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Embryo culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213560/identification-of-putative-substrates-of-sec2-a-chloroplast-inner-envelope-translocase
#1
Yubing Li, Jonathan R Martin, Giovanni A Aldama, Donna E Fernandez, Kenneth Cline
Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into chloroplasts. Many imported proteins are further targeted to the thylakoid membrane and lumen by the SEC1, TAT or SRP/ALB3 translocases. Others are targeted to the inner chloroplast envelope membrane by un-described translocase(s). Recently, a second SEC system (SEC2) consisting of SCY2, SECE2, and SECA2 was found in the chloroplast envelope. Null mutants of SCY2 in Arabidopsis exhibit a severe embryo lethal phenotype. To investigate the function of SEC2 system in plants, we used inducible RNAi to knockdown SCY2 in Arabidopsis...
February 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194463/improved-bovine-embryo-production-in-an-oviduct-on-a-chip-system-prevention-of-poly-spermic-fertilization-and-parthenogenic-activation
#2
Marcia A M M Ferraz, Heiko H W Henning, Pedro F Costa, Jos Malda, Ferry P Melchels, R Wubbolts, Tom A E Stout, Peter L A M Vos, Bart M Gadella
The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to develop a more physiological in vitro oviduct culture system capable of supporting fertilization. U-shaped chambers were produced using stereo-lithography and mounted with polycarbonate membranes, which were used as culture inserts for primary BOECs...
February 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193316/polydatin-improves-the-developmental-competence-of-bovine-embryos-in-vitro-via-induction-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#3
Imran Khan, Sung Woo Kim, Kyung-Lim Lee, Seok-Hwan Song, Ayman Mesalam, M M R Chowdhury, Zia Uddin, Ki Hun Park, Il-Keun Kong
The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of polydatin (PD), the glycoside form of resveratrol, on embryo development in vitro. Oocytes were aspirated from ovaries of Korean Hanwoo cows and cultured until Day 8 in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.5°C. Protein and gene expression levels were determined through confocal microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively, whereas the number of total and apoptotic cells in Day 8 blastocysts was determined using Hoechst 33342 staining and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling...
February 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192181/in-vitro-development-of-zebrafish-vascular-networks
#4
Muhammad Ibrahim, Michael K Richardson
A major limitation to culturing tissues and organs is the lack of a functional vascular network in vitro. The zebrafish possess many useful properties which makes it a promising model for such studies. Unfortunately, methods of culturing endothelial cells from this species are not well characterised. Here, we tried two methods (embryoid body culture and organ explants from transgenic zebrafish kdrl:GFP embryos) to develop in vitro vascular networks. In the kdrl:GFP line, endothelial cells expresses green fluorescent protein, which allows to track the vascular development in live cultures...
February 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191261/global-dna-methylation-levels-are-altered-by-modifiable-clinical-manipulations-in-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#5
Jayashri Ghosh, Christos Coutifaris, Carmen Sapienza, Monica Mainigi
BACKGROUND: We analyzed placental DNA methylation levels at repeated sequences (LINE1 elements) and all CCGG sites (the LUMA assay) to study the effect of modifiable clinical or laboratory procedures involved in in vitro fertilization. We included four potential modifiable factors: oxygen tension during embryo culture, fresh embryo transfer vs frozen embryo transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) vs conventional insemination or day 3 embryo transfer vs day 5 embryo transfer...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185855/biphasic-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-glucose-induced-dysmorphogenesis-and-lipoperoxidation-in-whole-rat-embryo-in-culture
#6
Gladys Chirino-Galindo, Jorge-Israel Barrera-Argüelles, Ninna-Leslie Trejo-González, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda, Martín Palomar-Morales
Type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with pregnancy, know as diabetic embryopathy, is the cause of neonatal malformations and low for gestational age neonates. With the use of the whole-embryo culture system, it has been demonstrated that high glucose causes embryo dysmorphogenesis, and that oxidative stress appears to be the main mechanism. In recent years, beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been demonstrated in various diabetic models, and in diabetic complications. Since diabetic embryopathy is mediated probably through membrane lipoperoxidation, This study was designed to find if omega-3 fatty acids could ameliorate the effect of high glucose over the dysmorphogenesis of whole rat embryo in culture...
