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Essential imaging display

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063817/pulse-sequence-considerations-for-simulation-and-postimplant-dosimetry-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#1
Jingfei Ma, Marinus A Moerland, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Tharakeswara K Bathala, Rajat J Kudchadker, Kristy K Brock, Steven J Frank
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to present a brief review of MRI physics principles pertinent to prostate brachytherapy, and a summary of our experience in optimizing protocols for prostate brachytherapy applications. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We summarized essential MR imaging characteristics and their interplays that need to be considered for prostate brachytherapy applications. These include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, artifacts, geometric distortion, specific absorption rate, and total scan time...
January 4, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059343/field-symmetrization-to-solve-luminance-deviation-between-frames-in-a-low-frequency-driven-fringe-field-switching-liquid-crystal-cell
#2
Min Su Kim, Philip J Bos, Dong-Woo Kim, Chang-Min Keum, Deng-Ke Yang, Hyeong Gyun Ham, Kwang-Un Jeong, Joong Hee Lee, Seung Hee Lee
The development of low-frequency-driven liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has recently received intense attention to open up low-power consumption display devices, such as portable displays, advertising panels and price tags. In fringe-field switching (FFS) LCD mode, a unidirectional electric field gives rise to head-tail symmetry breaking in liquid crystals, so that the flexoelectric effect, a coupling between the elastic distortion and the electric polarization, becomes enormously significant. The effect is thus linked to an unusual optical effect, which badly damages the quality of images by image-flickering, and this image-flickering is mainly caused by transmittance difference between the applied signal frames...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058269/figure-ground-organization-in-visual-cortex-for-natural-scenes
#3
Jonathan R Williford, Rüdiger von der Heydt
Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-ownership in natural scenes is not known. We studied area V2 neurons in behaving macaques with static images of complex natural scenes. We found that about half of the neurons were border-ownership selective for contours in natural scenes, and this selectivity originated from the image context...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052473/versatile-interacting-peptide-vip-tags-for-labeling-proteins-with-bright-chemical-reporters
#4
Hannah K Zane, Julia K Doh, Caroline A Enns, Kimberly Elizabeth Beatty
Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool for the biosciences, enabling the direct observation of proteins in their cellular environment. New methods that facilitate attachment of photostable synthetic fluorophores with genetic specificity are needed to advance the frontiers of biological imaging. Here we describe a new set of small, selective, genetically-encoded tags for proteins based on a heterodimeric coiled-coil interaction between two peptides: CoilY and CoilZ. Proteins expressed as a fusion to CoilZ were selectively labeled with the complementary CoilY fluorescent probe peptide...
January 4, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046945/su-f-i-61-assessment-and-characterization-of-the-built-in-internal-photometer-of-primary-diagnostic-monitors
#5
A Ruuge, Y Erdi, U Mahmood
PURPOSE: The conformance of Primary Diagnostic Monitors (PDMs) to the DICOM GSDF is increasingly required by several state and city regulators. Our purpose was to quantitatively characterize the luminance performance of the internal, built in photometer of BARCO monitors against an externally calibrated luminance meter. METHODS: Thirty one PDMs (BARCO) were included in our analysis. An externally calibrated photometer (RaySafe Solo Light) was used to measure the luminance and illuminance values...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027503/a-single-fluorescent-probe-enables-clearly-discriminating-and-simultaneously-imaging-liquid-ordered-and-liquid-disordered-microdomains-in-plasma-membrane-of-living-cells
#6
Minggang Tian, Yong Liu, Yuming Sun, Ruoyao Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Ge Zhang, Lifang Guo, Xuechen Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiuquan He
Liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) microdomains in plasma membrane play different yet essential roles in various bioactivities. However, discrimination of the two microdomains in living cells is difficult, due to the similarity in their constituents and structures. Up to now, polarity sensitive probes are the only tool for imaging the two microdomains, but their small difference between emission spectra in the two microdomains (less than 50 nm) limited their application in living cells. In this work, we first presented an aggregation/monomer type of fluorescent probe (2,7-9E-BHVC12) with much larger separation in emission wavelength (up to 100 nm), for dual-color visualizing the two membrane microdomains in living cells...
