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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231035/biologically-relevant-heterogeneity-metrics-and-practical-insights
#1
Albert Gough, Andrew M Stern, John Maier, Timothy Lezon, Tong-Ying Shun, Chakra Chennubhotla, Mark E Schurdak, Steven A Haney, D Lansing Taylor
Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications, including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high-throughput workflow...
March 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#2
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
February 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228052/inhalation-therapy-in-patients-with-tracheostomy-a-guide-to-clinicians
#3
Arzu Ari, James B Fink
Inhalation therapy has become a popular procedure for the treatment of patients with tracheostomy. However, clinicians are faced with many challenges during inhalation therapy because of the many factors affecting aerosol therapy to this patient population, and the lack of literature providing guidance in this area of research. Areas covered: The purpose of this paper is to describe the factors affecting aerosol drug delivery to patients with tracheostomy and to explain how to optimize inhalation therapy through device selection, interface selection and delivery technique in this patient population...
March 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227145/towards-an-implantable-bio-sensor-platform-for-continuous-real-time-monitoring-of-anti-epileptic-drugs
#4
Abbas Hammoud, Ahmad Chamseddine, Dang K Nguyen, Mohamad Sawan, Abbas Hammoud, Ahmad Chamseddine, Dang K Nguyen, Mohamad Sawan, Mohamad Sawan, Abbas Hammoud, Dang K Nguyen
The need of continuous real-time monitoring device for in-vivo drug level detection has been widely articulated lately. Such monitoring could guide drug posology and timing of intake, detect low or high drug levels, in order to take adequate measures, and give clinicians a valuable window into patients' health and their response to therapeutics. This paper presents a novel implantable bio-sensor based on impedance measurement capable of continuously monitoring various antiepileptic drug levels. This portable point-of-care microsystem replaces large and stationary conventional macrosystems, and is a one of a kind system designed with an array of electrodes to monitor various anti-epileptic drugs rather than one drug...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226651/comparison-of-pulse-rate-variability-and-heart-rate-variability-for-high-frequency-content-estimation
#5
R Logier, J De Jonckheere, A Dassonneville, M Jeanne, R Logier, J De Jonckheere, A Dassonneville, M Jeanne, A Dassonneville, J De Jonckheere, R Logier, M Jeanne
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be of precious help in most of clinical situations because it is able to quantify the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity. The HRV high frequency (HF) content, related to the parasympathetic tone, reflects the ANS response to an external stimulus responsible of pain, stress or various emotions. We have previously developed the Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI), based on HRV high frequency content estimation, which quantifies continuously the vagal tone in order to guide analgesic drug administration during general anesthesia...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226335/repeated-quantitative-urine-toxicology-analysis-may-improve-chronic-pain-patient-compliance-with-opioid-therapy
#6
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Omar M Khan, Afsaneh Beiranvand, Kenneth D Candido
BACKGROUND: Even though serious efforts have been undertaken by different medical societies to reduce opioid use for treating chronic benign pain, many Americans continue to seek pain relief through opioid consumption. Assuring compliance of these patients may be a difficult aspect of proper management even with regular behavioral monitoring. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to accurately assess the compliance of chronic opioid-consuming patients in an outpatient setting and evaluate if utilizing repeated urine drug testing (UDT) could improve compliance...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225341/patterns-of-drug-resistance-among-patients-with-tuberculous-pleural-effusion-in-greece
#7
V Anastasakos, V Skouras, C Moschos, S Tsikrika, S Karabela, I Marinou, E Vogiatzakis, K Konstantinou, A Papavasiliou, I Kalomenidis
SETTING: Data on the relationship between pleural tuberculosis (TB) and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the patterns of drug resistance among pleural Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Greece and the incidence of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) among patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pulmonary TB. DESIGN: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results recorded in the database of the National Reference Centre for Tuberculosis in Athens, Greece, over a 9-year period (2003-2011) were reviewed...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224930/incidence-of-severe-renal-dysfunction-among-individuals-taking-warfarin-and-implications-for-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants
#8
Christina L Fanola, Deirdre Mooney, Andrew J Cowan, Darae Ko, Emily K Sisson, Lori E Henault, Yorghos Tripodis, Elaine M Hylek
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess incidence and risk factors for severe renal dysfunction in patients requiring oral anticoagulation to help guide initial drug choice and provide a rational basis for interval monitoring of renal function for patients prescribed non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants. METHODS: Patients on warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism were consecutively enrolled from January 2007 to December 2010. Baseline kidney function was assessed, and patients were followed to their first decline of kidney function to creatinine clearance<30 mL/min...
