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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932809/aberrant-cortical-activity-in-multiple-gcamp6-expressing-transgenic-mouse-lines
#1
Nicholas A Steinmetz, Christina Buetfering, Jerome Lecoq, Christian R Lee, Andrew J Peters, Elina A K Jacobs, Philip Coen, Douglas R Ollerenshaw, Matthew T Valley, Saskia E J de Vries, Marina Garrett, Jun Zhuang, Peter A Groblewski, Sahar Manavi, Jesse Miles, Casey White, Eric Lee, Fiona Griffin, Joshua D Larkin, Kate Roll, Sissy Cross, Thuyanh V Nguyen, Rachael Larsen, Julie Pendergraft, Tanya Daigle, Bosiljka Tasic, Carol L Thompson, Jack Waters, Shawn Olsen, David J Margolis, Hongkui Zeng, Michael Hausser, Matteo Carandini, Kenneth D Harris
Transgenic mouse lines are invaluable tools for neuroscience but, as with any technique, care must be taken to ensure that the tool itself does not unduly affect the system under study. Here we report aberrant electrical activity, similar to interictal spikes, and accompanying fluorescence events in some genotypes of transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6 genetically encoded calcium sensors. These epileptiform events have been observed particularly, but not exclusively, in mice with Emx1-Cre and Ai93 transgenes, of either sex, across multiple laboratories...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925886/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-pathophysiological-mechanisms-and-novel-treatments
#2
Yong-Ku Kim, Cheolmin Shin
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiome comprise a huge number of microorganisms with co-evolutionary associations with humans. It has been repeatedly revealed that bidirectional communication exists between the brain and the gut and involves neural, hormonal, and immunological pathways. Evidences from neuroscience researches over the past few years suggest that microbiota is essential for the development and maturation of brain systems that are associated to stress responses. METHOD: This review provides that the summarization of the communication among microbiota, gut and brain and the results of preclinical and clinical studies on gut microbiota used in treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922520/a-review-of-joint-attention-and-social-cognitive-brain-systems-in-typical-development-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Peter Mundy
This article provides a review of the increasingly detailed literature on the neurodevelopment of joint attention. Many findings from this literature support and inform the hypothesis that the neurodevelopment of joint attention contributes to the functional development of neural systems for human social cognition. Joint attention begins to develop by 5 months of age and is tantamount to the ability to adopt a common perspective with another person. It involves a whole-brain system with nodes in the: (a) dorsal and medial frontal cortex, (b) orbital frontal/insula cortex, (c) anterior/ posterior cingulate cortex, (d) superior temporal cortex, (e) precuneus/parietal cortex, and (f) amygdala and striatum...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919862/changes-in-dimensionality-and-fractal-scaling-suggest-soft-assembled-dynamics-in-human-eeg
#4
Travis J Wiltshire, Matthew J Euler, Ty L McKinney, Jonathan E Butner
Humans are high-dimensional, complex systems consisting of many components that must coordinate in order to perform even the simplest of activities. Many behavioral studies, especially in the movement sciences, have advanced the notion of soft-assembly to describe how systems with many components coordinate to perform specific functions while also exhibiting the potential to re-structure and then perform other functions as task demands change. Consistent with this notion, within cognitive neuroscience it is increasingly accepted that the brain flexibly coordinates the networks needed to cope with changing task demands...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918243/homeostatic-systems-biocybernetics-and-autonomic-neuroscience
#5
REVIEW
David S Goldstein, Irwin J Kopin
In this review we describe a series of major concepts introduced during the past 150years that have contributed to our current understanding about how physiological processes required for well-being and survival are regulated. One can theorize that hierarchical networks involving input-output relationships continuously orchestrate and learn adaptive patterns of observable behaviors, cognition, memory, mood, and autonomic systems. Taken together, these networks function as "good regulators" determining levels of internal variables and act as if there were homeostatic comparators ("homeostats")...