February 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181558/an-air-liquid-interphase-approach-for-modeling-the-early-embryo-maternal-contact-zone
#7
S Chen, S E Palma-Vera, M Langhammer, S P Galuska, B C Braun, E Krause, A Lucas-Hahn, J Schoen
We developed an air-liquid interphase culture procedure for mammalian oviduct epithelial cells leading to the formation of functional epithelial tissues, which generate oviduct fluid surrogates. These in vitro oviduct epithelia can be co-cultured with living zygotes and enable embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage without addition of embryo culture medium. The described strategy is broadly applicable to analyze early embryo-maternal interactions under standardized in vitro conditions.
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181051/oxygen-tension-in-embryo-culture-does-a-shift-to-2-o2-in-extended-culture-represent-the-most-physiologic-system
#8
REVIEW
Scott J Morin
There has been much debate regarding the optimal oxygen tension in clinical embryo culture. The majority of the literature to date has compared 5% oxygen to atmospheric levels (20-21%). While the majority of modern IVF labs have accepted the superiority of 5% oxygen tension, a new debate has emerged regarding whether a further reduction after day 3 of development represents the most physiologic system. This new avenue of research is based on the premise that oxygen tension is in fact lower in the uterus than in the oviduct and that the embryo crosses the uterotubal junction sometime on day 3...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179430/polydom-is-an-extracellular-matrix-protein-involved-in-lymphatic-vessel-remodeling
#9
Nanami Morooka, Sugiko Futaki, Ryoko Sato-Nishiuchi, Masafumi Nishino, Yuta Totani, Chisei Shimono, Itsuko Nakano, Hiroyuki Nakajima, Naoki Mochizuki, Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi
: Rationale: Lymphatic vasculature constitutes a second vascular system, essential for immune surveillance and tissue fluid homeostasis. Maturation of the hierarchical vascular structure, with a highly-branched network of capillaries and ducts, is crucial for its function. Environmental cues mediate the remodeling process, but the mechanism that underlies this process is largely unknown. Objective: Polydom (also called Svep1) is an extracellular matrix protein identified as a high-affinity ligand for integrin α9β1...
February 8, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177135/unveiling-and-initial-characterization-of-neural-crest-like-cells-in-mesenchymal-populations-from-the-human-periodontal-ligament
#10
L Ramírez-García, R Cevallos, K Gazarian
OBJECTIVE: To identify cells with neural crest properties in mesenchymal populations isolated from human periodontal ligament. BACKGROUND: Evidence from tracing experiments on animal embryos revealed proof that dental tissues are among the homing sites of craniofacial neural crest migratory cells. In humans, similar migratory cells were found in early embryos, but whether these cells are progeny of oral multipotent stem cells needs to be confirmed. Searching for the cells with neural crest characteristics in periodontal ligament mesenchymal populations can lead to a solution to the problem...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175302/assessment-of-one-step-versus-sequential-embryo-culture-conditions-through-embryonic-genome-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-changes
#11
J Salvaing, N Peynot, M N Bedhane, S Veniel, E Pellier, C Boulesteix, N Beaujean, N Daniel, V Duranthon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169188/clinical-outcomes-after-ivf-or-icsi-using-human-blastocysts-derived-from-oocytes-containing-aggregates-of-smooth-endoplasmic-reticulum
#12
Fumiaki Itoi, Yukiko Asano, Masashi Shimizu, Rika Nagai, Kanako Saitou, Hiroyuki Honnma, Yasutaka Murata
In this study the clinical and neo-natal outcomes after transfer of blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were compared between IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Clinical and neo-natal outcomes of blastocysts in cycles with at least one SER metaphase II oocyte (SER + MII; SER + cycles) did not significantly differ between the two insemination methods. When SER + MII were cultured to day 5/6, fertilization, embryo cleavage and blastocyst rates were not significantly different between IVF and ICSI cycles...
