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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792579/effects-of-essential-oil-from-thymus-vulgaris-on-viability-and-inflammation-in-zebrafish-embryos
#1
Katherine M Polednik, Abby C Koch, Lisa K Felzien
Innate immunity provides the initial response against pathogens and includes the inflammatory response. Regulation of the initiation and duration of neutrophil and mononuclear cell influx during inflammation determines both the successfulness of pathogen elimination and the level of resulting tissue damage. Zebrafish embryos provide excellent opportunities to visualize the inflammatory response. Neutrophil granules may be stained with Sudan black, and variation in neutrophil counts may be used to monitor the level of the response...
May 24, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788201/genetic-variants-in-autism-related-cntnap2-impair-axonal-growth-of-cortical-neurons
#2
Giorgia Canali, Marta Garcia, Bruno Hivert, Delphine Pinatel, Aline Goullancourt, Ksenia Oguievetskaia, Margaux Saint-Martin, Jean-Antoine Girault, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Laurence Goutebroze
The CNTNAP2 gene, coding for the cell adhesion glycoprotein Caspr2, is thought to be one of the major susceptibility genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A large number of rare heterozygous missense CNTNAP2 variants have been identified in ASD patients. However, most of them are inherited from an unaffected parent, questioning their clinical significance. In the present study, we evaluate their impact on neurodevelopmental functions of Caspr2 in a heterozygous genetic background. Performing cortical neuron cultures from mouse embryos, we demonstrate that Caspr2 plays a dose-dependent role in axon growth in vitro...
June 1, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788046/a-carnivore-embryo-s-perspective-on-essential-amino-acids-and-ammonium-in-culture-medium-effects-on-the-development-of-feline-embryos
#3
Jason R Herrick, Sarah M Lyons, Alison F Greene-Ermisch, Corey D Broeckling, William B Schoolcraft, Rebecca L Krisher
Carnivores are an interesting model for studies of embryonic amino acid metabolism and ammonium (NH4+) toxicity given the high protein content of their diets. Our objectives were to examine concentration- and stage-specific effects of essential amino acids (EAA; 0x, 0.125x, 0.25x, 0.5x, or 1.0x the concentrations in Minimum Essential Medium) and NH4+ (0, 300, or 600 μM) on the development and metabolism of feline embryos. The presence of EAA, regardless of concentration, during days 3 to 7 of culture increased (P < 0...
May 18, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785530/azoospermia-and-embryo-morphokinetics-testicular-sperm-derived-embryos-exhibit-delays-in-early-cell-cycle-events-and-increased-arrest-prior-to-compaction
#4
Nina Desai, Pavinder Gill, Nicholas N Tadros, Jeffrey M Goldberg, Edmund Sabanegh, Tommaso Falcone
PURPOSE: Sperm play an essential role in embryonic genome activation and embryonic progression to blastocyst. In the present work, we focus on development of embryos created as a result of ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm from azoospermic males and compare this to outcomes from normospermic males. The objective of this study was to determine if sperm origin influences clinical outcomes, the kinetics of embryo development, or the incidence of cleavage anomalies and multinucleation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779474/the-gametotoxic-effects-of-the-endometrioma-content-insights-from-a-parthenogenetic-human-model
#5
Alessio Paffoni, Valentina Bolis, Stefania Ferrari, Laura Benaglia, Paolo Vercellini, Edgardo Somigliana
The present randomized controlled in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effects of the exposure of human cryopreserved oocytes to endometriotic fluid. Twenty-three women aged 36 (4) years donated a total of 147 vitrified supernumerary metaphase II oocytes. Warmed oocytes were randomly assigned to exposure to endometriotic fluid or unexposed control. Thereafter, oocytes were parthenogenetically activated and cultured for up to 5 days. The rate of activation on day 1 and the developmental rates on days 3 and 5 did not significantly differ between the 2 groups...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778974/metabolic-plasticity-during-transition-to-na%C3%A3-ve-like-pluripotency-in-canine-embryo-derived-stem-cells
#6
I C Tobias, R R Isaac, J G Dierolf, R Khazaee, R C Cumming, D H Betts
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been described in naïve or primed pluripotent states. Domestic dogs are useful translational models in regenerative medicine, but their embryonic stem cells (cESCs) remain narrowly investigated. Primed-like cESCs expanded in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 (LIF-FGF2) acquire features of naïve pluripotency when exposed to chemical inhibitors and LIF (2iL). However, proliferation of cESCs is influenced by the pluripotent state and is comparatively slower than human or mouse PSCs...
