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Essential imaging display

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193694/different-cav1-3-channel-isoforms-control-distinct-components-of-the-synaptic-vesicle-cycle-in-auditory-inner-hair-cells
#1
Philippe Fy Vincent, Yohan Bouleau, Gilles Charpentier, Alice Emptoz, Saaid Safieddine, Christine Petit, Didier Dulon
The mechanisms orchestrating transient and sustained exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) remain largely unknown. These exocytotic responses are believed to mobilize sequentially a readily releasable pool of vesicles (RRP) underneath the synaptic ribbons and a slowly releasable pool of vesicles (SRP) at farther distance from them. They are both governed by Cav1.3 channels and require otoferlin as Ca(2+) sensor but whether they use the same Cav1.3 isoforms is still unknown. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings in post-hearing mice, we show that only a proportion (∼25 %) of the total Ca(2+) current in IHCs, displaying fast inactivation and resistance to 20 μM nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, is sufficient to trigger RRP but not SRP exocytosis...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193561/hydrophobic-carbon-dot-based-dual-emission-micelle-for-ratiometric-fluorescence-biosensing-and-imaging-of-cu-2-in-liver-cells
#2
Linlin Lu, Chongchong Feng, Jie Xu, Fengyang Wang, Haijun Yu, Zhiai Xu, Wen Zhang
Copper is closely related to liver damage, therefore, it is essential to develop a simple and sensitive strategy to detect copper ions (Cu(2+)) in liver cells. A hydrophobic carbon dots (HCDs)-based dual-emission fluorescent probe for Cu(2+) was prepared by encapsulating HCDs in micelles formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic polymer DSPE-PEG and tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP)-modified DSPE-PEG. The obtained probe showed characteristic fluorescence emissions of HCDs and TCPP with large emission shift of 170nm with single-wavelength excitation...
January 31, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185189/culture-transfection-and-immunocytochemical-analysis-of-primary-macrophages
#3
Charles A Warwick, Yuriy M Usachev
Macrophages are the primary phagocytes of the body and found in every tissue; often with tissue specific subtypes, e.g., microglia or Kupffer Cells. These cells are essential players in host defense, immune regulation, tissue repair, and homeostasis. Consistent with their diverse functions, macrophages display a remarkable level of plasticity and undergo rapid changes in morphology and activation state in response to environmental cues. Polarization of macrophages towards pro-inflammatory (classically activated or M1) or anti-inflammatory (alternatively activated or M2) activation states is highly dependent on their environment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174566/application-of-a-dot-blot-hybridization-platform-to-assess-streptococcus-uberis-population-structure-in-dairy-herds
#4
Pedro Albuquerque, Niza Ribeiro, Alexandre Almeida, Irena Panschin, Afonso Porfirio, Marta Vales, Francisca Diniz, Helena Madeira, Fernando Tavares
Streptococcus uberis is considered one of the most important pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. While traditionally acknowledged as an environmental pathogen, S. uberis has been shown to adopt a contagious epidemiological pattern in several dairy herds. Since different control strategies are employed depending on the mode of transmission, in-depth studies of S. uberis populations are essential to determine the best practices to control this pathogen. In this work, we optimized and validated a dot blot platform, combined with automatic image analysis, to rapidly assess the population structure of infective S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110654/applications-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-cancer
#5
G Arentz, P Mittal, C Zhang, Y-Y Ho, M Briggs, L Winderbaum, M K Hoffmann, P Hoffmann
Pathologists play an essential role in the diagnosis and prognosis of benign and cancerous tumors. Clinicians provide tissue samples, for example, from a biopsy, which are then processed and thin sections are placed onto glass slides, followed by staining of the tissue with visible dyes. Upon processing and microscopic examination, a pathology report is provided, which relies on the pathologist's interpretation of the phenotypical presentation of the tissue. Targeted analysis of single proteins provide further insight and together with clinical data these results influence clinical decision making...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063817/pulse-sequence-considerations-for-simulation-and-postimplant-dosimetry-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#6
Jingfei Ma, Marinus A Moerland, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Tharakeswara K Bathala, Rajat J Kudchadker, Kristy K Brock, Steven J Frank
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to present a brief review of MRI physics principles pertinent to prostate brachytherapy, and a summary of our experience in optimizing protocols for prostate brachytherapy applications. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We summarized essential MR imaging characteristics and their interplays that need to be considered for prostate brachytherapy applications. These include spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, image contrast, artifacts, geometric distortion, specific absorption rate, and total scan time...
