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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344933/precision-medicine-the-golden-gate-for-detection-treatment-and-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, J I Castrillo, C Ritchie, K Rojkova, K Broich, N Benda, R Nisticò, R A Frank, B Dubois, V Escott-Price, S Lista
During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy...
December 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344853/snap-a-general-purpose-network-analysis-and-graph-mining-library
#2
Jure Leskovec, Rok Sosič
Large networks are becoming a widely used abstraction for studying complex systems in a broad set of disciplines, ranging from social network analysis to molecular biology and neuroscience. Despite an increasing need to analyze and manipulate large networks, only a limited number of tools are available for this task. Here, we describe Stanford Network Analysis Platform (SNAP), a general-purpose, high-performance system that provides easy to use, high-level operations for analysis and manipulation of large networks...
October 2016: ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337573/neuroimmune-pharmacology-2nd-edition-a-perspective
#3
Harris A Gelbard
It has been almost nine years since the 1st edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology was published on May 23rd, 2008. The 2nd edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology by Ikezu and Gendelman (Editors) with Przedborski, Masliah and Cosentino (Associate Editors) manages to fulfill two separate missions: to provide comprehensive, but highly topical access to a rapidly evolving field and to serve as a standalone reference for scientists and clinicians in need of guidance regarding questions pertinent to neuroimmune pharmacology...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336492/looking-into-the-brain-through-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-evidences
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Emanuel Bubl, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Psychiatry and neuroscience research need novel approaches to indirectly investigate brain function. As the retina is an anatomical and developmental extension of the central nervous system (CNS), changes in retinal function may reflect neurological dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders. The last and most integrated retinal relay before visual information transfer to the brain is the ganglion cell layer. Here, based on collected arguments, we argue that these cells offer a crucial site for indirectly investigating brain function...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333494/taxonomic-and-thematic-semantic-systems
#5
Daniel Mirman, Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Allison E Britt
Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333378/muscle-and-limb-mechanics
#6
George A Tsianos, Gerald E Loeb
Understanding of the musculoskeletal system has evolved from the collection of individual phenomena in highly selected experimental preparations under highly controlled and often unphysiological conditions. At the systems level, it is now possible to construct complete and reasonably accurate models of the kinetics and energetics of realistic muscles and to combine them to understand the dynamics of complete musculoskeletal systems performing natural behaviors. At the reductionist level, it is possible to relate most of the individual phenomena to the anatomical structures and biochemical processes that account for them...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329204/new-neuroscience-tools-that-are-identifying-the-sleep-wake-circuit
#7
Priyattam J Shiromani, John H Peever
The complexity of the brain is yielding to technology. In the area of sleep neurobiology, conventional neuroscience tools such as lesions, cell recordings, c-Fos, and axon-tracing methodologies have been instrumental in identifying the complex and intermingled populations of sleep- and arousal-promoting neurons that orchestrate and generate wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep. In the last decade, new technologies such as optogenetics, chemogenetics and the CRISPR-Cas system have begun to transform how biologists understand the finer details associated with sleep-wake regulation...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326682/nervous-system-development-and-regeneration-in-freshwater-planarians
#8
REVIEW
Kelly G Ross, Ko W Currie, Bret J Pearson, Ricardo M Zayas
Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function...
March 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321973/cortical-and-subcortical-mechanisms-of-brain-machine-interfaces
#9
Silvia Marchesotti, Roberto Martuzzi, Aaron Schurger, Maria Laura Blefari, José R Del Millán, Hannes Bleuler, Olaf Blanke
Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321194/mindfulness-and-emotion-regulation-insights-from-neurobiological-psychological-and-clinical-studies
#10
REVIEW
Simón Guendelman, Sebastián Medeiros, Hagen Rampes
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318531/national-survey-on-postoperative-care-and-treatment-circuits-in-neurosurgery
#11
R Valero, E Carrero, N Fàbregas, F Iturri, N Saiz-Sapena, L Valencia
INTRODUCTION: The analysis of surgical processes should be a standard of health systems. We describe the circuit of care and postoperative treatment for neurosurgical interventions in the centres of our country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June to October 2014, a survey dealing with perioperative treatments and postoperative circuits after neurosurgical procedures was sent to the chiefs of Anaesthesiology of 73 Spanish hospitals with neurosurgery and members of the Neuroscience Section of SEDAR...