September 5, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918057/one-step-piggybac-transposon-based-crispr-cas9-activation-of-multiple-genes
#6
Shenglan Li, Anqi Zhang, Haipeng Xue, Dali Li, Ying Liu
Neural cell fate is determined by a tightly controlled transcription regulatory network during development. The ability to manipulate the expression of multiple transcription factors simultaneously is required to delineate the complex picture of neural cell development. Because of the limited carrying capacity of the commonly used viral vectors, such as lentiviral or retroviral vectors, it is often challenging to perform perturbation experiments on multiple transcription factors. Here we have developed a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) all-in-one system, which allows for simultaneous and stable endogenous transactivation of multiple transcription factors and long non-coding RNAs...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#7
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914603/synaptic-up-scaling-preserves-motor-circuit-output-after-chronic-natural-inactivity
#8
Joseph M Santin, Mauricio Vallejo, Lynn K Hartzler
Neural systems use homeostatic plasticity to maintain normal brain functions and to prevent abnormal activity.  Surprisingly, homeostatic mechanisms that regulate circuit output have mainly been demonstrated during artificial and/or pathological perturbations.  Natural, physiological scenarios that activate these stabilizing mechanisms in neural networks of mature animals remain elusive.  To establish the extent to which a naturally inactive circuit engages mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity, we utilized the respiratory motor circuit in bullfrogs that normally remains inactive for several months during the winter...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912709/extending-xnat-platform-with-an-incremental-semantic-framework
#9
Santiago Timón, Mariano Rincón, Rafael Martínez-Tomás
Informatics increases the yield from neuroscience due to improved data. Data sharing and accessibility enable joint efforts between different research groups, as well as replication studies, pivotal for progress in the field. Research data archiving solutions are evolving rapidly to address these necessities, however, distributed data integration is still difficult because of the need of explicit agreements for disparate data models. To address these problems, ontologies are widely used in biomedical research to obtain common vocabularies and logical descriptions, but its application may suffer from scalability issues, domain bias, and loss of low-level data access...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912156/neutrophils-are-critical-for-myelin-removal-in-a-peripheral-nerve-injury-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#10
Jane A Lindborg, Matthias Mack, Richard E Zigmond
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages that utilize the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our lab has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2(-/-) mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2(-/-) mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900406/neural-representation-a-survey-based-analysis-of-the-notion
#11
Oscar Vilarroya
The word representation (as in "neural representation"), and many of its related terms, such as to represent, representational and the like, play a central explanatory role in neuroscience literature. For instance, in "place cell" literature, place cells are extensively associated with their role in "the representation of space." In spite of its extended use, we still lack a clear, universal and widely accepted view on what it means for a nervous system to represent something, on what makes a neural activity a representation, and on what is re-presented...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899820/a-facilitating-role-for-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-action-sentence-processing
#12
Melody Courson, Joël Macoir, Pascale Tremblay
The involvement of the motor system in action language comprehension is a hotly debated topic in cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Recent studies suggest that primary motor cortex (M1) response to action language is context-sensitive rather than automatic and necessary. Specifically, semantic polarity (i.e. affirmative/negative valence) appears to modulate the intensity of this response, which is stronger for affirmative action sentences. The aim of our study was to examine further the context sensitivity of M1 response...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899744/neural-and-metabolic-basis-of-dynamic-resting-state-fmri
#13
REVIEW
Garth J Thompson
Resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) as a technique showed much initial promise for use in psychiatric and neurological diseases where diagnosis and treatment were difficult. To realize this promise, many groups have moved towards examining "dynamic rsfMRI," which relies on the assumption that rsfMRI measurements on short time scales remain relevant to the underlying neural and metabolic activity. Many dynamic rsfMRI studies have demonstrated differences between clinical or behavioral groups beyond what static rsfMRI measured, suggesting a neurometabolic basis...
September 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895068/hughlings-jackson-and-the-doctrine-of-concomitance-mind-brain-theorising-between-metaphysics-and-the-clinic
#14
M Chirimuuta
John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) is a major figure at the origins of neurology and neuroscience in Britain. Alongside his contributions to clinical medicine, he left a large corpus of writing on localisation of function in the nervous system and other theoretical topics. In this paper I focus on Jackson's "doctrine of concomitance"-his parallelist theory of the mind-brain relationship. I argue that the doctrine can be given both an ontological and a causal interpretation, and that the causal aspect of the doctrine is especially significant for Jackson and his contemporaries...