January 4, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059343/field-symmetrization-to-solve-luminance-deviation-between-frames-in-a-low-frequency-driven-fringe-field-switching-liquid-crystal-cell
#7
Min Su Kim, Philip J Bos, Dong-Woo Kim, Chang-Min Keum, Deng-Ke Yang, Hyeong Gyun Ham, Kwang-Un Jeong, Joong Hee Lee, Seung Hee Lee
The development of low-frequency-driven liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has recently received intense attention to open up low-power consumption display devices, such as portable displays, advertising panels and price tags. In fringe-field switching (FFS) LCD mode, a unidirectional electric field gives rise to head-tail symmetry breaking in liquid crystals, so that the flexoelectric effect, a coupling between the elastic distortion and the electric polarization, becomes enormously significant. The effect is thus linked to an unusual optical effect, which badly damages the quality of images by image-flickering, and this image-flickering is mainly caused by transmittance difference between the applied signal frames...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058269/figure-ground-organization-in-visual-cortex-for-natural-scenes
#8
Jonathan R Williford, Rüdiger von der Heydt
Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-ownership in natural scenes is not known. We studied area V2 neurons in behaving macaques with static images of complex natural scenes. We found that about half of the neurons were border-ownership selective for contours in natural scenes, and this selectivity originated from the image context...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052473/versatile-interacting-peptide-vip-tags-for-labeling-proteins-with-bright-chemical-reporters
#9
Hannah K Zane, Julia K Doh, Caroline A Enns, Kimberly Elizabeth Beatty
Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool for the biosciences, enabling the direct observation of proteins in their cellular environment. New methods that facilitate attachment of photostable synthetic fluorophores with genetic specificity are needed to advance the frontiers of biological imaging. Here we describe a new set of small, selective, genetically-encoded tags for proteins based on a heterodimeric coiled-coil interaction between two peptides: CoilY and CoilZ. Proteins expressed as a fusion to CoilZ were selectively labeled with the complementary CoilY fluorescent probe peptide...
January 4, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046945/su-f-i-61-assessment-and-characterization-of-the-built-in-internal-photometer-of-primary-diagnostic-monitors
#10
A Ruuge, Y Erdi, U Mahmood
PURPOSE: The conformance of Primary Diagnostic Monitors (PDMs) to the DICOM GSDF is increasingly required by several state and city regulators. Our purpose was to quantitatively characterize the luminance performance of the internal, built in photometer of BARCO monitors against an externally calibrated luminance meter. METHODS: Thirty one PDMs (BARCO) were included in our analysis. An externally calibrated photometer (RaySafe Solo Light) was used to measure the luminance and illuminance values...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027503/a-single-fluorescent-probe-enables-clearly-discriminating-and-simultaneously-imaging-liquid-ordered-and-liquid-disordered-microdomains-in-plasma-membrane-of-living-cells
#11
Minggang Tian, Yong Liu, Yuming Sun, Ruoyao Zhang, Ruiqing Feng, Ge Zhang, Lifang Guo, Xuechen Li, Xiaoqiang Yu, Jing Zhi Sun, Xiuquan He
Liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) microdomains in plasma membrane play different yet essential roles in various bioactivities. However, discrimination of the two microdomains in living cells is difficult, due to the similarity in their constituents and structures. Up to now, polarity sensitive probes are the only tool for imaging the two microdomains, but their small difference between emission spectra in the two microdomains (less than 50 nm) limited their application in living cells. In this work, we first presented an aggregation/monomer type of fluorescent probe (2,7-9E-BHVC12) with much larger separation in emission wavelength (up to 100 nm), for dual-color visualizing the two membrane microdomains in living cells...
December 22, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007449/structural-studies-of-influenza-virus-rnps-by-electron-microscopy-indicate-molecular-contortions-within-np-supra-structures
#12
John R Gallagher, Udana Torian, Dustin M McCraw, Audray K Harris
Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of influenza viruses are composed of multiple copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that can form filamentous supra-structures. RNPs package distinct viral genomic RNA segments of different lengths into pleomorphic influenza virions. RNPs also function in viral RNA transcription and replication. Different RNP segments have varying lengths, but all must be incorporated into virions during assembly and then released during viral entry for productive infection cycles. RNP structures serve varied functions in the viral replication cycle, therefore understanding their molecular organization and flexibility is essential to understanding these functions...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923991/a-specific-dna-nanoprobe-for-tracking-the-activities-of-human-apurinic-apyrimidinic-endonuclease-1-in-living-cells
#13
Junqiu Zhai, Yibin Liu, Shan Huang, Simin Fang, Meiping Zhao
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair protein. Herein, we demonstrate that avidin-oriented abasic site-containing DNA strands (AP-DNA) on the surface of silica coated magnetic nanoparticles (SiMNP) can selectively respond to APE1 while resist the digestion by other nucleases. Mechanism studies have revealed that avidin may serve as an organizer protein and recruit APE1 to the DNA substrates on the nanoparticles via strong and specific interactions...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862961/identification-of-a-glypican-3-binding-peptide-for-in-vivo-non-invasive-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-detection
#14
Zainen Qin, Jingjing Wang, Ye Wang, Guohao Wang, Xiangyu Wang, Zhiyang Zhou, Gang Liu, Shi Gao, Lei Zhu
Early and accurate detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is essential to improve the prognosis of patients and reduce the morbidity of surgical therapy. Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a protein abnormally expressed in HCC that has been identified as a serological and histochemical HCC marker. A novel peptide that specifically recognizes GPC3 will facilitate early detection of HCC and guide the treatment strategy. Herein, phage display screening technology is utilized to obtain a GPC3 binding peptide (GBP) using HCC cells expressing GPC3 in varying abundances...
