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System neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774002/on-the-drive-specificity-of-freudian-drives-for-the-generation-of-seeking-activities-the-importance-of-the-underestimated-imperative-motor-factor
#1
Michael Kirsch, Wolfgang Mertens
Doubters of Freud's theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#2
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768185/a-simple-inexpensive-method-for-subcortical-stereotactic-targeting-in-nonhuman-primates
#3
J Nicole Bentley, Siri S S Khalsa, Michael Kobylarek, Karen E Schroeder, Kevin Chen, Ingrid L Bergin, Derek M Tat, Cynthia A Chestek, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND: Many current neuroscience studies in large animal models have focused on recordings from cortical structures. While sufficient for analyzing sensorimotor systems, many processes are modulated by subcortical nuclei. Large animal models, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), provide an optimal model for studying these circuits, but the ability to target subcortical structures has been hampered by lack of a straightforward approach to targeting. NEW METHOD: Here we present a method of subcortical targeting in NHP that uses MRI-compatible titanium screws as fiducials...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766913/telemedicine-and-neurosciences
#4
Krishnan Ganapathy
It is well documented that there is an acute shortage of neurologists and neurosurgeons in India and globally. Despite all efforts, it will be impossible to make available neurospecialists in all suburban and rural areas. Simultaneously, there has been an exponential increase in the growth and development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Plummeting costs and unbelievable sophistication in the availability of user-friendly mobile video conferencing devices is making distance meaningless. Geography has become History! Worldwide, the ultraconservative health care industry, in particular, the medical community, has been uniformly slow to adopt and embrace the use of ICT to extend their clinical reach...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765315/challenges-in-reproducibility-replicability-and-comparability-of-computational-models-and-tools-for-neuronal-and-glial-networks-cells-and-subcellular-structures
#5
Tiina Manninen, Jugoslava Aćimović, Riikka Havela, Heidi Teppola, Marja-Leena Linne
The possibility to replicate and reproduce published research results is one of the biggest challenges in all areas of science. In computational neuroscience, there are thousands of models available. However, it is rarely possible to reimplement the models based on the information in the original publication, let alone rerun the models just because the model implementations have not been made publicly available. We evaluate and discuss the comparability of a versatile choice of simulation tools: tools for biochemical reactions and spiking neuronal networks, and relatively new tools for growth in cell cultures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763744/characterization-of-electroencephalography-signals-for-estimating-saliency-features-in-videos
#6
Zhen Liang, Yasuyuki Hamada, Shigeyuki Oba, Shin Ishii
Understanding the functions of the visual system has been one of the major targets in neuroscience formany years. However, the relation between spontaneous brain activities and visual saliency in natural stimuli has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we developed an optimized machine learning-based decoding model to explore the possible relationships between the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics and visual saliency. The optimal features were extracted from the EEG signals and saliency map which was computed according to an unsupervised saliency model ( Tavakoli and Laaksonen, 2017)...
May 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#7
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760527/prefrontal-cortex-as-a-meta-reinforcement-learning-system
#8
Jane X Wang, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Dharshan Kumaran, Dhruva Tirumala, Hubert Soyer, Joel Z Leibo, Demis Hassabis, Matthew Botvinick
Over the past 20 years, neuroscience research on reward-based learning has converged on a canonical model, under which the neurotransmitter dopamine 'stamps in' associations between situations, actions and rewards by modulating the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. However, a growing number of recent findings have placed this standard model under strain. We now draw on recent advances in artificial intelligence to introduce a new theory of reward-based learning. Here, the dopamine system trains another part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, to operate as its own free-standing learning system...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757270/establishing-mouse-models-for-zika-virus-induced-neurological-disorders-using-intracerebral-injection-strategies-embryonic-neonatal-and-adult
#9
Stephanie A Herrlinger, Qiang Shao, Li Ma, Melinda Brindley, Jian-Fu Chen
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus currently endemic in North, Central, and South America. It is now established that the ZIKV can cause microcephaly and additional brain abnormalities. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ZIKV in the developing brain remains unclear. Intracerebral surgical methods are frequently used in neuroscience research to address questions about both normal and abnormal brain development and brain function. This protocol utilizes classical surgical techniques and describes methods that allow one to model ZIKV-associated human neurological disease in the mouse nervous system...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#10
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742814/optogenetic-stimulation-understanding-memory-and-treating-deficits
#11
S C Barnett, B A L Perry, J C Dalrymple-Alford, L C Parr-Brownlie
Technology allowing genetically targeted cells to be modulated by light has revolutionised neuroscience in the past decade, and given rise to the field of optogenetic stimulation. For this, non-native, light activated proteins (e.g. channelrhodopsin) are expressed in a specific cell phenotype (e.g. glutamatergic neurons) in a subset of central nervous system nuclei, and short pulses of light of a narrow wavelength (e.g. blue, 473 nm) are used to modulate cell activity. Cell activity can be increased or decreased depending on which light activated protein is used...