February 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224280/predictors-of-success-in-combination-of-tongue-base-resection-and-lateral-pharyngoplasty-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Chi Sang Hwang, Jin Won Kim, Sang Chul Park, Hyo Jin Chung, Chang-Hoon Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Hyung-Ju Cho
The base of the tongue has been recognized as a significant site of obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our aim was to determine the independent predictors of surgical success in tongue base resection combined with lateral pharyngoplasty for OSA. Thirty-one OSA patients who underwent endoscopie-guided coblator or transoral robotic tongue base resection in combination with lateral pharyngoplasty for the treatment of retroglossal obstruction between March 2012 and December 2015 were enrolled in this study...
February 21, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223165/heterogeneous-intratumoral-distribution-of-gadolinium-nanoparticles-within-u87-human-glioblastoma-xenografts-unveiled-by-micro-pixe-imaging
#10
Asuncion Carmona, Stéphane Roudeau, Baptiste L'Homel, Frédéric Pouzoulet, Sarah Bonnet-Boissinot, Yolanda Prezado, Richard Ortega
Metallic nanoparticles have great potential in cancer radiotherapy as theranostic drugs since, they serve simultaneously as contrast agents for medical imaging and as radio-therapy sensitizers. As with other anticancer drugs, intratumoral diffusion is one of the main limiting factors for therapeutic efficiency. To date, a few reports have investigated the intratumoral distribution of metallic nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative distribution of gadolinium (Gd) nanoparticles after direct intratumoral injection within U87 human glioblastoma tumors grafted in mice, using micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) imaging...
February 18, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223047/diversity-in-sequences-post-translational-modifications-and-expected-pharmacological-activities-of-toxins-from-four-conus-species-revealed-by-the-combination-of-cutting-edge-proteomics-transcriptomics-and-bioinformatics
#11
Michel Degueldre, Marion Verdenaud, Garikoitz Legarda, Rebeca Minambres, Sheila Zuniga, Mathieu Leblanc, Nicolas Gilles, Frederic Ducancel, Edwin De Pauw, Loic Quinton
Venomous animals have developed a huge arsenal of reticulated peptides for defense and predation. Based on various scaffolds, they represent a colossal pharmacological diversity, making them top candidates for the development of innovative drugs. Instead of relying on the classical, low-throughput bioassay-guided approach to identify innovative bioactive peptides, this work exploits a recent paradigm to access to venom diversity. This strategy bypasses the classical approach by combining high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics and bioinformatics cutting-edge technologies to generate reliable peptide sequences...
February 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223003/treatment-of-metformin-intoxication-complicated-by-lactic-acidosis-and-acute-kidney-injury-the-role-of-prolonged-intermittent-hemodialysis
#12
Giuseppe Regolisti, Riccardo Antoniotti, Filippo Fani, Paolo Greco, Enrico Fiaccadori
Metformin intoxication with lactic acidosis, a potentially lethal condition, may develop in diabetic patients when the drug dose is inappropriate and/or its clearance is reduced. Diagnosis and therapy may be delayed due to nonspecific symptoms at presentation, with severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and elevated serum creatinine values being the most prominent laboratory findings. Confirmation requires measurement of serum metformin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, but this technique is available only at specialized institutions and cannot be relied on as a guide to immediate treatment...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222727/developing-global-maps-of-insecticide-resistance-risk-to-improve-vector-control
#13
Michael Coleman, Janet Hemingway, Katherine Ann Gleave, Antoinette Wiebe, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Significant reductions in malaria transmission have been achieved over the last 15 years with elimination occurring in a small number of countries, however, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens these gains. Insecticide resistance has decreased the observed mortality to the most commonly used insecticide class, the pyrethroids, and the number of alternative classes approved for use in public health is limited. Disease prevention and elimination relies on operational control of Anopheles malaria vectors, which requires the deployment of effective insecticides...
