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Essential imaging display

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#1
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770927/a-review-of-existing-and-potential-computer-user-interfaces-for-modern-radiology
#2
REVIEW
Antoine Iannessi, Pierre-Yves Marcy, Olivier Clatz, Anne-Sophie Bertrand, Maki Sugimoto
The digitalization of modern imaging has led radiologists to become very familiar with computers and their user interfaces (UI). New options for display and command offer expanded possibilities, but the mouse and keyboard remain the most commonly utilized, for usability reasons. In this work, we review and discuss different UI and their possible application in radiology. We consider two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging displays in the context of interventional radiology, and discuss interest in touchscreens, kinetic sensors, eye detection, and augmented or virtual reality...
May 16, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756154/a-novel-porphyrin-based-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe-for-hypochlorite-detection-and-its-application-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Xiaoyi Wang, Jie Min, Weijie Wang, Yan Wang, Gui Yin, Ruiyong Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially HOCl/ClO-, have been demonstrated to play essential roles in both physiological and pathological processes, and an abnormal level of HOCl/ClO- is related to some diseases. In this work, a very fast responsive (within 30 seconds) porphyrin-based fluorescent probe, TPP-TCF, for ClO- with a NIR emissive wavelength was prepared. This probe exhibited excellent selectivity towards ClO- and would not be interfered with by other ROS and typical nucleophiles. The limit of detection (LOD) for ClO- was evaluated to be 0...
May 14, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718803/dependence-of-behavioral-performance-on-material-category-in-an-object-grasping-task-with-monkeys
#4
Isao Yokoi, Atsumichi Tachibana, Takafumi Minamimoto, Naokazu Goda, Hidehiko Komatsu
Material perception is an essential part of our cognitive function that enables us to properly interact with our complex daily environment. One important aspect of material perception is its multimodal nature. When we see an object, we generally recognize its haptic properties as well as its visual properties. Consequently, one must examine behavior using real objects that are perceived both visually and haptically to fully understand the characteristics of material perception. As a first step, we examined whether there is any difference in the behavioral responses to different materials in monkeys trained to perform an object grasping task in which they saw and grasped rod-shaped real objects made of various materials...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695425/mapping-and-engineering-functional-domains-of-the-assembly-activating-protein-of-adeno-associated-viruses
#5
Longping V Tse, Sven Moller-Tank, Rita M Meganck, Aravind Asokan
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) encode a unique assembly activating protein (AAP) within their genome that is essential for capsid assembly. Studies to date have focused on establishing the role of AAP as a chaperone that mediates stability, nucleolar transport, and assembly of AAV capsid proteins. Here, we map structure-function correlates of AAP using secondary structure analysis followed by deletion and substitutional mutagenesis of specific domains, namely, the hydrophobic N-terminal domain (HR), conserved core (CC), proline-rich region (PRR), threonine/serine rich region (T/S) and basic region (BR)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688703/a-versatile-low-cost-multi-way-microfluidic-sorter-for-droplets-cells-and-embryos
#6
Ramesh Utharala, Qingzong Tseng, Eileen E M Furlong, Christoph A Merten
Partitioning and sorting particles, including molecules, cells and organisms, is an essential prerequisite for a diverse range of applications. Here, we describe a very economical microfluidic platform (built from parts costing about US$ 6800 for a stand-alone system or US$ 3700, when mounted on an existing fluorescence microscope connected to a computer) to sort droplets, cells and embryos, based on imaging data. Valves operated by a Braille display are used to open and close microfluidic channels, enabling sorting at rates of >2Hz...
April 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610944/imaging-the-dynamics-of-transcription-loops-in-living-chromosomes
#7
Garry T Morgan
When in the lampbrush configuration, chromosomes display thousands of visible DNA loops that are transcribed at exceptionally high rates by RNA polymerase II (pol II). These transcription loops provide unique opportunities to investigate not only the detailed architecture of pol II transcription sites but also the structural dynamics of chromosome looping, which is receiving fresh attention as the organizational principle underpinning the higher-order structure of all chromosome states. The approach described here allows for extended imaging of individual transcription loops and transcription units under conditions in which loop RNA synthesis continues...
