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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647765/epidemiology-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-target-population-for-surveillance-and-diagnosis
#1
REVIEW
An Tang, Oussama Hallouch, Victoria Chernyak, Aya Kamaya, Claude B Sirlin
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection...
June 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647569/sepsis-in-alcohol-related-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Thierry Gustot, Javier Fernandez, Gyongyi Szabo, Agustin Albillos, Alexandre Louvet, Rajiv Jalan, Richard Moreau, Christophe Moreno
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALD, as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible of this altered host defence become to be deciphered. The aim of the present work is to review the current knowledge about infectious complications in ALD and the pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647317/associations-of-systemic-sphingolipids-with-measures-of-hepatic-function-in-liver-cirrhosis-are-related-to-cholesterol
#3
Sabrina Krautbauer, Reiner Wiest, Gerhard Liebisch, Christa Buechler
Lipoprotein particles are composed of various lipid classes including cholesterol and sphingolipids, and are low in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatic decompensation is associated with a further decline of lipoproteins. Aim of the present work was to evaluate whether ceramide and sphingomyelin species are similarly changed in patients with liver cirrhosis and whether these variations are related to systemic cholesterol levels. In a cohort of 45 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, cholesteryl ester species and subsequently total cholesterol were identified to be negatively associated with model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score...
June 21, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646417/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-acute-and-chronic-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Kazumichi Kawakubo, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Masaki Kuwatani, Naoya Sakamoto
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted attention as a cell source for regenerative medicine. In particular, MSCs have an anti-inflammatory effect by secreting several kinds of bioactive molecules. MSC therapy is now being applied to various gastrointestinal diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver cirrhosis. Therefore, MSC therapy has the potential to be a novel treatment for acute and chronic pancreatitis by suppressing inflammation. Several studies have investigated the effect of MSC therapy on acute and chronic pancreatitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646120/mir-223-represents-a-biomarker-in-acute-and-chronic-liver-injury
#5
Florian Schueller, Sanchari Roy, Sven Heiko Loosen, Jan Alder, Christiane Koppe, Anne Theres Schneider, Franziska Wandrer, Heike Bantel, Mihael Vucur, Qing-Sheng Mi, Christian Trautwein, Tom Luedde, Christoph Roderburg
Background: Dysregulation of miRNAs has been described in tissue and serum from patients with acute and chronic liver diseases. However, only little information on the role of miR-223 in the pathophysiology of acute liver failure (ALF) and liver cirrhosis is available.  Methods: We analysed cell and tissue specific expression levels as well as serum concentrations of miR-223 in mouse models of acute (hepatic ischemia and reperfusion, single CCl4 injection) and chronic (repetitive CCl4 injection, bile duct ligation) liver diseases...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645935/liver-cirrhosis-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-would-oral-anticoagulation-have-a-net-clinical-benefit-for-stroke-prevention
#6
Ling Kuo, Tze-Fan Chao, Chia-Jen Liu, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Feng Hu, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Jo-Nan Liao, Fa-Po Chung, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Gregory Y H Lip, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Patients with liver cirrhosis have been excluded from randomized clinical trials of oral anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that patients with liver cirrhosis would have a positive net clinical benefit for oral anticoagulation when used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Among 289 559 atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥20 years, there were 10 336 with liver cirrhosis, and 9056 of them having a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 were divided into 3 groups, that is, no treatment, antiplatelet therapy, and warfarin...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645740/safety-of-the-2d-3d-direct-acting-antiviral-regimen-in-hcv-induced-child-pugh-a-cirrhosis-a-pooled-analysis
#7
