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System neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441559/hydra-imaging-nerve-nets-in-action
#1
Ni Ji, Steven W Flavell
Mapping whole-brain activity during behavior represents one of the biggest and most exciting challenges of systems neuroscience. New research has taken advantage of the unique biology of an ancient organism to bring us a step closer to that goal.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434869/worms-on-the-spectrum-c-elegans-models-in-autism-research
#2
REVIEW
Kathrin Schmeisser, J Alex Parker
The small non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used in neuroscience thanks to its well-understood development and lineage of the nervous system. Furthermore, C. elegans has been used to model many human developmental and neurological conditions to better understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic strategies. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent of all neurodevelopmental disorders, and the C. elegans system may provide opportunities to learn more about this complex disorder...
April 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434591/oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neural-networks-implications-for-social-behavioral-diversity-and-translational-neuroscience
#3
REVIEW
Zachary V Johnson, Larry J Young
Oxytocin- and vasopressin-related systems are present in invertebrate and vertebrate bilaterian animals, including humans, and exhibit conserved neuroanatomical and functional properties. In vertebrates, these systems innervate conserved neural networks that regulate social learning and behavior, including conspecific recognition, social attachment, and parental behavior. Individual and species-level variation in central organization of oxytocin and vasopressin systems has been linked to individual and species variation in social learning and behavior...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433651/the-surge-of-predatory-open-access-in-neurosciences-and-neurology
#4
Andrea Manca, Gianluca Martinez, Lucia Cugusi, Daniele Dragone, Zeevi Dvir, Franca Deriu
Predatory open access is a controversial publishing business model that exploits the open-access system by charging publication fees in the absence of transparent editorial services. The credibility of academic publishing is now seriously threatened by predatory journals, whose articles are accorded real citations and thus contaminate the genuine scientific records of legitimate journals. This is of particular concern for public health since clinical practice relies on the findings generated by scholarly articles...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#5
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#6
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#7
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422992/the-evolution-of-cost-efficiency-in-neural-networks-during-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Arnab Roy, Rachel A Bernier, Jianli Wang, Monica Benson, Jerry J French, David C Good, Frank G Hillary
A somewhat perplexing finding in the systems neuroscience has been the observation that physical injury to neural systems may result in enhanced functional connectivity (i.e., hyperconnectivity) relative to the typical network response. The consequences of local or global enhancement of functional connectivity remain uncertain and this is particularly true for the overall metabolic cost of the network. We examine the hyperconnectivity hypothesis in a sample of 14 individuals with TBI with data collected at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months following moderate and severe TBI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420985/mapping-dorsal-and-ventral-caudate-in-older-adults-method-and-validation
#9
Haiqing Huang, Peter T Nguyen, Nadine A Schwab, Jared J Tanner, Catherine C Price, Mingzhou Ding
The caudate nucleus plays important roles in cognition and affect. Depending on associated connectivity and function, the caudate can be further divided into dorsal and ventral aspects. Dorsal caudate, highly connected to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is implicated in executive function and working memory; ventral caudate, more interconnected with the limbic system, is implicated in affective functions such as pain processing. Clinically, certain brain disorders are known to differentially impact dorsal and ventral caudate...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420793/regulating-plant-physiology-with-organic-electronics
#10
David J Poxson, Michal Karady, Roger Gabrielsson, Aziz Y Alkattan, Anna Gustavsson, Siamsa M Doyle, Stéphanie Robert, Karin Ljung, Markus Grebe, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418757/visual-circuits-for-direction-selectivity
#11
Alex S Mauss, Anna Vlasits, Alexander Borst, Marla Feller
Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe...