April 3, 2018: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576220/fusion-of-three-dimensional-echocardiographic-regional-myocardial-strain-with-cardiac-computed-tomography-for-noninvasive-evaluation-of-the-hemodynamic-impact-of-coronary-stenosis-in-patients-with-chest-pain
#8
Victor Mor-Avi, Mita B Patel, Francesco Maffessanti, Amita Singh, Diego Medvedofsky, S Javed Zaidi, Anuj Mediratta, Akhil Narang, Noreen Nazir, Nadjia Kachenoura, Roberto M Lang, Amit R Patel
BACKGROUND: Combined evaluation of coronary stenosis and the extent of ischemia is essential in patients with chest pain. Intermediate-grade stenosis on computed tomographic coronary angiography (CTCA) frequently triggers downstream nuclear stress testing. Alternative approaches without stress and/or radiation may have important implications. Myocardial strain measured from echocardiographic images can be used to detect subclinical dysfunction. The authors recently tested the feasibility of fusion of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography-derived regional resting longitudinal strain with coronary arteries from CTCA to determine the hemodynamic significance of stenosis...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560432/altered-regulation-of-cardiac-ankyrin-repeat-protein-in-heart-failure
#9
Amber Kempton, Matt Cefalu, Cody Justice, Tesla Baich, Mohamed Derbala, Benjamin Canan, Paul M L Janssen, Peter J Mohler, Sakima A Smith
Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized and improved the care of the sickest heart failure (HF) patients, and it is imperative that they receive appropriate ventricular unloading. Assessing this critical parameter with current methodologies (labs, imaging) is usually suboptimal in this patient population. Hence it is imperative to elucidate the molecular underpinnings involved in ventricular unloading. We have previously identified the cytoskeletal protein βII spectrin as an essential nodal protein involved in post-translational targeting and βII spectrin protein levels are significantly altered in multiple forms of human and animal HF...
January 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546036/the-conserved-escrt-iii-machinery-participates-in-the-phagocytosis-of-entamoeba-histolytica
#10
Yunuen Avalos-Padilla, Roland L Knorr, Rosario Javier-Reyna, Guillermina García-Rivera, Reinhard Lipowsky, Rumiana Dimova, Esther Orozco
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) orchestrates cell membrane-remodeling mechanisms in eukaryotes, including endocytosis. However, ESCRT functions in phagocytosis (ingestion of ≥250 nm particles), has been poorly studied. In macrophages and amoebae, phagocytosis is required for cell nutrition and attack to other microorganisms and cells. In Entamoeba histolytica , the voracious protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, phagocytosis is a land mark of virulence. Here, we have investigated the role of ESCRT-III in the phagocytosis of E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540285/usefulness-of-echocardiographic-fluoroscopic-fusion-imaging-in-adult-structural-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
Julien Ternacle, Romain Gallet, Annabelle Nguyen, Jean-François Deux, Antonio Fiore, Emmanuel Teiger, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Elisabeth Riant, Pascal Lim
Percutaneous approaches to treat structural heart diseases are growing in number and complexity. Multimodality imaging is essential for planning and monitoring such interventions. The combination of three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography with fluoroscopy is the cornerstone of interventional imaging. However, these two modalities are displayed on separate screens, and are handled by different physicians, which requires a complex mental reconstruction for the interventional team. To overcome this issue, echocardiographic-fluoroscopic fusion imaging has been introduced recently in clinical practice...
March 11, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507775/a-geriatric-patient-with-spinal-cord-injury-without-radiographic-abnormality-outcomes-and-causes
#12
Sevtap Acer, Ebru Karaca Umay, Fatma Nazlı, Ugur Onur Kasman, İbrahim Gündoğdu, Aytül Çakcı
Introduction: Although the prognosis of spinal cord injury without radiographic evidence of abnormality (SCIWORA) depends on the severity of the initial neurological damage, most patients with American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale grade D are expected to recover fully. Case presentation: An 85-year-old patient with SCIWORA and urinary incontinence, who did not produce the expected response to rehabilitation, displayed the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system findings together...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502301/kaleido-visualizing-big-brain-data-with-automatic-color-assignment-for-single-neuron-images
#13
Ting-Yuan Wang, Nan-Yow Chen, Guan-Wei He, Guo-Tzau Wang, Chi-Tin Shih, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Effective 3D visualization is essential for connectomics analysis, where the number of neural images easily reaches over tens of thousands. A formidable challenge is to simultaneously visualize a large number of distinguishable single-neuron images, with reasonable processing time and memory for file management and 3D rendering. In the present study, we proposed an algorithm named "Kaleido" that can visualize up to at least ten thousand single neurons from the Drosophila brain using only a fraction of the memory traditionally required, without increasing computing time...