Fred Poordad, David R Nelson, Jordan J Feld, Michael W Fried, Heiner Wedemeyer, Lois Larsen, Daniel E Cohen, Eric Cohen, Niloufar Mobashery, Fernando Tatsch, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. METHODS: Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r ± ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645736/liver-transplantation-in-the-most-severely-ill-cirrhotic-patients-a-multicenter-study-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-grade-3
#8
Florent Artru, Alexandre Louvet, Isaac Ruiz, Eric Levesque, Julien Labreuche, Jose Ursic-Bedoya, Guillaume Lassailly, Sebastien Dharancy, Emmanuel Boleslawski, Gilles Lebuffe, Eric Kipnis, Philippe Ichai, Audrey Coilly, Eleonora De Martin, Teresa Maria Antonini, Eric Vibert, Samir Jaber, Astrid Herrerro, Didier Samuel, Alain Duhamel, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Philippe Mathurin, Faouzi Saliba
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver transplantation (LT) for the most severely ill patients with cirrhosis with dysfunction of several organs (accurately assessed by the acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) classification) remains controversial. We aimed to report the results of LT in patients with ACL3 and to compare these patients to non-transplanted patients with cirrhosis and multiple organ dysfunction and to patients transplanted with lower ACLF grade. -Methods: All patients with ACLF3 transplanted in 3 liver ICU were retrospectively included...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645114/association-of-type-2-diabetes-with-liver-cirrhosis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#9
Ping-Hsin Hsieh, Jing-Yang Huang, Oswald Ndi Nfor, Chia-Chi Lung, Chien-Chang Ho, Yung-Po Liaw
BACKGROUND: The link between the subcategories of liver cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes is not well known. We investigated the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with alcoholic cirrhosis and cirrhosis without alcohol. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cirrhotic individuals and their matched controls were identified from 2001-2008. In all, 9 313 cirrhotic patients aged 20 years or older were matched by age, sex, and index date with the non-cirrhotic individuals (n = 37 252)...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644739/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-new-fixed-dose-combinations
#10
Vicente Soriano
The advent of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutic landscape providing cure rates over 90%. However, a subset of patients remains at higher risk for treatment failure, including those infected with: i) genotype 3 and cirrhosis; ii) resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) occurring either as natural polymorphisms or selected after prior DAA failure; and iii) poor drug adherence associated with social disabilities (homeless, psychiatric illnesses, injection drug use, alcoholism, etc...
June 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644310/predictors-of-mortality-in-cirrhosis-inpatients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Elliot Z Smith, Patrick G Northup, Curtis K Argo
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. GOALS: Our primary aim is to identify variables that are predictive of poor outcomes in cirrhosis patients with C. difficile infection (CDI). We also aim to further characterize the risk factors for developing CDI and risk of mortality in this patient population. STUDY: A total of 200 subjects with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and CDI were matched to 200 cirrhosis inpatients without CDI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643186/current-progress-in-host-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Jijing Shi, Yuanyuan Li, Wenxian Chang, Xuexiu Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people worldwide and is the main cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the newly developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have transformed the treatment of HCV infection, controlling HCV infection on a global scale remains a challenge because of the high cost, low resistance barrier of DAAs and lack of HCV vaccine. The host immune responses associated with HCV infection, especially HCV-specific T cellular immunity, determine the outcome of HCV infection: either acute or chronic infection...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643136/assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-comparison-of-shear-wave-elastography-and-transient-elastography
#13
Shashi B Paul, Prasenjit Das, Mousumi Mahanta, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Saurabh Kedia, Nancy Kalra, Harpreet Kaur, Maneesh Vijayvargiya, Shouriyo Ghosh, Shivanand R Gamanagatti, Shalimar, Siddhartha Dutta Gupta, Subrat K Acharya
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear wave elastography (SWE) and transient elastography (TE) in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC) patients taking liver biopsy as gold standard. METHODS: Ethics committee approved this prospective cross-sectional study. Between October 2012 and December 2014, consecutive CHB/CHC patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included-age more than 18 years, informed written consent, willing and suitable for liver biopsy...
