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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321168/tools-allowing-independent-visualization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-drosophilamelanogaster-macrophages-and-surrounding-tissues
#1
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304256/dynamics-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-of-human-in-vitro-organized-testis-cells-from-testicular-sperm-extraction-biopsies
#2
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289749/sequence-defined-antibodies-improve-the-detection-of-cadherin-2-n-cadherin-during-zebrafish-development
#3
Giulio Russo, Ulrike Theisen, Wieland Fahr, Saskia Helmsing, Michael Hust, Reinhard W Köster, Stefan Dübel
Cadherin-2 plays a fundamental role during zebrafish CNS and heart morphogenesis. Profiling zCdh2 expression via antibody staining is essential to achieving better understanding of its role during zebrafish development. Generation of recombinant human antibodies to zCdh2 by phage display was used to identify monoclonal antibodies with reduced unspecific binding patterns when compared to available commercial antibodies. Specificity was profiled using flow cytometry of wild type, zCdh2-defective mutant and zCdh2-GFP zebrafish cells...
December 28, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288665/intact-calcium-signaling-in-adrenergic-deficient-embryonic-mouse-hearts
#4
Jessica N Peoples, David G Taylor, Alexander N Katchman, Steven N Ebert
Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh-/-) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10...
December 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#5
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236712/automatic-detection-and-decoding-of-honey-bee-waggle-dances
#6
Fernando Wario, Benjamin Wild, Raúl Rojas, Tim Landgraf
The waggle dance is one of the most popular examples of animal communication. Forager bees direct their nestmates to profitable resources via a complex motor display. Essentially, the dance encodes the polar coordinates to the resource in the field. Unemployed foragers follow the dancer's movements and then search for the advertised spots in the field. Throughout the last decades, biologists have employed different techniques to measure key characteristics of the waggle dance and decode the information it conveys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209885/neuroimaging-findings-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome-case-series-at-the-time-of-first-epidemic-outbreak-in-pernambuco-state-brazil
#7
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182849/ion-trapping-of-amines-in-protozoa-a-novel-removal-mechanism-for-micropollutants-in-activated-sludge
#8
Rebekka Gulde, Sabine Anliker, Hans-Peter Kohler, Kathrin Fenner
To optimize removal of polar organic micropollutants from the water cycle, understanding the processes during activated sludge treatment is essential. In this study, we hypothesize that aliphatic amines, which are highly abundant amongst organic micropollutants, are removed from the water phase in activated sludge through ion trapping in protozoa. In ion trapping, which has been extensively investigated in medical research, the neutral species of amine-containing compounds diffuse through the cell membrane and further into acidic vesicles present in eukaryotic cells such as protozoa...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169367/image-based-quantitative-analysis-of-tear-film-lipid-layer-thickness-for-meibomian-gland-evaluation
#9
Hyeonha Hwang, Hee-Jae Jeon, Kin Choong Yow, Ho Sik Hwang, EuiHeon Chung
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome is one of the most common ocular diseases, and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye syndrome. When the tear film lipid layer becomes thin due to obstructive or hyposecretory meibomian gland dysfunction, the excessive evaporation of the aqueous layer can occur, and this causes evaporative dry eye syndrome. Thus, measuring the lipid layer thickness (LLT) is essential for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of evaporative dry eye syndrome...
November 23, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#10
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104950/-89-zr-cobalamin-pet-tracer-synthesis-cellular-uptake-and-use-for-tumor-imaging
#11
Akhila N W Kuda-Wedagedara, Jayme L Workinger, Ebba Nexo, Robert P Doyle, Nerissa Viola-Villegas
Vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential nutrient. Acquisition, transport, and cellular internalization of Cbl are dependent on specific binding proteins and associated receptors. The circulating transport protein transcobalamin (TC) promotes cellular uptake via binding to specific receptors such as CD320, a receptor upregulated in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we report the successful synthesis of (89)Zirconium-labeled Cbl that was derivatized with desferrioxamine ((89)Zr-Cbl). We document the purity of the tracer and its binding to TC compared with that of unmodified cyano-Cbl (CN-Cbl)...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068560/extremely-vivid-highly-transparent-and-ultrathin-quantum-dot-light-emitting-diodes
#12
Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Dong Chan Kim, Zhaohe Dai, Junhee Kim, Hyojin Seung, Vinayak S Kale, Sae Jin Sung, Chong Rae Park, Nanshu Lu, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Displaying information on transparent screens offers new opportunities in next-generation electronics, such as augmented reality devices, smart surgical glasses, and smart windows. Outstanding luminance and transparency are essential for such "see-through" displays to show vivid images over clear background view. Here transparent quantum dot light-emitting diodes (Tr-QLEDs) are reported with high brightness (bottom: ≈43 000 cd m(-2) , top: ≈30 000 cd m(-2) , total: ≈73 000 cd m(-2) at 9 V), excellent transmittance (90% at 550 nm, 84% over visible range), and an ultrathin form factor (≈2...