December 22, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007449/structural-studies-of-influenza-virus-rnps-by-electron-microscopy-indicate-molecular-contortions-within-np-supra-structures
#7
John R Gallagher, Udana Torian, Dustin M McCraw, Audray K Harris
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of influenza viruses are composed of multiple copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that can form filamentous supra-structures. RNPs package distinct viral genomic RNA segments of different lengths into pleomorphic influenza virions. RNPs also function in viral RNA transcription and replication. Different RNP segments have varying lengths, but all must be incorporated into virions during assembly and then released during viral entry for productive infection cycles. RNP structures serve varied functions in the viral replication cycle, therefore understanding their molecular organization and flexibility is essential to understanding these functions...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923991/a-specific-dna-nanoprobe-for-tracking-the-activities-of-human-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-in-living-cells
#8
Junqiu Zhai, Yibin Liu, Shan Huang, Simin Fang, Meiping Zhao
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair protein. Herein, we demonstrate that avidin-oriented abasic site-containing DNA strands (AP-DNA) on the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (SiMNP) can selectively respond to APE1 while resist the digestion by other nucleases. Mechanism studies have revealed that avidin may serve as an organizer protein and recruit APE1 to the DNA substrates on the nanoparticles via strong and specific interactions...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862961/identification-of-a-glypican-3-binding-peptide-for-in-vivo-non-invasive-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-detection
#9
Zainen Qin, Jingjing Wang, Ye Wang, Guohao Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Zhiyang Zhou, Gang Liu, Shi Gao, Lei Zhu
Early and accurate detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is essential to improve the prognosis of patients and reduce the morbidity of surgical therapy. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a protein abnormally expressed in HCC that has been identified as a serological and histochemical HCC marker. A novel peptide that specifically recognizes GPC3 will facilitate early detection of HCC and guide the treatment strategy. Herein, phage display screening technology is utilized to obtain a GPC3 binding peptide (GBP) using HCC cells expressing GPC3 in varying abundances...
November 15, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856314/the-fiber-density-coreset-for-redundancy-reduction-in-huge-fiber-sets
#10
Guy Alexandroni, Gali Zimmerman Moreno, Nir Sochen, Hayit Greenspan
State of the art Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) protocols of white matter followed by advanced tractography techniques produce impressive reconstructions of White Matter (WM) pathways. These pathways often contain millions of trajectories (fibers). While for several applications the high number of fibers is essential, other applications (visualization, registration, some types of across-subject comparison) can achieve satisfying results using much smaller sets and may be overburdened by the computational load of the large fiber sets...
November 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847313/abnormal-brain-responses-to-action-observation-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#11
Jaakko Hotta, Jukka Saari, Miika Koskinen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Nina Forss, Riitta Hari
: Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828441/concept-of-active-parallax-barrier-on-polarizing-interlayer-for-near-viewing-autostereoscopic-displays
#12
Se-Um Kim, Jiyoon Kim, Jeng-Hun Suh, Jun-Hee Na, Sin-Doo Lee
We proposed a concept of an active parallax barrier using a liquid crystal-on-polarizing interlayer (LPI) for near-viewing autostereoscopic displays. In contrast to a conventional two-panel configuration where two independent panels are stacked together for displaying and parallaxing purposes, a monolithic one-panel architecture was demonstrated with the help of the LPI. The LPI was constructed using a polarizer sheet, one side of which provided the support for the active parallax barrier and the other served as the substrate for the image panel...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828440/360-degree-tabletop-electronic-holographic-display
#13
Yongjun Lim, Keehoon Hong, Hwi Kim, Hyun-Eui Kim, Eun-Young Chang, Soohyun Lee, Taeone Kim, Jeho Nam, Hyon-Gon Choo, Jinwoong Kim, Joonku Hahn
We demonstrate a tabletop holographic display system for simultaneously serving continuous parallax 3.2-inch 360-degree three-dimensional holographic image content to multiple observers at a 45-degree oblique viewing circumference. To achieve this, localized viewing windows are to be seamlessly generated on the 360-degree viewing circumference. In the proposed system, four synchronized high-speed digital micro-mirror displays are optically configured to comprise a single 2 by 2 multi-vision panel that enables size enlargement and time-division-multiplexing of holographic image content...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826218/instrumental-tactile-diagnostics-in-robot-assisted-surgery
#14
Rozalia F Solodova, Vladimir V Galatenko, Eldar R Nakashidze, Igor L Andreytsev, Alexey V Galatenko, Dmitriy K Senchik, Vladimir M Staroverov, Vladimir E Podolskii, Mikhail E Sokolov, Victor A Sadovnichy
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgery has gained wide acceptance due to minimizing trauma in patients. However, the lack of tactile feedback is an essential limiting factor for the further expansion. In robotic surgery, feedback related to touch is currently kinesthetic, and it is mainly aimed at the minimization of force applied to tissues and organs. Design and implementation of diagnostic tactile feedback is still an open problem. We hypothesized that a sufficient tactile feedback in robot-assisted surgery can be provided by utilization of Medical Tactile Endosurgical Complex (MTEC), which is a novel specialized tool that is already commercially available in the Russian Federation...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820832/quantitative-multi-parametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-tumor-response-to-photodynamic-therapy
#15
Tom J L Schreurs, Stefanie J Hectors, Igor Jacobs, Holger Grüll, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J Strijkers
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a mouse cancer model using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI protocol and to identify MR parameters as potential biomarkers for early assessment of treatment outcome. METHODS: CT26.WT colon carcinoma tumors were grown subcutaneously in the hind limb of BALB/c mice. Therapy consisted of intravenous injection of the photosensitizer Bremachlorin, followed by 10 min laser illumination (200 mW/cm2) of the tumor 6 h post injection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809381/stability-and-sensitivity-of-water-t2-obtained-with-ideal-cpmg-in-healthy-and-fat-infiltrated-skeletal-muscle
#16
Christopher D J Sinclair, Jasper M Morrow, Robert L Janiczek, Matthew R B Evans, Elham Rawah, Sachit Shah, Michael G Hanna, Mary M Reilly, Tarek A Yousry, John S Thornton
Quantifying muscle water T2 (T2 -water) independently of intramuscular fat content is essential in establishing T2 -water as an outcome measure for imminent new therapy trials in neuromuscular diseases. IDEAL-CPMG combines chemical shift fat-water separation with T2 relaxometry to obtain such a measure. Here we evaluate the reproducibility and B1 sensitivity of IDEAL-CPMG T2 -water and fat fraction (f.f.) values in healthy subjects, and demonstrate the potential of the method to quantify T2 -water variation in diseased muscle displaying varying degrees of fatty infiltration...
