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System neuroscience

Jinkwon Jun, Soyoung Yoo
Neuroscientific imaging evidence (NIE) has become an integral part of the criminal justice system in the United States. However, in most legal cases, NIE is submitted and used only to mitigate penalties because the court does not recognize it as substantial evidence, considering its lack of reliability. Nevertheless, we here discuss how neuroscience is expected to improve the use of NIE in the legal system. For this purpose, we classified the efforts of neuroscientists into three research strategies: cognitive subtraction, the data-driven approach, and the brain-manipulation approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
T Labbé Atenas, E Ciampi Díaz, J P Cruz Quiroga, S Uribe Arancibia, C Cárcamo Rodríguez
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an advanced tool for the study of brain functions in healthy subjects and in neuropsychiatric patients. This tool makes it possible to identify and locate specific phenomena related to neuronal metabolism and activity. Starting with the detection of changes in the blood supply to a region that participates in a function, more complex approaches have been developed to study the dynamics of neuronal networks. Studies examining the brain at rest or involved in different tasks have provided evidence related to the onset, development, and/or response to treatment in various diseases...
March 12, 2018: Radiología
Camille Jeunet, Louis Albert, Ferran Argelaguet, Anatole Lecuyer
While the Sense of Agency (SoA) has so far been predominantly characterised in VR as a component of the Sense of Embodiment, other communities (e.g., in psychology or neurosciences) have investigated the SoA from a different perspective proposing complementary theories. Yet, despite the acknowledged potential benefits of catching up with these theories a gap remains. This paper first aims to contribute to fill this gap by introducing a theory according to which the SoA can be divided into two components, the feeling and the judgment of agency, and relies on three principles, namely the principles of priority, exclusivity and consistency...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Coline Jeantet, Stéphanie Caharel, Raymund Schwan, Joëlle Lighezzolo-Alnot, Vincent Laprevote
JEANTET, C., Caharel, S., Schwan, R., Lighezzolo-Alnot, J., and Laprevote, V. Factors influencing spatial frequencies extraction in faces: a review. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2017. Spatial frequency is an elementary aspect of visual perception. Moreover, faces elicit distinct responses by the human visual system when compared to other visual objects. This review examines the factors influencing spatial frequency processing in faces. Visual perception of a face results from the interaction between the physical properties of the stimulus and the human visual system...
March 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
François-Xavier Ferracci, Hugues Duffau
Radical glioma resection improves overall survival, both in low-grade and high-grade glial tumors. However, preservation of the quality of life is also crucial. Areas covered: Due to the diffuse feature of gliomas, which invade the central nervous system, and due to considerable variations of brain organization among patients, an individual cerebral mapping is mandatory to solve the classical dilemma between the oncological and functional issues. Because functional neuroimaging is not reliable enough, intraoperative electrical stimulation, especially in awake patients benefiting from a real-time cognitive monitoring, is the best way to increase the extent of resection while sparing eloquent neural networks...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Jonathan R I Coleman, Julien Bryois, Héléna A Gaspar, Philip R Jansen, Jeanne E Savage, Nathan Skene, Robert Plomin, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Sten Linnarsson, Greg Crawford, Jens Hjerling-Leffler, Patrick F Sullivan, Danielle Posthuma, Gerome Breen
Variance in IQ is associated with a wide range of health outcomes, and 1% of the population are affected by intellectual disability. Despite a century of research, the fundamental neural underpinnings of intelligence remain unclear. We integrate results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of intelligence with brain tissue and single cell gene expression data to identify tissues and cell types associated with intelligence. GWAS data for IQ (N = 78,308) were meta-analyzed with a study comparing 1247 individuals with mean IQ ~170 to 8185 controls...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Ingvild E Bjerke, Martin Øvsthus, Eszter A Papp, Sharon C Yates, Ludovico Silvestri, Julien Fiorilli, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Francesco S Pavone, Maja A Puchades, Trygve B Leergaard, Jan G Bjaalie
The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed...
March 5, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
K C Brennan, Daniela Pietrobon
Migraine is an extremely common but poorly understood nervous system disorder. We conceptualize migraine as a disorder of sensory network gain and plasticity, and we propose that this framing makes it amenable to the tools of current systems neuroscience.
March 7, 2018: Neuron
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Mychal S Grames, Robert D Dayton, Kasey L Jackson, Adam D Richard, Xiaohong Lu, Ronald L Klein
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a popular genetic approach in neuroscience because they confer such efficient transgene expression in the brain and spinal cord. A number of studies have used AAV to express pathological disease-related proteins in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in situ ( e.g., α-synuclein to model aspects of Parkinson's disease). The neuropathology and neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease occur in a circumscribed pattern in the brain, and one of the most important goals of any gene transfer study is accurate, pinpoint targeting...
March 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
George A Mashour, Max B Kelz
The mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness remain incompletely understood. A recent study reveals that activation of glutamatergic neurons in the lateral habenula plays a causal role in general anesthesia. We explore the systems neuroscience implications of this finding.
March 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Yong Sun, Jinpeng Ma, Jürgen Kurths, Meng Zhan
The classic equal-area criterion (EAC) is of key importance in power system analysis, and provides a powerful, pictorial and quantitative means of analysing transient stability (i.e. the system's ability to maintain stable operation when subjected to a large disturbance). Based on the traditional EAC, it is common sense in engineering that there is a critical cleaning time (CCT); namely, a power system is stable (unstable) if a fault is cleared before (after) this CCT. We regard this form of CCT as bipartite...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jeffrey J Olney, Shelley M Warlow, Erin E Naffziger, Kent C Berridge
Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Here we focus on current 'liking' and 'wanting' findings and applications to clinical disorders. 'Liking' is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete sites located in limbic-related brain areas. 'Wanting' refers to incentive salience, a motivation process for reward, and is mediated by larger systems involving mesocorticolimbic dopamine...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Hillel Adesnik
A pair of 2009 papers by Cardin et al. and Sohal et al. marked a watershed moment as optogenetics exploded onto the scene of systems neuroscience. This pair of back-to-back papers in the June issue of Nature leveraged a powerful combination of the Cre/lox system, adeno-associated viral gene vectors, and optogenetics to re-examine the circuit basis of neuronal synchronization.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Paul Shapshak
From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution...
2018: Bioinformation
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