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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353449/blastulation-timing-is-associated-with-differential-mitochondrial-content-in-euploid-embryos
#1
Jacqueline R Ho, Nabil Arrach, Katherine Rhodes-Long, Wael Salem, Lynda K McGinnis, Karine Chung, Kristin A Bendikson, Richard J Paulson, Ali Ahmady
PURPOSE: Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and assessment of mitochondrial content (MC) are current methods for selection of the best embryos for transfer. Studies suggest that time-lapse morphokinetics (TLM) may also be helpful for selecting embryos more likely to implant. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between TLM parameters and MC to determine if they could be used adjunctively in embryo selection. We also examined the relationship between MC with ploidy and blastulation...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353036/nmr-based-serum-metabolomics-study-reveals-a-innovative-diagnostic-model-for-missed-abortion
#2
Zhenghong Wu, Lei Jin, Wenyi Zheng, Chenxi Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yaping Chen, Junhua Guan, He Fei
A missed abortion (MA) is an in-utero death of the embryo or fetus before the 20th week of gestation with retained products of conception. In order to discover novel biomarkers for MA, a 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics approach was applied to detect human MA serum metabolic profiles. Serum samples were obtained from patients with MA (n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 9) for study. The NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis was used to cluster the groups and establish a disease-specific metabolites phenotype...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351989/iterative-random-forests-to-discover-predictive-and-stable-high-order-interactions
#3
Sumanta Basu, Karl Kumbier, James B Brown, Bin Yu
Genomics has revolutionized biology, enabling the interrogation of whole transcriptomes, genome-wide binding sites for proteins, and many other molecular processes. However, individual genomic assays measure elements that interact in vivo as components of larger molecular machines. Understanding how these high-order interactions drive gene expression presents a substantial statistical challenge. Building on random forests (RFs) and random intersection trees (RITs) and through extensive, biologically inspired simulations, we developed the iterative random forest algorithm (iRF)...
January 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#4
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
January 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#5
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345445/the-impact-of-high-progesterone-levels-on-the-day-of-hcg-administration-in-assisted-human-reproduction-treatments
#6
Michelli S Tanada, Ivan H Yoshida, Monise Santos, Caroline Z Berton, Elen Souto, Waldemar P de Carvalho, Emerson B Cordts, Caio P Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: Progesterone is a steroid hormone that acts on the endometrium. It is known for producing physical and mood-related side effects. Few studies have looked into how progesterone levels affect embryo development and quality. This study aimed to find a cutoff level for serum progesterone on the day of HCG administration from which embryo quality is impaired. METHODS: The study included 145 cycles, from which 885 oocytes and 613 embryos were obtained. All patients had their serum progesterone levels measured on the day of HCG administration...
January 18, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345310/a-potential-role-of-knockout-serum-replacement-as-a-porcine-follicular-fluid-substitute-for-in-vitro-maturation-lipid-metabolism-approach
#7
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Erif Maha Nugraha Setyawan, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Ho Jae Han, Curie Ahn, Byeong Chun Lee
The use of supplements, such as porcine follicular fluid (pFF), fetal bovine serum and human serum albumin are widely used during in vitro maturation (IVM) in different species but these supplements contain undefined components that cause technical difficulties in standardization and influence the efficiency of IVM. Knockout serum replacement (KSR) is a synthetic protein source, without any undefined growth factors or differentiation-promoting factors. Therefore, it is feasible to use KSR as a defined component for avoiding effects of unknown molecules in an IVM system...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344854/laser-microdissection-workflow-for-isolating-nucleic-acids-from-fixed-and-frozen-tissue-samples
#8
Yelena G Golubeva, Andrew C Warner
Laser Capture Microdissection has earned a permanent place among modern techniques connecting histology and molecular biology. Laser Capture Microdissection has become an invaluable tool in medical research as a means for collection of specific cell populations isolated from their environment. Such genomic sample enrichment dramatically increases the sensitivity and precision of downstream molecular assays used for biomarker discovery, monitoring disease onset and progression, and in the development of personalized medicine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344837/evaluation-of-the-profile-and-mechanism-of-neurotoxicity-of-water-soluble-cu-p-4-pf6-and-au-p-4-pf6-p-thp-or-pta-anticancer-complexes
#9
C Ceresa, G Nicolini, S Semperboni, V Gandin, M Monfrini, F Avezza, P Alberti, A Bravin, M Pellei, C Santini, Guido Cavaletti
[Cu(thp)4]PF6, [Cu(PTA)4]PF6, [Au(thp)4]PF6 and [Au(PTA)4]PF6 are phosphane (thp = tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphane; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) copper(I) and gold(I) water-soluble complexes characterized by high anticancer activity in a wide range of solid tumors, often able to overcome drug resistance of platinum-based compounds. For these reasons, they have been proposed as a valid alternative to platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., cisplatin and oxaliplatin). In vitro experiments performed on organotypic cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from 15-day-old rat embryos revealed that copper-based compounds were not neurotoxic even at concentrations higher than the IC50 obtained in human cancer cells while [Au(PTA)4]PF6 was neurotoxic at lower concentration than IC50 in cancer cell lines...