May 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778922/interval-of-gonadotropin-administration-for-in-vitro-embryo-production-from-oocytes-collected-from-holstein-calves-between-2-and-6-months-of-age-by-repeated-laparoscopy
#7
Hernan Baldassarre, Luke Currin, Laura Michalovic, Anne-Marie Bellefleur, Karina Gutierrez, Rafael G Mondadori, Werner G Glanzner, Yasmin Schuermann, Rodrigo C Bohrer, Naomi Dicks, Rosalba Lopez, François-Xavier Grand, Christian Vigneault, Patrick Blondin, Jim Gourdon, Vilceu Bordignon
Laparoscopic Ovum Pick-Up (LOPU) in calves followed by in vitro embryo production (IVEP) and transfer (ET) into adult recipients has great potential for accelerated genetic gain through shortening of the generation interval. In this study, 11 Holstein calves were subjected to up to six LOPU procedures between the ages of 2-6 months at 2-3 weeks interval. In all cases, the animals received a CIDR 5 days prior to LOPU and were gonadotropin-stimulated starting at 72 h before LOPU using one of three protocols that were rotated twice among the animals during the study...
May 17, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777205/oviduct-epithelium-induces-interferon-tau-in-bovine-day-4-embryos-which-generates-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-immune-cells
#8
Anup K Talukder, Mohammad B Rashid, Mohamed S Yousef, Kazuya Kusama, Takashi Shimizu, Masayuki Shimada, Susan S Suarez, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent studies indicate that communication between the bovine embryo and the mother begins in the oviduct. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of embryos on bovine oviducts for their immune responses using an in vitro model. First, zygotes were cultured with or without bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) for 4 days, when embryos had reached the 16-cell stage. At that time, we detected interferon-tau (IFNT) in embryos co-cultured with BOECs, but not in embryos cultured alone. Next, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated either in media from embryo alone cultures or from co-cultures of embryos with BOECs...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775683/viscoelastic-modeling-of-the-fusion-of-multicellular-tumor-spheroids-in-growth-phase
#9
Guillaume Dechristé, Jérôme Fehrenbach, Elena Griseti, Valérie Lobjois, Clair Poignard
BACKGROUND: Since several decades, the experiments have highlighted the analogy of fusing cell aggregates with liquid droplets. The physical macroscopic models have been derived under incompressible assumptions. The aim of this paper is to provide a 3D model of growing spheroids, which is more relevant regarding embryo cell aggregates or tumor cell spheroids. METHODS: We extend the past approach to a compressible 3D framework in order to account for the tumor spheroid growth...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773310/maternal-concentrations-of-human-chorionic-gonadotrophin-in-very-early-ivf-pregnancies-and-duration-of-pregnancy-a-follow-up-study
#10
Tom G Tanbo, Manuela Zucknick, Anne Eskild
RESEARCH QUESTION: Are maternal concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on a fixed day after embryo transfer associated with duration of pregnancy? DESIGN: A follow-up study of 1917 singleton pregnancies after IVF was performed. Embryos were cultured for 2 days and maternal HCG concentration quantified on day 12 after embryo transfer. Duration of pregnancy was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Association of HCG concentration (log2-transformed) with duration of pregnancy was estimated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by applying Cox regression proportional hazard models, where time to delivery for pregnancies shortened because of planned Caesarean delivery or induction of labour was treated as censored...
May 2, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772239/small-gtpase-r-ras-participates-in-neural-tube-formation-in-zebrafish-embryonic-spinal-cord
#11
Shinya Ohata, Hideko Uga, Hitoshi Okamoto, Toshiaki Katada
Ras related (R-Ras), a small GTPase, is involved in the maintenance of apico-basal polarity in neuroepithelial cells of the zebrafish hindbrain, axonal collapse in cultured murine hippocampal neurons, and maturation of blood vessels in adult mice. However, the role of R-Ras in neural tube formation remains unknown. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), we found that in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos, the lumen was formed bilaterally in rras morphants, whereas it was formed at the midline in control embryos...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771971/constitutive-metanephric-mesenchyme-specific-expression-of-interferon-gamma-causes-renal-dysplasia-by-regulating-sall1-expression
#12
Kangsun Yun, Arthur A Hurwitz, Alan O Perantoni
Transplacental viral and parasitic infections have been shown to initiate an innate response in the mammalian embryo by increasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma (Ifng). However, the developmental consequences of an activated innate immunity and, in particular, the effects of induction of Ifng expression independent of infection have been largely overlooked. Here, we demonstrate in vivo that the conditional overexpression of Ifng in metanephric mesenchymal (MM) progenitors results in renal agenesis or hypoplasia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771430/senp3-protects-h9c2-cells-from-apoptosis-triggered-by-h-r-via-stat3-pathway
#13
Y Zhang, L-M Zheng, C-X Wang, J-M Gu, S Xue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether SENP3 protects H9C2 cells from apoptosis triggered by H/R through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL mice were cultured and mouse models of myocardial I/RI were established. At the same time, cardiomyoblast H9C2 cell line of rat embryo was cultured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected during H/R using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH) kit...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770989/vitrification-for-bovine-embryos-with-low-quality-grade
#14
Hiroshi Tajimi, Tsugumi Yamazaki, Syoko Oike, Tatsuyuki Yoshida, Konosuke Okada, Masashige Kuwayama, Hitoshi Ushijima
This study was conducted to examine the utility of vitrification for bovine embryos with low-quality grade, and simple cryoprotectants dilution method for practitioners. In Experiment 1, survival of frozen embryos was compared with that of vitrified embryos using minimum volume cooling (MVC). Then, vitrified embryos were used to confirm the optimum sucrose concentration in Experiment 2. The survival rates of embryos that had been vitrified following diluted cryoprotectants with the one-step in-straw method were compared with those of fresh control embryos in Experiment 3...
