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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943724/using-a-moot-to-develop-students-understanding-of-human-cloning-and-statutory-interpretation
#1
Shaun D Pattinson, Vanessa Kind
This article reports and analyses the method and findings from a 3-year interdisciplinary project investigating how the medium of law can support understanding of socio-scientific issues. Law represents one of the most important means by which society decides and communicates its values. Activities mirroring legal processes therefore have significant potential to inform, inspire and involve school students in exploring the conceptual, social and ethical issues relating to developments in biomedical science...
September 2017: Medical Law International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943313/the-role-of-n-%C3%AE-acetyltransferase-10-protein-in-dna-methylation-and-genomic-imprinting
#2
Chen-Cheng Lee, Shih-Huan Peng, Li Shen, Chung-Fan Lee, Ting-Huei Du, Ming-Lun Kang, Guo-Liang Xu, Anup K Upadhyay, Xiaodong Cheng, Yu-Ting Yan, Yi Zhang, Li-Jung Juan
Genomic imprinting is an allelic gene expression phenomenon primarily controlled by allele-specific DNA methylation at the imprinting control region (ICR), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) catalyzes N-α-acetylation of nascent proteins, and mutation of human Naa10p is linked to severe developmental delays. Here we report that Naa10-null mice display partial embryonic lethality, growth retardation, brain disorders, and maternal effect lethality, phenotypes commonly observed in defective genomic imprinting...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942966/haploinsufficiency-of-the-chromatin-remodeler-bptf-causes-syndromic-developmental-and-speech-delay-postnatal-microcephaly-and-dysmorphic-features
#3
Paweł Stankiewicz, Tahir N Khan, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Leah Slattery, Haley Streff, Francesco Vetrini, Jonathan A Bernstein, Chester W Brown, Jill A Rosenfeld, Surya Rednam, Sarah Scollon, Katie L Bergstrom, Donald W Parsons, Sharon E Plon, Marta W Vieira, Caio R D C Quaio, Wagner A R Baratela, Johanna C Acosta Guio, Ruth Armstrong, Sarju G Mehta, Patrick Rump, Rolph Pfundt, Raymond Lewandowski, Erica M Fernandes, Deepali N Shinde, Sha Tang, Juliane Hoyer, Christiane Zweier, André Reis, Carlos A Bacino, Rui Xiao, Amy M Breman, Janice L Smith, Nicholas Katsanis, Bret Bostwick, Bernt Popp, Erica E Davis, Yaping Yang
Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942539/correction-of-%C3%AE-thalassemia-mutant-by-base-editor-in-human-embryos
#4
Puping Liang, Chenhui Ding, Hongwei Sun, Xiaowei Xie, Yanwen Xu, Xiya Zhang, Ying Sun, Yuanyan Xiong, Wenbin Ma, Yongxiang Liu, Yali Wang, Jianpei Fang, Dan Liu, Zhou Songyang, Canquan Zhou, Junjiu Huang
β-Thalassemia is a global health issue, caused by mutations in the HBB gene. Among these mutations, HBB -28 (A>G) mutations is one of the three most common mutations in China and Southeast Asia patients with β-thalassemia. Correcting this mutation in human embryos may prevent the disease being passed onto future generations and cure anemia. Here we report the first study using base editor (BE) system to correct disease mutant in human embryos. Firstly, we produced a 293T cell line with an exogenous HBB -28 (A>G) mutant fragment for gRNAs and targeting efficiency evaluation...
September 23, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942426/rapid-dna-synthesis-during-early-drosophila%C3%A2-embryogenesis-is-sensitive-to-maternal-humpty-dumpty-protein-function
#5
Shera Lesly, Jennifer L Bandura, Brian R Calvi
Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty (hd) and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd(272-9) , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality...
September 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941401/effect-based-assessment-of-toxicity-removal-during-wastewater-treatment
#6
Pia Välitalo, Riccardo Massei, Ilse Heiskanen, Peter Behnisch, Werner Brack, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier, Eberhard Küster, Anna Mikola, Tobias Schulze, Markus Sillanpää
Wastewaters contain complex mixtures of chemicals, which can cause adverse toxic effects in the receiving environment. In the present study, the toxicity removal during wastewater treatment at seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was investigated using an effect-based approach. A battery of eight bioassays was applied comprising of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, endocrine disruption and fish embryo toxicity assays. Human cell-based CALUX assays, transgenic larval models and the fish embryo toxicity test were particularly sensitive to WWTP effluents...