March 3, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464841/super-chelators-for-advanced-protein-labeling-in-living-cells
#14
Karl Gatterdam, Eike F Joest, Marina S Dietz, Mike Heilemann, Robert Tampé
Live-cell labeling, super-resolution microscopy, single-molecule applications, protein localization, or chemically induced assembly are emerging approaches, which require specific and very small interaction pairs. The minimal disturbance of protein function is essential to derive unbiased insights into cellular processes. Herein, we define a new class of hexavalent N-nitrilotriacetic acid (hexaNTA) chelators, displaying the highest affinity and stability of all NTA-based small interaction pairs described so far...
May 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396685/the-role-of-exposure-time-in-computerized-training-of-prostate-cryosurgery-performance-comparison-of-surgical-residents-with-engineering-students
#15
Purva Joshi, Anjali Sehrawat, Yoed Rabin
PURPOSE: This study aims at the evaluation of a prototype of a computerized trainer for cryosurgery-the controlled destruction of cancer tumors by freezing. The hypothesis in this study is that computer-based cryosurgery training for an optimal cryoprobe layout is essentially a matter of exposure time, rather than trainee background or the specific computer-generated planning target. Key geometric features under considerations are associated with spatial limitations on cryoprobes placement and the match between the resulted thermal field and the unique anatomy of the prostate...
April 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392837/highly-loaded-semipermeable-nanocapsules-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Isabel Schlegel, Patricia Renz, Johanna Simon, Ingo Lieberwirth, Stefanie Pektor, Nicole Bausbacher, Matthias Miederer, Volker Mailänder, Rafael Muñoz-Espí, Daniel Crespy, Katharina Landfester
Magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in medicine for the investigation of physiological processes. The key issues related to contrast agents, i.e., substances that are injected in the body for imaging, are the efficient enhancement of contrast, their low toxicity, and their defined biodistribution. Polyurea nanocapsules containing the gadolinium complex Gadobutrol as a contrast agent in high local concentration and high relaxivity up to 40 s-1 mmol-1 L are described. A high concentration of the contrast agent inside the nanocapsules can be ensured by increasing the crystallinity in the shell of the nanocapsules...
April 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390221/-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-concepts-for-vesicovaginal-and-ureterovaginal-fistulas
#17
Isabelle Joy Lang, Margit Fisch, Luis Alex Kluth
BACKGROUND:  Vesico- and ureterovaginal fistulas are defined as abnormal connections between the urinary tract, on the one side, and the female genital system, on the other. Despite being highly prevalent as an acquired pathology of the urogenital system, there has as yet been no standardized protocol in place for diagnosing and treating these fistulas. This review analyses the current literature concerning vesico- and ureterovaginal fistulas in order to profile common diagnostic and therapeutic concepts...
February 2018: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362989/radiolabeled-gx1-peptide-for-tumor-angiogenesis-imaging
#18
Érica Aparecida de Oliveira, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Daniele Seo, Angélica Bueno Barbezan, Ana Funari, Roselaine Campos Targino, Ana Maria Moro
Early and accurate detection of primary or metastatic tumors is of great value in staging, treatment management, and prognosis. Tumor angiogenesis plays an essential role in the growth, invasion, and metastatic spread of solid cancers, and so, is a promising approach for tumor imaging. The GX1 (CGNSNPKSC) peptide was identified by phage display library and has been investigated as a marker for human cancers. This study aims to evaluate the 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG4 -c (GX1) as a biomarker for tumor imaging. Our results showed that GX1 specifically binds to tumor cells in vitro...
January 24, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360151/compton-scatter-imaging-a-promising-modality-for-image-guidance-in-lung-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#19
Gage Redler, Kevin C Jones, Alistair Templeton, Damian Bernard, Julius Turian, James C H Chu
PURPOSE: Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from Compton-scattered photons during lung SBRT is presented. METHODS: To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6 MV FFF beam)...
March 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349699/to-evaluate-the-feasibility-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-predicting-unusual-site-ectopic-pregnancy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Gabriele Masselli, Martina Derme, Maria Grazia Piccioni, Vincenzo Spina, Francesca Laghi, Gianfranco Gualdi, Marialuisa Framarino-Dei-Malatesta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of pelvic MRI in the diagnosis of unusual ectopic pregnancy (EP), when ultrasound (US) examination is inconclusive. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 150 patients with suspected EP. Clinical, US and MRI features of 15 unusual EPs were analysed. Two radiologists independently reviewed each case resolving by consensus any diagnostic discrepancy. Interobserver agreement was assessed using the Cohen κ test...
January 18, 2018: European Radiology
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