. It is unclear whether differing patterns of pathophysiology and symptoms exist in Mn neurotoxicity, as they do in PD...
September 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891523/sensitivity-analysis-of-discharge-patterns-of-subthalamic-nucleus-in-the-model-of-basal-ganglia-in-parkinson-disease
#6
Jyotsna Singh, Phool Singh, Vikas Malik
Parkinson disease alters the information patterns in movement related pathways in brain. Experimental results performed on rats show that the activity patterns changes from single spike activity to mixed burst mode in Parkinson disease. However the cause of this change in activity pattern is not yet completely understood. Subthalamic nucleus is one of the main nuclei involved in the origin of motor dysfunction in Parkinson disease. In this paper, a single compartment conductance based model is considered which focuses on subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external)...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882707/functional-connectivity-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-patients-with-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-an-observational-study
#7
Michael Peer, Harald Prüss, Inbal Ben-Dayan, Friedemann Paul, Shahar Arzy, Carsten Finke
BACKGROUND: In anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, antibody-mediated dysfunction of NMDARs causes severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, including psychosis, memory deficits, and movement disorders. However, it remains elusive how antibody-mediated NMDAR dysfunction leads to these symptoms, and whether the symptoms arise from impairment in specific brain regions and the interactions between impaired regions. METHODS: In this observational study, we recruited 43 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis from a tertiary university hospital and 43 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls without a history of neurological or psychiatric disorders, who were recruited from the general population of Berlin...
October 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869631/the-upper-limb-motion-deviation-index-a-new-comprehensive-index-of-upper-limb-motion-pathology
#8
Jacek Jurkojć, Piotr Wodarski, Robert Michnik, Katarzyna Nowakowska, Andrzej Bieniek, Marek Gzik
PURPOSE: The aim of the research was to formulate a new index enabling assessment of the overall pathology of the upper limb movement. It defines the difference between the pathological movement and a normal movement pattern. METHODS: Methodology of determining the index is based on a mathematical algorithm for calculating the Gait Deviation Index which is based on advanced methods of image comparison. To calculate the ULMDI index, one must divide the analyzed movement into cycles appropriate to the nature of the movement (similarly in gait it is the gait cycle) and then determine kinematic quantities (courses of joint angles)...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866626/sleep-patterns-in-parkinson-s-disease-direct-recordings-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#9
John A Thompson, Anand Tekriwal, Gidon Felsen, Musa Ozturk, Ilknur Telkes, Jiangping Wu, Nuri Firat Ince, Aviva Abosch
Sleep is a fundamental homeostatic process, and disorders of sleep can greatly affect quality of life. Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly comorbid for a spectrum of sleep disorders and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to improve sleep architecture in PD. We studied local field potential (LFP) recordings in PD subjects undergoing STN-DBS over the course of a full-night's sleep. We examined the changes in oscillatory activity recorded from STN between ultradian sleep states to determine whether sleep-stage dependent spectral patterns might reflect underlying dysfunction...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842419/repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-rgma-induces-neuropathological-and-behavioral-changes-that-closely-resemble-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Joanna A Korecka, Elizabeth B Moloney, Ruben Eggers, Barbara Hobo, Sanny Scheffer, Nienke Ras-Verloop, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Dick F Swaab, August B Smit, Ronald E van Kesteren, Koen Bossers, Joost Verhaagen
Repulsive guidance molecule member a (RGMa) is a membrane-associated or released guidance molecule that is involved in axon guidance, cell patterning, and cell survival. In our previous work, we showed that RGMa is significantly upregulated in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we demonstrate the expression of RGMa in midbrain human dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To investigate whether RGMa might model aspects of the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease in mouse, we targeted RGMa to adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons using adeno-associated viral vectors...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777170/brain-circuitry-controlling-sleep-and-wakefulness
#11
Richard L Horner, John H Peever
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article outlines the fundamental brain mechanisms that control sleep-wake patterns and reviews how pathologic changes in these control mechanisms contribute to common sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Discrete but interconnected clusters of cells located within the brainstem and hypothalamus comprise the circuits that generate wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and REM sleep. These clusters of cells use specific neurotransmitters, or collections of neurotransmitters, to inhibit or excite their respective sleep- and wake-promoting target sites...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772336/the-effect-of-clinical-pilates-on-functional-movement-in-recreational-runners
#12
Anna Laws, Sean Williams, Cassie Wilson
Biomechanical imbalances and inefficient functional movements are considered contributing factors to running-related injuries. Clinical Pilates uses a series of exercises focused on retraining normal movement patterns. This study investigated whether a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates improves functional movement and thereby, potentially, reduces the risk of running-related injuries associated with movement dysfunction. A modified functional movement screen was used to analyze the functional movement ability of forty runners...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756212/an-analysis-of-dentate-gyrus-function-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Raymond P Kesner
In this review there will be a description of the dentate gyrus (DG) neural circuitry that mediates the operation of a variety of mnemonic processes associated with dorsal and ventral DG function in rats. Dysfunction of the dorsal DG can be shown to mediate mnemonic processing of spatially based information including a) the operation of conjunctive encoding of multiple sensory inputs to determine spatial representations, b) pattern separation based on reducing interference between similar spatial locations and spatial contexts for horizontal distance between objects, vertical distance for height of objects, slope or angle of motor movements, c) importance of spatial context in object recognition and processing of shades of grey associated with the walls of the box d) temporal integration in the creation of remote memory based in part on DG neurogenesis and function of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus...