January 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344280/mir-378-and-mir-1827-regulate-tumor-invasion-migration-and-angiogenesis-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-targeting-rbx1-and-crkl-respectively
#10
Chai San Ho, Suzita Mohd Noor, Noor Hasima Nagoor
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied over the decades and have been proposed as potential molecular targets for cancer treatment. Studies have shown that miR-378 participates in numerous biological processes in various cancers; whereas miR-1827 has only been reported in pediatric glioma. The mechanism of how miRNAs modulate lung cancer metastasis remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-378 is up-regulated while miR-1827 is down-regulated in high invasive lung cancer sub-cell lines, and their biological functions have been described...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343694/sertraline-paroxetine-and-chlorpromazine-are-rapidly-acting-anthelmintic-drugs-capable-of-clinical-repurposing
#11
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343656/crispr-cas9-mediated-generation-of-obese-and-diabetic-mouse-models
#12
Jae-Il Roh, Junghoon Lee, Seong Uk Park, Young-Shin Kang, Jaehoon Lee, Ah-Reum Oh, Dong Joon Choi, Ji-Young Cha, Han-Woong Lee
Mouse models of obesity (ob/ob) and diabetes (db/db) in which the leptin (Lep) and Leptin receptor (Lepr) genes have been mutated, respectively, have contributed to a better understanding of human obesity and type 2 diabetes and to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these metabolic diseases. In this study, we report the first CRISPR-Cas9-induced Lep and Lepr KO mouse models by co-microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that specifically targeted Lep or Lepr in C57BL/6J embryos. Our newly established Lep and Lepr knockout (KO) mouse models showed phenotypic disorders nearly identical to those found in ob/ob and db/db mice, such as an increase in body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342457/the-von-hippel-lindau-gene-is-required-to-maintain-renal-proximal-tubule-and-glomerulus-integrity-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Ellen van Rooijen, Glenn van de Hoek, Ive Logister, Henry Ajzenberg, Nine V A M Knoers, Freek van Eeden, Emile E Voest, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Rachel H Giles
BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterized by the development of benign and malignant tumours in many organ systems, including renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. It is not completely understood what underlies the development of renal pathology, and the use of murine Vhl models has been challenging due to limitations in disease conservation. We previously described a zebrafish model bearing inactivating mutations in the orthologue of the human VHL gene. METHODS: We used histopathological and functional assays to investigate the pronephric and glomerular developmental defects in vhl mutant zebrafish, supported by human cell culture assays...