March 16, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315272/sigma-receptors-and-substance-use-disorders
#12
Valentina Sabino, Callum Hicks, Pietro Cottone
Thanks to advances in neuroscience, addiction is now recognized as a chronic brain disease with genetic, developmental, and cultural components. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, are able to produce significant neuroplastic changes responsible for the profound disturbances shown by drug addicted individuals. The current lack of efficacious pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders has encouraged the search for novel and more effective pharmacotherapies. Growing evidence strongly suggests that Sigma Receptors are involved in the addictive and neurotoxic properties of abused drugs, including cocaine , methamphetamine , and alcohol...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303479/testing-the-generality-of-the-zoom-lens-model-evidence-for-visual-pathway-specific-effects-of-attended-region-size-on-perception
#13
Stephanie C Goodhew, Rebecca K Lawrence, Mark Edwards
There are volumes of information available to process in visual scenes. Visual spatial attention is a critically important selection mechanism that prevents these volumes from overwhelming our visual system's limited-capacity processing resources. We were interested in understanding the effect of the size of the attended area on visual perception. The prevailing model of attended-region size across cognition, perception, and neuroscience is the zoom-lens model. This model stipulates that the magnitude of perceptual processing enhancement is inversely related to the size of the attended region, such that a narrow attended-region facilitates greater perceptual enhancement than a wider region...
March 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303019/integration-of-optogenetics-with-complementary-methodologies-in-systems-neuroscience
#14
REVIEW
Christina K Kim, Avishek Adhikari, Karl Deisseroth
Modern optogenetics can be tuned to evoke activity that corresponds to naturally occurring local or global activity in timing, magnitude or individual-cell patterning. This outcome has been facilitated not only by the development of core features of optogenetics over the past 10 years (microbial-opsin variants, opsin-targeting strategies and light-targeting devices) but also by the recent integration of optogenetics with complementary technologies, spanning electrophysiology, activity imaging and anatomical methods for structural and molecular analysis...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#15
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299187/engaging-high-school-students-in-systems-biology%C3%A2-through-an-e-internship-program
#16
Wim E Crusio, Cynthia Rubino, Anna Delprato
In this article, we describe the design and implementation of an e-internship program that BioScience Project offers high school students over the summer. Project topics are in the areas of behavioral neuroscience and brain disorders. All research, teaching, and communication is done online using open access databases and webtools, a learning management system, and Google apps. Students conduct all aspects of a research project from formulating a question to collecting and analyzing the data, to presenting their results in the form of a scientific poster...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286989/a-precision-medicine-initiative-for-alzheimer-s-disease-the-road-ahead-to-biomarker-guided-integrative-disease-modeling
#17
REVIEW
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, S Durrleman, E Younesi, K Rojkova, V Escott-Price, J-C Corvol, K Broich, B Dubois, S Lista
After intense scientific exploration and more than a decade of failed trials, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a fatal global epidemic. A traditional research and drug development paradigm continues to target heterogeneous late-stage clinically phenotyped patients with single 'magic bullet' drugs. Here, we propose that it is time for a paradigm shift towards the implementation of precision medicine (PM) for enhanced risk screening, detection, treatment, and prevention of AD. The overarching structure of how PM for AD can be achieved will be provided through the convergence of breakthrough technological advances, including big data science, systems biology, genomic sequencing, blood-based biomarkers, integrated disease modeling and P4 medicine...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286202/using-a-real-time-location-system-for-assessment-of-patient-ambulation-in-a-hospital-setting
#18
In Cheol Jeong, David Bychkov, Stephanie Hiser, Julie Kreif, Lisa Klein, Erik Hoyer, Peter Searson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using an infrared-based Real Time Location System (RTLS) for measuring patient ambulation in a two minute walk test (2MWT) by comparing distance walked and Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) score to clinician observation as a criterion standard. DESIGN: Criterion standard validation study. SETTING: Inpatient, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: 25 Adult Neuroscience/Brain Rescue Unit patients INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: RTLS and clinician reported ambulation distance in feet and JH-HLM score on an 8-point ordinal scale...
March 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284238/applying-current-concepts-in-pain-related-brain-science-to-dance-rehabilitation
#19
Sarah B Wallwork, Valeria Bellan, G Lorimer Moseley
Dance involves exemplary sensory-motor control, which is subserved by sophisticated neural processing at the spinal cord and brain level. Such neural processing is altered in the presence of nociception and pain, and the adaptations within the central nervous system that are known to occur with persistent nociception or pain have clear implications for movement and, indeed, risk of further injury. Recent rapid advances in our understanding of the brain's representation of the body and the role of cortical representations, or "neurotags," in bodily protection and regulation have given rise to new strategies that are gaining traction in sports medicine...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284237/interpreting-pain-symptoms-and-how-pain-affects-neuromuscular-control-in-dancersif-i-m-in-pain-how-should-i-train
#20
Andrew P Claus, David A Macdonald
This review draws from leading research on pain neuroscience and control of posture and movement to help inform rehabilitation approaches and when it may or may not be prudent to "dance through" pain. Control of posture and movement is frequently distorted by pain perception, and that may not be altered even when the pain is resolved. It is important to exclude serious systemic disease or major tissue injury with severe, unremitting, or persistent symptoms before focusing on movement-based rehabilitation. Both specific exercises (contraction of specific muscles and use of movement techniques) and general exercises (which promote strength, power, endurance, and flexibility) can help to manage individuals with persistent pain problems...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
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