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System neuroscience

Peter R Bieck, Mark Leibowitz, D Richard Lachno, Edouard Ledent, Robert Padich, Stan Jhee
To assess the primary metabolite of norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), as a sensitive biomarker for norepinephrine transporter (NET) function and the relationship of DHPG measured peripherally and centrally, NET was antagonized with 80 mg/d atomoxetine for 18 days. Twelve healthy subjects were treated with atomoxetine in an open-label, multiple-dose exploratory study. Plasma atomoxetine reached steady state by day 6, and the pharmacokinetic results demonstrated availability of atomoxetine to the central nervous system...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Braden A W Brinkman, Alison I Weber, Fred Rieke, Eric Shea-Brown
Neural circuits reliably encode and transmit signals despite the presence of noise at multiple stages of processing. The efficient coding hypothesis, a guiding principle in computational neuroscience, suggests that a neuron or population of neurons allocates its limited range of responses as efficiently as possible to best encode inputs while mitigating the effects of noise. Previous work on this question relies on specific assumptions about where noise enters a circuit, limiting the generality of the resulting conclusions...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Bethany Lusch, Pedro D Maia, J Nathan Kutz
Determining the interactions and causal relationships between nodes in an unknown networked dynamical system from measurement data alone is a challenging, contemporary task across the physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Statistical methods, such as the increasingly popular Granger causality, are being broadly applied for data-driven discovery of connectivity in fields from economics to neuroscience. A common version of the algorithm is called pairwise-conditional Granger causality, which we systematically test on data generated from a nonlinear model with known causal network structure...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Steven J Eliades, Cory T Miller
There has been recent increasing interest in the use of marmosets, a New World primate species, as a model in biomedical research. One of the principal advantages of marmosets as a research model is their rich vocal repertoire and communicative vocal behaviors displayed both in the wild and in captivity. Studies of this species' vocal communication system have the potential to reveal the evolutionary underpinnings of human speech, and therefore are of interest to the neuroscience and biology research communities...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Bart Ellenbroek, Jiun Youn
Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, Jonathan R Polimeni
Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J David Smith, Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Jennifer M Johnson, Jeanette C Valleau
Categorization's great debate has weighed single-system exemplar theory against the possibility of alternative processing systems. We take an evolutionary perspective toward this debate to illuminate it in a new way. Animals are crucial behavioral ambassadors to this area. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, and the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. These results have joined neuroscience results to prompt important changes in categorization theory...
August 2016: Current Directions in Psychological Science
Francisco L Colino, Ji-Hang Lee, Gordon Binsted
A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector...
October 8, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia, Xabier E Barandiaran
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
D Gowanlock R Tervo, Bum-Yeol Hwang, Sarada Viswanathan, Thomas Gaj, Maria Lavzin, Kimberly D Ritola, Sarah Lindo, Susan Michael, Elena Kuleshova, David Ojala, Cheng-Chiu Huang, Charles R Gerfen, Jackie Schiller, Joshua T Dudman, Adam W Hantman, Loren L Looger, David V Schaffer, Alla Y Karpova
Efficient retrograde access to projection neurons for the delivery of sensors and effectors constitutes an important and enabling capability for neural circuit dissection. Such an approach would also be useful for gene therapy, including the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by pathological spread through functionally connected and highly distributed networks. Viral vectors, in particular, are powerful gene delivery vehicles for the nervous system, but all available tools suffer from inefficient retrograde transport or limited clinical potential...
October 6, 2016: Neuron
Donald B Katz, Leslie M Kay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Alejandro D Roth, Marco T Núñez
The study of the metabolic interactions between myelinating glia and the axons they ensheath has blossomed into an area of research much akin to the elucidation of the role of astrocytes in tripartite synapses (Tsacopoulos and Magistretti in J Neurosci 16:877-885, 1996). Still, unlike astrocytes, rich in cytochrome-P450 and other anti-oxidative defense mechanisms (Minn et al. in Brain Res Brain Res Rev 16:65-82, 1991; Wilson in Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 75:1149-1163, 1997), oligodendrocytes can be easily damaged and are particularly sensitive to both hypoxia and oxidative stress, especially during their terminal differentiation phase and while generating myelin sheaths...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jesus Minguillon, Miguel A Lopez-Gordo, Francisco Pelayo
Stress assessment has been under study in the last years. Both biochemical and physiological markers have been used to measure stress level. In neuroscience, several studies have related modification of stress level to brain activity changes in limbic system and frontal regions, by using non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). In particular, previous studies suggested that the exhibition or inhibition of certain brain rhythms in frontal cortical areas indicates stress...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Israel Liberzon, James L Abelson
Progress in clinical and affective neuroscience is redefining psychiatric illness as symptomatic expression of cellular/molecular dysfunctions in specific brain circuits. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been an exemplar of this progress, with improved understanding of neurobiological systems subserving fear learning, salience detection, and emotion regulation explaining much of its phenomenology and neurobiology. However, many features remain unexplained and a parsimonious model that more fully accounts for symptoms and the core neurobiology remains elusive...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Malte R Schomers, Friedemann Pulvermüller
In the neuroscience of language, phonemes are frequently described as multimodal units whose neuronal representations are distributed across perisylvian cortical regions, including auditory and sensorimotor areas. A different position views phonemes primarily as acoustic entities with posterior temporal localization, which are functionally independent from frontoparietal articulatory programs. To address this current controversy, we here discuss experimental results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicola Schiel, Antonio Souto
Callithrix jacchus are small-bodied Neotropical primates popularly known as common marmosets. They are endemic to Northeast Brazil and occur in contrasting environments such as the humid Atlantic Forest and the dry scrub forest of the Caatinga. Common marmosets live in social groups, usually containing only one breeding pair. These primates have a parental care system in which individuals help by providing assistance to the infants even when they are not related to them. Free-ranging groups use relatively small home ranges (0...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
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