January 17, 2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342244/gli2-rescues-delays-in-brain-development-induced-by-kif3a-dysfunction
#14
Jia-Long Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chang, Jin-Wu Tsai
The primary cilium in neural stem cells plays distinct roles in different stages during cortical development. Ciliary dysfunctions in human (i.e., ciliopathy) cause developmental defects in multiple organs, including brain developmental delays, which lead to intellectual disabilities and cognitive deficits. However, effective treatment to this devastating developmental disorder is still lacking. Here, we first investigated the effects of ciliopathy on neural stem cells by knocking down Kif3a, a kinesin II motor required for ciliogenesis, in the neurogenic stage of cortical development by in utero electroporation of mouse embryos...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342143/regulation-of-embryonic-haematopoietic-multipotency-by-ezh1
#15
Linda T Vo, Melissa A Kinney, Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Jessica Barragan, Patricia M Sousa, Deepak K Jha, Areum Han, Marcella Cesana, Zhen Shao, Trista E North, Stuart H Orkin, Sergei Doulatov, Jian Xu, George Q Daley
All haematopoietic cell lineages that circulate in the blood of adult mammals derive from multipotent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). By contrast, in the blood of mammalian embryos, lineage-restricted progenitors arise first, independently of HSCs, which only emerge later in gestation. As best defined in the mouse, 'primitive' progenitors first appear in the yolk sac at 7.5 days post-coitum. Subsequently, erythroid-myeloid progenitors that express fetal haemoglobin, as well as fetal lymphoid progenitors, develop in the yolk sac and the embryo proper, but these cells lack HSC potential...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341015/in-utero-mri-of-mouse-embryos
#16
Jiangyang Zhang, Dan Wu, Daniel H Turnbull
Genetically engineered mouse models are used extensively as models of human development and developmental diseases. Conventional histological approaches are static and two-dimensional, and do not provide a full understanding of the dynamic, spatiotemporal changes in developing mouse embryos. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a noninvasive and longitudinal approach for three-dimensional in utero imaging of normal and mutant mouse embryos. In this chapter, we describe MRI approaches that have been developed for imaging the living embryonic mouse brain and vasculature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340017/altered-gnas-imprinting-due-to-folic-acid-deficiency-contributes-to-poor-embryo-development-and-may-lead-to-neural-tube-defects
#17
Li Wang, Shaoyan Chang, Zhen Wang, Shan Wang, Junsheng Huo, Gangqiang Ding, Rui Li, Chi Liu, Shaofang Shangguan, Xiaolin Lu, Ting Zhang, Zhiyong Qiu, Jianxin Wu
Disturbed epigenetic modifications have been linked to the pathogenesis of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) in those with folate deficiency during pregnancy. However, evidence is lacking to delineate the critical region in epigenome regulated by parental folic acid and mechanisms by which folate deficiency affects normal embryogenesis. Our data from clinical samples revealed the presence of aberrant DNA methylation in GNAS imprinting cluster in NTD samples with low folate concentrations. Results from mouse models indicated that the establishment of GNAS imprinting was influenced by both maternal and paternal folate-deficient diets...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339408/development-of-the-swimbladder-surfactant-system-and-biogenesis-of-lysosome-related-organelles-is-regulated-by-blos1-in-zebrafish
#18
Tianbing Chen, Guili Song, Huihui Yang, Lin Mao, Zongbin Cui, Kaiyao Huang
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a human autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a deficiency of the platelet storage pool resulting from defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs). To date, ten HPS genes have been identified, three of which belong to the octamer complex BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1). One subunit of the BLOC-1 complex, BLOS1, also participates in the BLOC-1-related complex (BORC). Due to lethality at the early embryo stage in BLOS1 knockout mice, the function of BLOS1 in the above two complexes and whether it has a novel function are unclear...
January 16, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339327/the-chaperonin-cct-promotes-the-formation-of-fibrillar-aggregates-of-%C3%AE-tubulin
#19
Luis Pouchucq, Pablo Lobos-Ruiz, Gisela Araya, José María Valpuesta, Octavio Monasterio
The type II chaperonin CCT is involved in the prevention of the pathogenesis of numerous human misfolding disorders, as it sequesters misfolded proteins, blocks their aggregation and helps them to achieve their native state. In addition, it has been reported that CCT can prevent the toxicity of non-client amyloidogenic proteins by the induction of non-toxic aggregates, leading to new insight in chaperonin function as an aggregate remodeling factor. Here we add experimental evidence to this alternative mechanism by which CCT actively promotes the formation of conformationally different aggregates of γ-tubulin, a non-amyloidogenic CCT client protein, which are mediated by specific CCT-γ-tubulin interactions...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337306/zinc-transporter-slc39a8-is-essential-for-cardiac-ventricular-compaction
#20
Wen Lin, Deqiang Li, Lan Cheng, Li Li, Feiyan Liu, Nicholas J Hand, Jonathan A Epstein, Daniel J Rader
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) results from excessive trabeculation and impaired myocardial compaction during heart development. The extracellular matrix (ECM) that separates endocardium from myocardium plays a critical but poorly understood role in ventricular trabeculation and compaction. In an attempt to characterize solute carrier family 39 member 8-null (Slc39a8-null) mice, we discovered that homozygous null embryos do not survive embryogenesis, and exhibit a cardiac phenotype similar to human LVNC...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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