July 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731517/mental-steps-differential-activation-of-internal-pacemakers-in-motor-imagery-and-in-mental-imitation-of-gait
#14
Lucia Maria Sacheli, Laura Zapparoli, Carlo De Santis, Matteo Preti, Catia Pelosi, Nicola Ursino, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu
Gait imagery and gait observation can boost the recovery of locomotion dysfunctions; yet, a neurologically justified rationale for their clinical application is lacking as much as a direct comparison of their neural correlates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural correlates of explicit motor imagery of gait during observation of in-motion videos shot in a park with a steady cam (Virtual Walking task). In a 2 × 2 factorial design, we assessed the modulatory effect of gait observation and of foot movement execution on the neural correlates of the Virtual Walking task: in half of the trials, the participants were asked to mentally imitate a human model shown while walking along the same route (mental imitation condition); moreover, for half of all the trials, the participants also performed rhythmic ankle dorsiflexion as a proxy for stepping movements...
July 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681708/influence-of-autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunction-in-the-genesis-of-sleep-disorders-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#15
Maurizio Rizzi, Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus, Andrea Airoldi, Francesca Frassanito, Silvia Vanni, Andrea Cristiano, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain, autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, and disturbed sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ANS dysfunction on the genesis of sleep disorders. METHODS: Fifty female FM patients and 45 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and body mass index underwent a clinical, polysomnographic and autonomic profile evaluation at rest and during a tilt test in order to determine muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), plasma catecholamine levels, and the spectral indices of cardiac sympathetic (LFRR) and vagal (HFRR) modulation computed by means of the spectrum analysis of RR during sleep...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669908/modulation-of-cognitive-cerebello-cerebral-functional-connectivity-by-lateral-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#16
Anuj Rastogi, Robin Cash, Katharine Dunlop, Michael Vesia, Aaron Kucyi, Ayda Ghahremani, Jonathan Downar, Joyce Chen, Robert Chen
Network connectivity measured with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has revealed the contribution of distinct cerebellar lobules to an array of brain wide networks sub-serving motor and cognitive processes. As distinct cerebellar lobules form relatively accessible nodes of different brain networks, this raises the possibility for site-specific modulation of network connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) induces long-lasting inhibition of cortical areas...
September 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652971/loss-of-integrity-and-atrophy-in-cingulate-structural-covariance-networks-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Laura J de Schipper, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the relation between cortical brain atrophy on MRI and clinical progression is not straightforward. Determination of changes in structural covariance networks - patterns of covariance in grey matter density - has shown to be a valuable technique to detect subtle grey matter variations. We evaluated how structural network integrity in PD is related to clinical data. METHODS: 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 159 PD patients. We used nine standardized structural covariance networks identified in 370 healthy subjects as a template in the analysis of the PD data...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576347/scapular-muscle-dysfunction-associated-with-subacromial-pain-syndrome
#18
Birgit Castelein, Barbara Cagnie, Ann Cools
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative Review. INTRODUCTION: One of the shoulder pain disorders in which the function of the scapula is comprised is the subacromial pain syndrome. Several rehabilitation guidelines and exercises have been proposed to improve scapulothoracic muscle dysfunction. Consideration of muscle activation patterns may help to select the most appropriate rehabilitation exercise in these patients. To date, suggesting rehabilitation exercises is often based upon the knowledge of the superficial lying scapulothoracic muscles' activity...
April 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543369/directing-clinical-care-using-lower-extremity-biomechanics-in-patients-with-ankle-osteoarthritis-and-ankle-arthroplasty
#19
REVIEW
Robin Queen
Ankle osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease with approximately 50,000 new cases per year leading to skeletal deformity, severe and recurrent pain, cartilage breakdown, and gait dysfunction limiting patient mobility and well-being. Although many treatments (total ankle arthroplasty [TAA], ankle fusion [arthrodesis], and ankle distraction arthroplasty) relieve pain, it is not clear that these procedures significantly improve patient mobility. The goal of the research presented here is to summarize what is presently known about lower extremity gait mechanics and outcomes and to quantify the impact of ankle osteoarthritis and TAA have on these measures using an explicitly holistic and mechanistic approach...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525636/movement-does-not-promote-recovery-of-motor-output-following-acute-experimental-muscle-pain
#20
Siobhan M Schabrun, Thorvaldur S Palsson, Tribikram Thapa, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Objective.:  To examine the effect of motor activity on the magnitude and duration of altered corticomotor output following experimental muscle pain. Design. : Experimental, pre-post test. Setting. : University laboratory. Subjects. : Twenty healthy individuals. Methods.:  Participants were randomly allocated to a Rest or Movement group. The Rest group sat quietly without moving for the duration of the experiment...
May 19, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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