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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#1
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324422/assimilation-of-biophysical-neuronal-dynamics-in-neuromorphic-vlsi
#2
Jun Wang, Daniel Breen, Abraham Akinin, Frederic Broccard, Henry D I Abarbanel, Gert Cauwenberghs
Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324414/no-reference-quality-assessment-for-screen-content-images-with-both-local-and-global-feature-representation
#3
Yuming Fang, Jiebin Yan, Leida Li, Jinjian Wu, Weisi Lin
In this paper, we propose a novel no reference quality assessment method by incorporating statistical luminance and texture features (NRLT) for screen content images (SCIs) with both local and global feature representation. The proposed method is designed inspired by the perceptual property of the human visual system (HVS) that the HVS is sensitive to luminance change and texture information for image perception. In the proposed method, we first calculate the luminance map through the local normalization, which is further used to extract the statistical luminance features in global scope...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321562/perception-during-double-step-saccades
#4
E Zimmermann, M C Morrone, P Binda
How the visual system achieves perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements is a long-standing question in neuroscience. It has been proposed that an efference copy informs vision about upcoming saccades, and this might lead to shifting spatial coordinates and suppressing image motion. Here we ask whether these two aspects of visual stability are interdependent or may be dissociated under special conditions. We study a memory-guided double-step saccade task, where two saccades are executed in quick succession...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321077/social-anxiety-disorder-looking-back-and-moving-forward
#5
Matthew P Hyett, Peter M McEvoy
Fifty years have passed since social anxiety disorder (SAD) was first differentiated from other phobias. In the years since research has largely aligned with the zeitgeist of categorical classificatory frameworks, and has spanned identifying causes, maintenance factors and innovative interventions. Despite significant advances in the field, the capacity to conceptualise SAD as an independent entity is limited given the heterogeneity and dimensionality of diagnostic criteria, high rates of comorbidity, and non-specificity of aetiological mechanisms, maintaining factors and approaches to treatment...
January 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#6
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314142/retinoblastoma-the-visible-cns-tumor-a-review
#7
Helen Dimaras, Timothy W Corson
The pediatric ocular cancer retinoblastoma is the only central nervous system (CNS) tumor readily observed without specialized equipment: it can be seen by, and in, the naked eye. This accessibility enables unique imaging modalities. Here, we review this cancer for a neuroscience audience, highlighting these clinical and research imaging options, including fundus imaging, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. We also discuss the subtype of retinoblastoma driven by the MYCN oncogene more commonly associated with neuroblastoma, and consider trilateral retinoblastoma, in which an intracranial tumor arises along with ocular tumors in patients with germline RB1 gene mutations...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313542/a-programmable-platform-for-sub-second-multichemical-dynamic-stimulation-and-neuronal-functional-imaging-in-c-elegans
#8
T Rouse, G Aubry, Y Cho, M Zimmer, H Lu
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a prominent model organism in neuroscience, as its small stereotyped nervous system offers unique advantages for studying neuronal circuits at the cellular level. Characterizing temporal dynamics of neuronal circuits is essential to fully understand neuronal processing. Characterization of the temporal dynamics of chemosensory circuits requires a precise and fast method to deliver multiple stimuli and monitor the animal's neuronal activity. Microfluidic platforms have been developed that offer an improved control of chemical delivery compared to manual methods...
January 9, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303607/immunity-a-significant-pathogenic-factor-as-well-as-an-integral-part-of-the-sychoneuroendocrine-immune-regulations
#9
F VoŽeh
Immunity plays an important role in the reactivity of the organism and, in this context, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basically, there is no system or organ in the body, whose dysfunction is not related to immunity consequences. In addition, there are also multisystem diseases simultaneously involving multiple body systems. They are not always caused by weak immunity, but also often by modified immune reactions known as overshooting. The essence of all these diseases is a change in the reactivity of the organism where immunity plays an important role...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302901/a-history-and-overview-of-the-behavioral-neuroscience-of-learning-and-memory
#10
Robert E Clark
Here, I provide a basic history of important milestones in the development of theories for how the brain accomplishes the phenomenon of learning and memory. Included are the ideas of Plato, René Descartes, Théodule Ribot, William James, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Karl Lashley, and others. The modern era of learning and memory research begins with the description of H.M. by Brenda Milner and the gradual discovery that the brain contains multiple learning and memory systems that are supported by anatomically discrete brain structures...