May 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769451/effect-of-ferulic-acid-supplementation-on-the-developmental-competence-of-porcine-embryos-during-in-vitro-maturation
#15
Fuminori Tanihara, Maki Hirata, Nguyen Thi Nhien, Takayuki Hirano, Toshiki Kunihara, Takeshige Otoi
The value of laboratory and genetically-modified pigs is becoming increasingly clear; however, their in vitro development remains inefficient. Trans-ferulic acid (trans-FA) is an aromatic compound that is abundant in plant cell walls, and which exhibits antioxidant effects in vitro. Trans-FA is known to improve sperm viability and motility; however, its effects on porcine oocytes are unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effects of trans-FA supplementation during in vitro maturation on the meiotic and developmental competence of porcine oocytes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769399/dissecting-and-culturing-animal-cap-explants
#16
Kevin S Dingwell, James C Smith
The animal cap explant is a simple but adaptable tool available to developmental biologists. The use of animal cap explants in demonstrating the presence of mesoderm-inducting activity in the Xenopus embryo vegetal pole is one of many elegant examples of their worth. Animal caps respond to a range of growth factors (e.g., Wnts, FGF, TGF-β), making them especially useful for studying signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks. Explants are also suitable for examining cell behavior and have provided key insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling vertebrate morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769392/cleavage-blastomere-explant-culture-in-xenopus
#17
Sally A Moody
The individual blastomeres of Xenopus two- to 32-cell embryos have been fate mapped. This work identified the precursors of most of the embryonic cell types, tissues and organs; however, the maps do not reveal the cell interactions or signaling pathways that are required for establishing cell fates. This protocol describes an explant culture approach for culturing blastomeres in isolation to test whether a cell's fate has been determined. Cleavage blastomeres can be cultured in a simple salt medium without added factors because they contain intracellular yolk platelets, which provide an intrinsic energy source...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766197/selenoprotein-w-as-a-molecular-target-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-is-regulated-by-d-amino-acid-in-chicken-neurons
#18
Wei Li, Milton Talukder, Xue-Tong Sun, Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Jing Ge, Jin-Long Li
Selenoprotein W (SelW) is an important member of the avian selenoprotein family. It is well known for its important role in protecting neurons from oxidative stress during neuronal development. d-Amino acid (d-serine), as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), can mediate neurotoxicity. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is responsible for regulating the d-serine levels in cells. However, the correlation between SelW and DAAO is not clear yet. To investigate the regulations between SelW and DAAO, chicken embryo monolayer neurons were treated with d-serine and/or Se...
May 16, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762687/glycine-treatment-enhances-developmental-potential-of-porcine-oocytes-and-early-embryos-by-inhibiting-apoptosis
#19
Suo Li, Qing Guo, Yu-Meng Wang, Zi-Yue Li, Jin-Dan Kang, Xi-Jun Yin, Xin Zheng
Glycine, a component of glutathione (GSH), plays an important role in protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of glycine on in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and their developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation (PA). We examined nuclear maturation, ROS levels, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ATP concentration, as well as the expression of several genes related to oocyte maturation and development...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760561/an-efficient-system-for-gene-perturbation-in-embryonic-hippocampal-progenitors-using-ex-vivo-electroporation-followed-by-in-vitro-dissociated-cell-culture
#20
Bhavana Muralidharan, Leora D'Souza, Shubha Tole
We established an efficient cell culture assay that permits combinatorial genetic perturbations in hippocampal progenitors to examine cell-autonomous mechanisms of fate specification. The procedure begins with ex vivo electroporation of isolated, intact embryonic brains, in a manner similar to in utero electroporation but with greatly improved access and targeting. The electroporated region is then dissected and transiently maintained in organotypic explant culture, followed by dissociation and plating of cells on coverslips for in vitro culture...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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