May 9, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742572/development-of-human-face-literature-database-using-text-mining-approach-phase-i
#12
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma
The face is an important part of the human body by which an individual communicates in the society. Its importance can be highlighted by the fact that a person deprived of face cannot sustain in the living world. The amount of experiments being performed and the number of research papers being published under the domain of human face have surged in the past few decades. Several scientific disciplines, which are conducting research on human face include: Medical Science, Anthropology, Information Technology (Biometrics, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence, etc...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738987/single-cell-transcriptomics-in-neuroscience-cell-classification-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Bosiljka Tasic
Biology has been facing a daunting problem since the cell was understood to be the building block of metazoans: how do we study multicellular systems, when a universal approach to characterize their building blocks and classify them does not exist? Metazoan diversity has not helped: there are many model and non-model organisms, developmental and adult stages, healthy and diseased states. Here, I review the application of single cell transcriptomics to cell classification in neuroscience and its corollaries: the differentially expressed genes discovered in this process are a treasure trove for understanding cell type function and enabling specific access to those types...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738986/neural-data-science-accelerating-the-experiment-analysis-theory-cycle-in-large-scale-neuroscience
#14
REVIEW
L Paninski, J P Cunningham
Modern large-scale multineuronal recording methodologies, including multielectrode arrays, calcium imaging, and optogenetic techniques, produce single-neuron resolution data of a magnitude and precision that were the realm of science fiction twenty years ago. The major bottlenecks in systems and circuit neuroscience no longer lie in simply collecting data from large neural populations, but also in understanding this data: developing novel scientific questions, with corresponding analysis techniques and experimental designs to fully harness these new capabilities and meaningfully interrogate these questions...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733956/patterns-of-thought-population-variation-in-the-associations-between-large-scale-network-organisation-and-self-reported-experiences-at-rest
#15
Hao-Ting Wang, Danilo Bzdok, Daniel Margulies, Cameron Craddock, Michael Milham, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Contemporary cognitive neuroscience recognises unconstrained processing varies across individuals, describing variation in meaningful attributes, such as intelligence. It may also have links to patterns of on-going experience. This study examined whether dimensions of population variation in different modes of unconstrained processing can be described by the associations between patterns of neural activity and self-reports of experience during the same period. We selected 258 individuals from a publicly available data set who had measures of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and self-reports of experience during the scan...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733950/recent-advances-in-carrier-mediated-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-pharmaceutics
#16
REVIEW
Vassilis Bourganis, Olga Kammona, Aleck Alexopoulos, Costas Kiparissides
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, etc.) represent a growing public health issue, primarily due to the increased life expectancy and the aging population. The treatment of such disorders is notably elaborate and requires the delivery of therapeutics to the brain in appropriate amounts to elicit a pharmacological response. However, despite the major advances both in neuroscience and drug delivery research, the administration of drugs to the CNS still remains elusive...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729527/the-hippocampus-in-depth-a-sublayer-specific-perspective-of-entorhinal-hippocampal-function
#17
REVIEW
Manuel Valero, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Understanding how the brain represents events is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The entorhinal-hippocampal system is central to such representations, which are severely compromised in some neurological diseases. In spite of much progress, a comprehensive, integrated view of spatial, temporal and other aspects of episodic representation remains elusive. Here, we review recent data on the role of cell-type specific entorhinal inputs which excite deep and superficial CA1 pyramidal cells by direct and indirect pathways...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727596/the-accessory-olfactory-system-innately-specialized-or-microcosm-of-mammalian-circuitry
#18
Timothy E Holy
In mammals, the accessory olfactory system is a distinct circuit that has received attention for its role in detecting and responding to pheromones. While the neuroscientific investigation of this system is comparatively new, recent advances and its compact size have made it an attractive model for developing an end-to-end understanding of such questions as regulation of essential behaviors, plasticity, and individual recognition. Recent discoveries have indicated a need to reevaluate our conception of this system, suggesting that (a) physical principles-rather than biological necessity-play an underappreciated role in its raison d'être and that (b) the anatomy of downstream projections is not dominated by unique specializations but instead consists of an abbreviated cortical/basal ganglia motif reminiscent of other sensorimotor systems...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#19
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724119/stating-asymmetry-in-neural-pathways-methodological-trends-in-autonomic-neuroscience
#20
Carlos Henrique Xavier, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Elder Sales da Silva, Danielle Ianzer, Diego Basile Colugnati, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Many particularities concerning interhemispheric differences still need to be explored and unveiled. Functional and anatomical differential features found between left and right brain sides are best known as asymmetries and are consequence of the unilateral neuronal recruitment or predominance that is set to organize some function. The outflow from different neural pathways involved in the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system may route through asymmetrically relayed efferences (ipsilateral/lateralized and/or contralateral)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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