December 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790220/t-cell-interstitial-migration-motility-cues-from-the-inflamed-tissue-for-micro-and-macro-positioning
#17
REVIEW
Alison Gaylo, Dillon C Schrock, Ninoshka R J Fernandes, Deborah J Fowell
Effector T cells exit the inflamed vasculature into an environment shaped by tissue-specific structural configurations and inflammation-imposed extrinsic modifications. Once within interstitial spaces of non-lymphoid tissues, T cells migrate in an apparent random, non-directional, fashion. Efficient T cell scanning of the tissue environment is essential for successful location of infected target cells or encounter with antigen-presenting cells that activate the T cell's antimicrobial effector functions. The mechanisms of interstitial T cell motility and the environmental cues that may promote or hinder efficient tissue scanning are poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778167/structural-classification-of-proteins-using-texture-descriptors-extracted-from-the-cellular-automata-image
#18
Hamidreza Kavianpour, Mahdi Vasighi
Nowadays, having knowledge about cellular attributes of proteins has an important role in pharmacy, medical science and molecular biology. These attributes are closely correlated with the function and three-dimensional structure of proteins. Knowledge of protein structural class is used by various methods for better understanding the protein functionality and folding patterns. Computational methods and intelligence systems can have an important role in performing structural classification of proteins. Most of protein sequences are saved in databanks as characters and strings and a numerical representation is essential for applying machine learning methods...
October 24, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769845/calpain-12-function-revealed-through-the-study-of-an-atypical-case-of-autosomal-recessive-congenital-ichthyosis
#19
Ron Bochner, Liat Samuelov, Ofer Sarig, Qiaoli Li, Christopher A Adase, Ofer Isakov, Natalia Malchin, Dan Vodo, Ronna Shayevitch, Alon Peled, Benjamin D Yu, Gilad Fainberg, Emily Warshauer, Noam Adir, Noam Erez, Andrea Gat, Yehonatan Gottlieb, Tova Rogers, Mor Pavlovsky, Ilan Goldberg, Noam Shomron, Aileen Sandilands, Linda E Campbell, Stephanie MacCallum, W H Irwin McLean, Gil Ast, Richard L Gallo, Jouni Uitto, Eli Sprecher
Congenital erythroderma is a rare and often life-threatening condition, which has been shown to result from mutations in several genes encoding important components of the epidermal differentiation program. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified in a child with congenital exfoliative erythroderma, hypotrichosis, severe nail dystrophy and failure to thrive, two heterozygous mutations in ABCA12 (c.2956C>T, p.R986W; c.5778+2T>C, p. G1900Mfs*16), a gene known to be associated with two forms of ichthyosis, autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, and harlequin ichthyosis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760170/three-dimensional-visualization-and-imaging-of-the-entry-tear-and-intimal-flap-of-aortic-dissection-using-ct-virtual-intravascular-endoscopy
#20
Yafei Qi, Xiaoyuan Ma, Gang Li, Xiangxing Ma, Qing Wang, Dexin Yu
AIMS: Conventional computed tomography (CT) approaches provides limited visualization of the entire endoluminal changes of aortic dissection (AD), which is essential for its treatment. As an important supplement, three-dimensional CT virtual intravascular endoscopy (VIE) can show relevant details. This study aims to determine the value of VIE in displaying the entry tear and intimal flap of AD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 127 consecutive symptomatic patients with suspected AD who underwent CT angiography (CTA), 84 subjects were confirmed to have AD and were included in the study...
2016: PloS One
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