November 15, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856314/the-fiber-density-coreset-for-redundancy-reduction-in-huge-fiber-sets
#15
Guy Alexandroni, Gali Zimmerman Moreno, Nir Sochen, Hayit Greenspan
State of the art Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) protocols of white matter followed by advanced tractography techniques produce impressive reconstructions of White Matter (WM) pathways. These pathways often contain millions of trajectories (fibers). While for several applications the high number of fibers is essential, other applications (visualization, registration, some types of across-subject comparison) can achieve satisfying results using much smaller sets and may be overburdened by the computational load of the large fiber sets...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847313/abnormal-brain-responses-to-action-observation-in-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#16
Jaakko Hotta, Jukka Saari, Miika Koskinen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Nina Forss, Riitta Hari
: Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828441/concept-of-active-parallax-barrier-on-polarizing-interlayer-for-near-viewing-autostereoscopic-displays
#17
Se-Um Kim, Jiyoon Kim, Jeng-Hun Suh, Jun-Hee Na, Sin-Doo Lee
We proposed a concept of an active parallax barrier using a liquid crystal-on-polarizing interlayer (LPI) for near-viewing autostereoscopic displays. In contrast to a conventional two-panel configuration where two independent panels are stacked together for displaying and parallaxing purposes, a monolithic one-panel architecture was demonstrated with the help of the LPI. The LPI was constructed using a polarizer sheet, one side of which provided the support for the active parallax barrier and the other served as the substrate for the image panel...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828440/360-degree-tabletop-electronic-holographic-display
#18
Yongjun Lim, Keehoon Hong, Hwi Kim, Hyun-Eui Kim, Eun-Young Chang, Soohyun Lee, Taeone Kim, Jeho Nam, Hyon-Gon Choo, Jinwoong Kim, Joonku Hahn
We demonstrate a tabletop holographic display system for simultaneously serving continuous parallax 3.2-inch 360-degree three-dimensional holographic image content to multiple observers at a 45-degree oblique viewing circumference. To achieve this, localized viewing windows are to be seamlessly generated on the 360-degree viewing circumference. In the proposed system, four synchronized high-speed digital micro-mirror displays are optically configured to comprise a single 2 by 2 multi-vision panel that enables size enlargement and time-division-multiplexing of holographic image content...
October 31, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826218/instrumental-tactile-diagnostics-in-robot-assisted-surgery
#19
Rozalia F Solodova, Vladimir V Galatenko, Eldar R Nakashidze, Igor L Andreytsev, Alexey V Galatenko, Dmitriy K Senchik, Vladimir M Staroverov, Vladimir E Podolskii, Mikhail E Sokolov, Victor A Sadovnichy
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgery has gained wide acceptance due to minimizing trauma in patients. However, the lack of tactile feedback is an essential limiting factor for the further expansion. In robotic surgery, feedback related to touch is currently kinesthetic, and it is mainly aimed at the minimization of force applied to tissues and organs. Design and implementation of diagnostic tactile feedback is still an open problem. We hypothesized that a sufficient tactile feedback in robot-assisted surgery can be provided by utilization of Medical Tactile Endosurgical Complex (MTEC), which is a novel specialized tool that is already commercially available in the Russian Federation...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820832/quantitative-multi-parametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-tumor-response-to-photodynamic-therapy
#20
Tom J L Schreurs, Stefanie J Hectors, Igor Jacobs, Holger Grüll, Klaas Nicolay, Gustav J Strijkers
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a mouse cancer model using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI protocol and to identify MR parameters as potential biomarkers for early assessment of treatment outcome. METHODS: CT26.WT colon carcinoma tumors were grown subcutaneously in the hind limb of BALB/c mice. Therapy consisted of intravenous injection of the photosensitizer Bremachlorin, followed by 10 min laser illumination (200 mW/cm2) of the tumor 6 h post injection...
2016: PloS One
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