June 22, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642869/detection-of-microrna-in-hepatic-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-in-egyptian-patients
#14
Hala M Demerdash, Hend M Hussien, Ehab Hassouna, Emad A Arida
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is 13.8% of whole population and about 80% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have underling hepatitis C. AIM: This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of plasma miR-122 and miR-21 in patients with CHC, genotype-4, to detect fibrosis progression versus noninvasive indices and their diagnostic value in detection of early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODOLOGY: A prospective study that included 180 patients, divided into 3 groups: healthy controls (group I), CHC patients (group II), and hepatitis C patients with HCC (group III); all cases were subjected to thorough clinical, radiological, and laboratory investigations...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642299/dysfunctional-neutrophil-effector-organelle-mobilisation-and-microbicidal-protein-release-in-alcohol-related-cirrhosis
#15
Thomas Henry Tranah, Godhev K Manakkat Vijay, Jennifer M Ryan, Robin Daniel Abeles, Paul Kevin Middleton, Debbie Lindsay Shawcross
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (ALD) are prone to infection. Circulating neutrophils in ALD are dysfunctional and predict development of sepsis, organ dysfunction and survival. Neutrophil granules are important effector organelles containing a toxic array of microbicidal proteins, whose controlled release is required to kill micro-organisms whilst minimising inflammation and damage to host tissue. We investigated the role of these granular responses in contributing to immune disarray in ALD...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642197/risk-of-hepatocellular-cancer-in-hcv-patients-treated-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#16
Fasiha Kanwal, Jennifer Kramer, Steven M Asch, Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Yumei Cao, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) after sustained virological response (SVR) with direct acting antivirals (DAA) is unclear. Our aim was to examine the risk and determinants of HCC in patients cured with DAA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HCV patients who were treated with DAA in any of the 129 Veterans Health Administration hospitals between 1/1/2015 and 12/31/2015. We calculated the annual incidence rates for HCC by SVR...
June 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642119/targeting-inflammation-for-the-treatment-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#17
REVIEW
Ming-Jiang Xu, Zhou Zhou, Richard Parker, Bin Gao
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with a wide spectrum of manifestations including simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver injury in ALD is caused by chronic inflammation, which has been actively investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALD for over the last four decades. In this review, we summarize a wide variety of inflammatory mediators that have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of ALD, and discuss the therapeutic potential of these mediators for the treatment of ALD...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641865/influence-of-baseline-meld-score-in-the-efficacy-of-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-simeprevir-and-sofosbuvir
#18
José María Moreno-Planas, Juan Ramón Larrubia-Marfil, Juan José Sánchez-Ruano, Julia Morillas-Ariño, Roberto Patón-Arenas, Rosa María Sáiz-Chumillas, Emilia Tébar-Romero, Alfredo Lucendo-Villarín, Pilar Gancedo-Bringas, Mario Solera-Muñoz, María Del Mar Vicente-Gutiérrez, Elisa Martínez-Alfaro
INTRODUCTION: There are few published studies on predictors of response to treatment with sofosbuvir and simeprevir in HCV patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyse possible predictors of response to simeprevir (SMV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients infected with hepatitis C genotypes 1 or 4. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study in 12 hospitals. The primary efficacy endpoint was SVR rate 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12)...
June 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641788/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-sign-of-systemic-disease
#19
REVIEW
Isabella Reccia, Jayant Kumar, Cherif Akladios, Francesco Virdis, Madhava Pai, Nagy Habib, Duncan Spalding
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease and leading cause of cirrhosis in the United States and developed countries. NAFLD is closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, significantly contributing to the exacerbation of the latter. Although NAFLD represents the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, it can also be found in patients prior to their presentation with other manifestations of the syndrome. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and closely intertwined with insulin resistance and obesity...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641762/laparoscopic-versus-robotic-surgery-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-the-first-46-consecutive-cases
#20
Paolo Magistri, Giuseppe Tarantino, Cristiano Guidetti, Giacomo Assirati, Tiziana Olivieri, Roberto Ballarin, Andrea Coratti, Fabrizio Di Benedetto
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma has a growing incidence worldwide, and represents a leading cause of death in patients with cirrhosis. Nowadays, minimally invasive approaches are spreading in every field of surgery and in liver surgery as well. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed demographics, clinical, and pathologic characteristics and short-term outcomes of patients who had undergone minimally invasive resections for hepatocellular carcinoma at our institution between June 2012 and May 2016...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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