February 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221007/ionic-colloidal-molding-as-a-biomimetic-scaffolding-strategy-for-uniform-bone-tissue-regeneration
#14
Jian Zhang, Jinpeng Jia, Jimin P Kim, Hong Shen, Fei Yang, Qiang Zhang, Meng Xu, Wenzhi Bi, Xing Wang, Jian Yang, Decheng Wu
Inspired by the highly ordered nanostructure of bone, nanodopant composite biomaterials are gaining special attention for their ability to guide bone tissue regeneration through structural and biological cues. However, bone malformation in orthopedic surgery is a lingering issue, partly due to the high surface energy of traditional nanoparticles contributing to aggregation and inhomogeneity. Recently, carboxyl-functionalized synthetic polymers have been shown to mimic the carboxyl-rich surface motifs of non-collagenous proteins in stabilizing hydroxyapatite and directing intrafibrillar mineralization in-vitro...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220524/language-fmri-and-direct-cortical-stimulation-in-epilepsy-preoperative-planning
#15
Alison Austermuehle, John Cocjin, Reynolds Richard, Shubhi Agrawal, Leigh Sepeta, William D Gaillard, Kareem Zaghloul, Sara Inati, William H Theodore
OBJECTIVE: Presurgical language assessment can help minimize damage to eloquent cortex during resective epilepsy surgery. Two methods for presurgical language mapping are functional MRI (fMRI) and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of implanted subdural electrodes. We compared fMRI results to DCS to help optimize non-invasive language localization and assess its validity. METHODS: We studied 19 patients referred for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220202/enzyme-inhibitory-metabolites-from-endophytic-penicillium-citrinum-isolated-from-boswellia-sacra
#16
Sajid Ali, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Tania Shamim Rizvi, Sumera Afzal Khan, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Hamayun, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Fungal endophytes establish an important niche within the host plant through the secretion of chemical constituents. Isolation of bioactive metabolites could be a vital source for inhibiting the function of enzymes such as α-glucosidase and urease. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential of endophytes associated with Boswellia sacra through bioassay-guided isolation and identification of secondary metabolites with enzyme inhibitory ability. Endophytic fungal strains viz. Penicillium citrinum, P...
February 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219961/protocol-for-the-development-of-a-core-domain-set-for-hidradenitis-suppurativa-trial-outcomes
#17
Linnea Thorlacius, John R Ingram, Amit Garg, Bente Villumsen, Solveig Esmann, Joslyn S Kirby, Alice B Gottlieb, Joseph F Merola, Robert Dellavalle, Robin Christensen, Gregor B E Jemec
INTRODUCTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should have well-defined primary and secondary outcomes to answer questions generated by the main hypotheses. However, for the chronic, inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), the reported outcome measures are numerous and diverse. A recent systematic review found a total of 30 outcome measure instruments in 12 RCTs. This use of a broad range of outcome measures can increase difficulties in interpretation and comparison of results and may potentially obstruct appropriate evidence synthesis by causing reporting bias...
February 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219642/synergy-of-raddeanin-a-and-cisplatin-induced-therapeutic-effect-enhancement-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Li Jian-Nan, Yu Ye, Zhang Yan-Fei, Li Zhi-Meng, Cai Guang-Zhi, Gong Ji-Yu
Cisplatin is a main compound for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) chemotherapies, but it has certain cytotoxicity during applications. To release that, combining with other drugs are being as a regular plan in clinic. In our present study, we are focusing on one of active monomers extracted from Anemone Raddeana Regel, Raddeanin A (RA), which is on behalf of the same character like cisplatin in the tumor remedies. In order to investigate whether combination usage of RA and cisplatin can be priority to the later drug's effect development and its toxicity reduction in HCC, both of two drugs were treated 24 h or 48 h in QGY-7703 cells for estimating their abilities in tumor cell proliferation inhibition...
February 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219190/-efficacy-and-safety-of-procalcitonin-guidance-in-reducing-the-duration-of-antibiotic-treatment-of-sepsis-patients
#19
X L Xu, F D Yan, J Q Yu, Q H Chen, H Lin, R Q Zheng
Objective: To assesse the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of sepsis patients in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: A prospective, randomised, controlled trial was gone in ICU of Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital.Between January 2013 and December 2015.One hundred and fifty-six patients assessed for eligibility were randomly assigned to the procalcitonin-guided group (PCT group, 79) or to regular antibiotic group (RAT group, 77). Patients who received antibiotics for presumed infection according to principle of antimicrobial usage...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216368/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-cysticidal-activity-of-extracts-and-isolated-flavanone-from-the-bark-of-prunus-serotina-a-bio-guided-study
#20
Francisca Palomares-Alonso, Irma Susana Rojas-Tomé, Guadalupe Palencia Hernández, María Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes, Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Angélica González-Maciel, Andrea Ramos-Morales, Rosalba Santiago-Reyes, Nelly Castro, Iliana González-Hernández, Yadira Rufino-González, Helgi Jung-Cook
Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC50=17.9-88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective...
February 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
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