January 5, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301099/from-maps-to-multi-dimensional-network-mechanisms-of-mental-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Urs Braun, Axel Schaefer, Richard F Betzel, Heike Tost, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Danielle S Bassett
The development of advanced neuroimaging techniques and their deployment in large cohorts has enabled an assessment of functional and structural brain network architecture at an unprecedented level of detail. Across many temporal and spatial scales, network neuroscience has emerged as a central focus of intellectual efforts, seeking meaningful descriptions of brain networks and explanatory sets of network features that underlie circuit function in health and dysfunction in disease. However, the tools of network science commonly deployed provide insight into brain function at a fundamentally descriptive level, often failing to identify (patho-)physiological mechanisms that link system-level phenomena to the multiple hierarchies of brain function...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300000/the-use-of-tungsten-as-a-chronically-implanted-material
#12
Ahmad Shah Idil, Nick Donaldson
This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally by used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength and yield point. However a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295763/corrigendum-to-ependymomas-arising-outside-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-case-series-and-literature-review-j-clin-neurosci-47-2018-202-207
#13
Shlomit Yust Katz, David Cachia, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Adriana Olar, Brett Theeler, Marta Penas Prado, Mark R Gilbert, Terri Armstrong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289930/nanomaterials-at-the-neural-interface
#14
REVIEW
Denis Scaini, Laura Ballerini
Interfacing the nervous system with devices able to efficiently record or modulate the electrical activity of neuronal cells represents the underlying foundation of future theranostic applications in neurology and of current openings in neuroscience research. These devices, usually sensing cell activity via microelectrodes, should be characterized by safe working conditions in the biological milieu together with a well-controlled operation-life. The stable device/neuronal electrical coupling at the interface requires tight interactions between the electrode surface and the cell membrane...
December 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289027/implantable-wireless-device-platforms-for-neuroscience-research
#16
REVIEW
Philipp Gutruf, John A Rogers
Recently developed classes of ultraminiaturized wireless devices provide powerful capabilities in neuroscience research, as implantable light sources for simulation/inhibition via optogenetics, as integrated microfluidic systems for programmed pharmacological delivery and as multimodal sensors for physiological measurements. These platforms leverage basic advances in biocompatible materials, semiconductor device designs and systems engineering concepts to afford modes of operation that are qualitatively distinct from those of conventional approaches that tether animals to external hardware by means of optical fibers, electrical cables and/or fluidic tubing...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283020/gaba-from-inhibition-to-cognition-emerging-concepts
#17
T Schmidt-Wilcke, E Fuchs, K Funke, A Vlachos, F Müller-Dahlhaus, N A J Puts, R E Harris, R A E Edden
Neural functioning and plasticity can be studied on different levels of organization and complexity ranging from the molecular and synaptic level to neural circuitry of whole brain networks. Across neuroscience different methods are being applied to better understand the role of various neurotransmitter systems in the evolution of perception and cognition. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian brain and, depending on the brain region, up to 25% of the total number of cortical neurons are GABAergic interneurons...
October 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279426/-central-regulation-of-appetite-and-energy-metabolism
#18
Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Recent advances of neuroscience shed a light in the neural pathway and mechanisms for food intake regulation. The central nervous system(CNS)has also been recognized as a crucial organ to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. This includes the increase in glucose and fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle as well as in brown adipose tissue and the heart, improving type 1 diabetes without change in insulin secretion. CNS regulation for food intake and energy metabolism is important to understand the mechanism for homeostatic regulation in living body...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279202/the-emerging-relationship-between-interstitial-fluid-cerebrospinal-fluid-exchange-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-sleep
#19
REVIEW
Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey J Iliff
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and soluble Aβ species are believed to play an important role in the clinical development of this disease. Emerging biomarker data demonstrate that Aβ plaque deposition begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, suggesting that understanding the biological determinants of the earliest steps in the development of AD pathology may provide key opportunities for AD treatment and prevention. Although a clinical association between sleep disruption and AD has long been appreciated, emerging clinical studies and insights from the basic neurosciences have shed important new light on how sleep and Aβ homeostasis may be connected in the setting of AD...
December 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278747/gaba-containing-liposomes-neuroscience-applications-and-translational-perspectives-for-targeting-neurological-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes, Gisele Cristiane Vaz, Thais Zielke Dias Cardoso, Mariana Flávia de Oliveira, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel, Frédéric Frézard
There are multiple challenges for neuropharmacology in the future. Undoubtedly, one of the greatest challenges is the development of strategies for pharmacological targeting of specific brain regions for treatment of diseases. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and dysfunction of GABAergic mechanisms is associated with different neurological conditions. Liposomes are lipid vesicles that are able to encapsulate chemical compounds and are used for chronic drug delivery...
December 23, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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