January 25, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167106/the-antioxidant-action-and-mechanism-of-selenizing-schisandra-chinensis-polysaccharide-in-chicken-embryo-hepatocyte
#13
Chanjuan Yue, Jin Chen, Ranran Hou, Weijun Tian, Kuanhui Liu, Deyun Wang, Yu Lu, Jiaguo Liu, Yi Wu, Yuanliang Hu
The antioxidant action and mechanism of selenizing schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (sSCP) were investigated in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) taking schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as control. The CEH was cultured and treated with sSCP, then exposed to H2O2. The CEHs' viability, apoptosis, ROS and antioxidase contents and the protein expression in MAPKs pathway and mitochondrion-dependence apoptotic signal pathway were assayed. The results showed that sSCP could significantly raise the cell viability and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px, decrease the cell apoptosis and the content of LDH, AST, ALT and MDA, down-regulate the protein expression of p-JNK1, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, Bax, Caspase 3 and cytochrome C, and up-regulate the protein expression of Bcl-2 in comparison with H2O2 control group...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166976/biopsy-of-bovine-embryos-produced-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-does-not-affect-pregnancy-rates
#14
Regivaldo Vieira de Sousa, Célia Regina da Silva Cardoso, Guilberth Butzke, Margot Alves Nunes Dode, Rodolfo Rumpf, Maurício Machaim Franco
Assisted reproductive techniques have significantly contributed to animal breeding programs. Similarly, genomics has provided important information and tools to improve the accuracy of selection. However, the greatest benefits of those tools can only be expected when they are combined, allowing animals to be selected accurately early in life. Therefore, obtaining DNA samples from embryos without compromising their viability is essential for the consolidation of preimplantation genomic selection. We aimed to evaluate the effect on the gestation rate of conducting a biopsy of in vivo (VV) and in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166962/expression-and-localization-of-artemin-in-the-bovine-uterus-and-embryos
#15
E Gómez, D Martin, S Carrocera, M J Sánchez-Calabuig, A Gutierrez-Adán, M Alonso-Guervos, N Peynot, C Giraud-Delville, O Sandra, V Duranthon, M Muñoz
Artemin a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family is present in mice and human preimplantation embryos, and reproductive tract, during early pregnancy promoting embryo development in vitro. The presence of artemin in cattle embryos and reproductive tract, however, is unknown. In the present work we identified for first time artemin in bovine uterine fluid (UF) (Western blot), endometrium (RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry) and embryos (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry) during early preimplantation development...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165496/small-rna-directed-epigenetic-programming-of-embryonic-stem-cell-cardiac-differentiation
#16
Hossein Ghanbarian, Nicole Wagner, Jean-François Michiels, François Cuzin, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
Microinjection of small noncoding RNAs in one-cell embryos was reported in several instances to result in transcriptional activation of target genes. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved and to explore whether such epigenetic regulations could play a role in early development, we used a cell culture system as close as possible to the embryonic state. We report efficient cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells induced by small non-coding RNAs with sequences of Cdk9, a key player in cardiomyocyte differentiation...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163589/development-of-plants-resistant-to-papaya-leaf-distortion-mosaic-virus-by-intergeneric-hybridization-between-carica-papaya-and-vasconcellea-cundinamarcensis
#17
Kazuhiko Tarora, Ayano Shudo, Shinji Kawano, Keiji Yasuda, Hiroki Ueno, Hideo Matsumura, Naoya Urasaki
In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161857/on-developing-a-thesis-for-reproductive-endocrinology-and-infertility-fellowship-a-case-study-of-ultra-low-2-oxygen-tension-for-extended-culture-of-human-embryos
#18
REVIEW
Daniel J Kaser
Fellows in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility training are expected to complete 18 months of clinical, basic, or epidemiological research. The goal of this research is not only to provide the basis for the thesis section of the oral board exam but also to spark interest in reproductive medicine research and to provide the next generation of physician-scientists with a foundational experience in research design and implementation. Incoming fellows often have varying degrees of training in research methodology and, likewise, different career goals...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161437/tissue-organization-alters-gene-expression-in-equine-induced-trophectoderm-cells
#19
Brad M Reinholt, Jennifer S Bradley, Robert D Jacobs, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Rapid morphological and gene expression changes occur during the early formation of a mammalian blastocyst. Critical to successful retention of the blastocyst and pregnancy is a functional trophectoderm (TE) that supplies the developing embryo with paracrine factors and hormones. The contribution of TE conformational changes to gene expression was examined in equine induced trophoblast (iTr) cells. Equine iTr cells were cultured as monolayers or in suspension to form spheres. The spheres are hollow and structurally reminiscent of native equine blastocysts...
February 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161239/cryopreservation-of-bovine-somatic-cells-using-antifreeze-polyamino-acid-carboxylated-poly-l-lysine
#20
Takuro Fujikawa, Takaaki Ando, Yuki Gen, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Chikara Kubota
Carboxylated poly-l-lysine (CPLL) is an ampholytic polymer compound, obtained by converting 65 mol% of amino groups to carboxyl groups after synthesizing ε-poly-l-lysine aqueous solution and succinic anhydride. CPLL has cryoprotective properties similar to those of anti-freeze protein. The addition of CPLL to freezing medium has been reported to improve the post-thawing survival rate of murine cells, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryos. In this study, investigating CPLL for its effectiveness as a new cryoprotective material is aimed...
February 1, 2017: Cryobiology
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