September 11, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894545/comparing-performances-of-intelligent-classifier-algorithms-for-predicting-type-of-pain-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Nasrolah Nasr HeidarAbadi, Laleh Hakemi, Pirhossein Kolivand, Reza Safdari, Marjan Ghazi Saeidi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In this study, performances of classification techniques were compared in order to predict type of pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Pain is one of the main problems in people with spinal cord injury. Identifying the optimal classification technique will help improve decision support systems in clinical settings. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective analysis was performed in 253 patients. We compared performances of "Bayesian Networks", "Decision Tree", neural networks: "Multi-Layer Perceptron" (MLP), and "Support Vector Machines" (SVM)...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893999/cortically-coordinated-nrem-thalamocortical-oscillations-play-an-essential-instructive-role-in-visual-system-plasticity
#16
Jaclyn Durkin, Aneesha K Suresh, Julie Colbath, Christopher Broussard, Jiaxing Wu, Michal Zochowski, Sara J Aton
Two long-standing questions in neuroscience are how sleep promotes brain plasticity and why some forms of plasticity occur preferentially during sleep vs. wake. Establishing causal relationships between specific features of sleep (e.g., network oscillations) and sleep-dependent plasticity has been difficult. Here we demonstrate that presentation of a novel visual stimulus (a single oriented grating) causes immediate, instructive changes in the firing of mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons, leading to increased firing-rate responses to the presented stimulus orientation (relative to other orientations)...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891911/delineating-the-trajectory-of-cognitive-recovery-from-general-anesthesia-in-older-adults-design-and-rationale-of-the-torie-trajectory-of-recovery-in-the-elderly-project
#17
Joshua S Mincer, Mark G Baxter, Patrick J McCormick, Mary Sano, Arthur E Schwartz, Jess W Brallier, Heather G Allore, Bradley N Delman, Margaret C Sewell, Prantik Kundu, Cheuk Ying Tang, Angela Sanchez, Stacie G Deiner
BACKGROUND: Mechanistic aspects of cognitive recovery after anesthesia and surgery are not yet well characterized, but may be vital to distinguishing the contributions of anesthesia and surgery in cognitive complications common in the elderly such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This article describes the aims and methodological approach to the ongoing study, Trajectory of Recovery in the Elderly (TORIE), which focuses on the trajectory of cognitive recovery from general anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891501/a-comparison-of-computational-models-for-the-extracellular-potential-of-neurons
#18
Jurgis Pods
The extracellular space has an ambiguous role in neuroscience. It is present in every physiologically relevant system and often used as a measurement site in experimental recordings, but it has received subordinate attention compared to the intracellular domain. In computational modeling, it is often regarded as a passive, homogeneous resistive medium with a constant conductivity, which greatly simplifies the computation of extracellular potentials. However, novel studies have shown that local ionic diffusion and capacitive effects of electrically active membranes can have a substantial impact on the extracellular potential...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887224/the-zebrafish-as-a-promising-tool-for-modeling-human-brain-disorders-a-review-based-upon-an-ibns-symposium
#19
REVIEW
Soaleha Shams, Jason Rihel, Jose G Ortiz, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884728/-psychiatry-of-the-future-multidimensionality-of-the-problems-of-modern-psychiatry-and-development-of-classification-systems
#20
E V Makushkin, S N Oskolkova, G A Fastovtsov
The success and achievements in the area of neurosciences due to the development of neuroimaging, neurochemical and genome studies provide tasks for psychiatry determined by the necessity to develop new classifications of mental diseases, primarily ICD-11, specify clinical diagnostic criteria and rethink the essence of some mental disorders. In spite of the multiple direction of scientific opinions on the discussed issues, the development of modern psychiatry is characterized by intensive search of biological background of psychiatric disorders and elaboration of effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of mental diseases, including medical rehabilitation of patients...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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