April 18, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416717/essential-neuroscience-in-immunology
#12
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415203/transfer-entropy-in-continuous-time-with-applications-to-jump-and-neural-spiking-processes
#13
Richard E Spinney, Mikhail Prokopenko, Joseph T Lizier
Transfer entropy has been used to quantify the directed flow of information between source and target variables in many complex systems. While transfer entropy was originally formulated in discrete time, in this paper we provide a framework for considering transfer entropy in continuous time systems, based on Radon-Nikodym derivatives between measures of complete path realizations. To describe the information dynamics of individual path realizations, we introduce the pathwise transfer entropy, the expectation of which is the transfer entropy accumulated over a finite time interval...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414078/the-influence-of-the-glutamatergic-system-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth H X Thomas, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Susan L Rossell, Caroline Gurvich
Thomas, E.H.X., K. Bozaoglu, S.L. Rossell and C. Gurvich. The Influence of the Glutamatergic System on Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(1) XXX-XXX, 2016. Previous literature showing the role of the glutamatergic system on cognition in schizophrenia has been inconclusive. 44 relevant pharmacological, candidate gene and neuroimaging studies were identified through systematic search following PRISMA guidelines. To be included, studies must have observed at least one objective measure of cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and either manipulated or measured the glutamatergic system...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414047/a-novel-automated-rodent-tracker-art-demonstrated-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Brett M Hewitt, Moi Hoon Yap, Emma F Hodson-Tole, Aneurin J Kennerley, Paul S Sharp, Robyn A Grant
BACKGROUND: Generating quantitative metrics of rodent locomotion and general behaviours from video footage is important in behavioural neuroscience studies. However, there is not yet a free software system that can process large amounts of video data with minimal user interventions. NEW METHOD: Here we propose a new, automated rodent tracker (ART) that uses a simple rule-based system to quickly and robustly track rodent nose and body points, with minimal user input...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411726/a-wellness-platform-for-stereoscopic-3d-video-systems-using-eeg-based-visual-discomfort-evaluation-technology
#16
Min-Koo Kang, Hohyun Cho, Han-Mu Park, Sung Chan Jun, Kuk-Jin Yoon
Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) video technology have extended the range of our experience while providing various 3D applications to our everyday life. Nevertheless, the so-called visual discomfort (VD) problem inevitably degrades the quality of experience in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) displays. Meanwhile, electroencephalography (EEG) has been regarded as one of the most promising brain imaging modalities in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In an effort to facilitate comfort with S3D displays, we propose a new wellness platform using EEG...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401897/label-free-volumetric-optical-imaging-of-intact-murine-brains
#17
Jian Ren, Heejin Choi, Kwanghun Chung, Brett E Bouma
A central effort of today's neuroscience is to study the brain's 'wiring diagram'. The nervous system is believed to be a network of neurons interacting with each other through synaptic connection between axons and dendrites, therefore the neuronal connectivity map not only depicts the underlying anatomy, but also has important behavioral implications. Different approaches have been utilized to decipher neuronal circuits, including electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). However, these approaches typically demand extensive sectioning and reconstruction for a brain sample...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400103/common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus-as-a-primate-model-for-behavioral-neuroscience-studies
#18
Noeline W Prins, Eric Pohlmeyer, Shubham Debnath, Ramanamurthy Mylavarapu, Shijia Geng, Justin C Sanchez, Daniel Rothen, Abhishek Prasad
BACKGROUND: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been proposed as a suitable bridge between rodents and larger primates. They have been used in several types of research including auditory, vocal, visual, pharmacological and genetics studies. However, marmosets have not been used as much for behavioral studies. NEW METHOD: Here we present data from training 12 adult marmosets for behavioral neuroscience studies. We discuss the husbandry, food preferences, handling, acclimation to laboratory environments and neurosurgical techniques...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399689/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-placebo-effects-concepts-predictions-and-physiology
#19
Stephan Geuter, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures underlying placebo effects...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394252/steroid-hormone-induction-of-temporal-gene-expression-in-drosophila-brain-neuroblasts-generates-neuronal-and-glial-diversity
#20
Mubarak Hussain Syed, Brandon Mark, Chris Q Doe
An important question in neuroscience is how stem cells generate neuronal diversity. During Drosophila embryonic development, neural stem cells (neuroblasts) sequentially express transcription factors that generate neuronal diversity; regulation of the embryonic temporal transcription factor cascade is lineage-intrinsic. In contrast, larval neuroblasts generate longer ~50 division lineages, and currently only one mid-larval molecular transition is known: Chinmo/Imp/Lin-28+ neuroblasts transition to Syncrip+ neuroblasts...
April 10, 2017: ELife
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