October 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065111/identification-of-a-specific-peptide-binding-to-colon-cancer-cells-from-a-phage-displayed-peptide-library
#13
Lidan Hou, Danxi Zhu, Yu Liang, Xiaohui Tian, Lei Li, Ping Wang, Liming Zhu, Xiaoling Weng, Yingying Wang, Yue Li, Tianqi Wu, Jianhua Wang, Xiangjun Meng
BACKGROUND: New molecular probes are essential for early colon cancer diagnosis. A phage-display screening was performed to select novel binding peptides for early colon cancer imaging detection. METHODS: A human colon cancer cell line (COLO320HSR) and a normal human intestinal epithelial cell line (NCM460) were used for subtractive screening with a phage peptide library. The positive peptides were identified, and their binding capacities were confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence both in human colon cancer cells and in biopsy specimens...
October 24, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#14
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049147/virtual-reality-model-of-the-three-dimensional-anatomy-of-the-cavernous-sinus-based-on-a-cadaveric-image-and-dissection
#15
Zeng-Hui Qian, Xu Feng, Yang Li, Ke Tang
OBJECTIVE: Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. METHODS: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971628/comparative-three-dimensional-morphology-of-baleen-cross-sectional-profiles-and-volume-measurements-using-ct-images
#16
Megan M Jensen, Amalia H Saladrigas, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Baleen whales are obligate filter feeders, straining prey-laden seawater through racks of keratinized baleen plates. Despite the importance of baleen to the ecology and natural history of these animals, relatively little work has been done on baleen morphology, particularly with regard to the three-dimensional morphology and structure of baleen. We used computed tomography (CT) scanning to take 3D images of six baleen specimens representing five species, including three complete racks. With these images, we described the three-dimensional shape of the baleen plates using cross-sectional profiles from within the gum tissue to the tip of the plates...
November 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961795/improving-protein-fold-recognition-by-extracting-fold-specific-features-from-predicted-residue-residue-contacts
#17
Jianwei Zhu, Haicang Zhang, Shuai Cheng Li, Chao Wang, Lupeng Kong, Shiwei Sun, Wei-Mou Zheng, Dongbo Bu
Motivation: Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally-informative features of proteins...
August 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933331/-comparison-of-the-arthroscopic-finding-in-the-knee-joint-and-the-mri-retrospective-study
#18
K Šimeček, P Látal, J Duda, M Šimeček
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Our retrospective study presents the comparison of the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee joint - MRI - and the arthroscopic finding - ASC. Its aim is to find out how a positive or a negative finding of MRI corresponds with the operative finding and how much the experience of radiologist contributes to the conformity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MRI findings of knee joints treated surgically at two departments in 2013 and 2014 were assessed. The MRI was performed in a total of 470 patients who subsequently underwent an arthroscopic surgery...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918435/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-ii-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-arg3-1
#19
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Susann Becker, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Positive and negative feedback learning is essential to optimize behavioral performance. We used the two-way active avoidance (TWA) task as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning with the aim to test the hypothesis that neuronal ensembles activate the activity-regulated cytoskeletal (Arc/Arg3.1) protein during different phases of avoidance learning and during retrieval. A variety of studies in humans and other animals revealed that the ability of aversive feedback learning emerges postnatally...
September 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895470/generation-of-a-close-to-native-in-vitro-system-to-study-lung-cells-ecm-crosstalk
#20
Zuzana Garlikova, Ana Catarina Silva, Ana Rabata, David Potesil, Ivana Ihnatova, Jana Dumkova, Zuzana Koledova, Zbynek Zdrahal, Vladimir Vinarsky, Ales Hample, Perpetua Pinto-do-O, Diana S Nascimento
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of the tissue microenvironment, actively shaping cellular behavior. In vitro culture systems are often poor in ECM constituents thus not allowing for naturally occurring cell-ECM interactions. This study reports on a straightforward and efficient method for generation of ECM scaffolds from lung tissue and its subsequent in vitro application using primary lung cells. Mouse lung tissue was subjected to decellularization with 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate, hypotonic solutions and DNase...
September 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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