September 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940191/weekend-free-scheduled-ivf-icsi-procedures-and-single-embryo-transfer-do-not-reduce-live-birth-rates-in-a-general-infertile-population
#7
Michael Feichtinger, Per Olof Karlström, Jan I Olofsson, Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg
INTRODUCTION: Scheduling of ovum pickups (OPU) only on weekdays may result in cases of apparently suboptimal timing for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and OPU. This study aimed to assess whether live-birth rates were reduced in women with a potentially suboptimal day for hCG and OPU to avoid week-end work, according to ultrasonographic data on the day of hCG planning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An evaluation of the optimal hCG priming date was performed in treatment protocols of 1000 consecutive patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization /intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) with single-embryo transfer...
September 20, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939988/frozen-embryo-transfer-can-be-performed-in-the-cycle-immediately-following-the-freeze-all-cycle
#8
Kemal Ozgur, Hasan Bulut, Murat Berkkanoglu, Peter Humaidan, Kevin Coetzee
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated whether the time interval between oocyte retrieval and frozen embryo transfer (FET) affected the live birth (LB) rates of human segmented-IVF cycles. METHOD: A total of 1338 ICSI freeze-all cycles were performed between February 2015 and January 2016, with 1121 FET cycles being retrospectively analyzed. All vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfers were performed in artificial FET cycles, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist downregulation and oral estrogen endometrial preparation...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939212/fortilin-a-potential-target-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-human-diseases
#9
Decha Pinkaew, Ken Fujise
Fortilin is a highly conserved 172-amino-acid polypeptide found in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, extracellular space, and circulating blood. It is a multifunctional protein that protects cells against apoptosis, promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression, binds calcium (Ca(2+)) and has antipathogen activities. Its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases is also diverse. Fortilin facilitates the development of atherosclerosis, contributes to both systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, participates in the development of cancers, and worsens diabetic nephropathy...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938744/an-improved-ivm-method-for-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-from-small-follicles-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-enhances-oocyte-competence-and-embryo-yield
#10
F Sánchez, F Lolicato, S Romero, M De Vos, H Van Ranst, G Verheyen, E Anckaert, J E J Smitz
STUDY QUESTION: Are meiotic and developmental competence of human oocytes from small (2-8 mm) antral follicles improved by applying an optimized IVM method involving a prematuration step in presence of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) followed by a maturation step in presence of FSH and Amphiregulin (AREG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A strategy involving prematuration culture (PMC) in the presence of CNP followed by IVM using FSH + AREG increases oocyte maturation potential leading to a higher availability of Day 3 embryos and good-quality blastocysts for single embryo transfer...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938734/hyperspectral-microscopy-can-detect-metabolic-heterogeneity-within-bovine-post-compaction-embryos-incubated-under-two-oxygen-concentrations-7-versus-20
#11
Melanie L Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D Abell, Ewa M Goldys, Jeremy G Thompson
STUDY QUESTION: Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938408/pioneer-factors-foxa1-and-foxa2-assist-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-human-endometrial-cells
#12
Shannon Whirledge, Edwina P Kisanga, Robert N Taylor, John A Cidlowski
Successful pregnancy relies on dynamic control of cell signaling in order to achieve uterine receptivity and the necessary biological changes required for endometrial decidualization, embryo implantation, and fetal development. Glucocorticoids are master regulators of intracellular signaling and can directly regulate embryo implantation and endometrial remodeling during murine pregnancy. In immortalized human uterine cells, we have shown that glucocorticoids and estradiol co-regulate thousands of genes. Recently, glucocorticoids and estradiol were shown to co-regulate the expression of Left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), previously implicated in the regulation of decidualization...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936557/adjuvant-activity-of-saponins-from-kazakhstani-plants-on-the-immune-responses-to-subunit-influenza-vaccine
#13
A S Turmagambetova, P G Alexyuk, A P Bogoyavlenskiy, I A Zaitseva, E S Omirtaeva, M S Alexyuk, N S Sokolova, V E Berezin
In recent years, there have been a number of reports on the successful use of immunostimulatory complexes with saponins and viral glycoproteins as veterinary vaccines and in clinical trials for human medicine. The saponins Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan were isolated and purified by HPLC from Allochrusa gypsophiloides, Saponaria officinalis and Gypsophila paniculata plants in Kazakhstan and they proved to have low toxicity in experiments with mice, chickens and chicken embryos. Algiox, Sapanox and Pangisan can be used to create immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) similar to saponin-Quil-A-containing ISCOMs both in structure and in immunostimulatory efficiency...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935977/zebrafish-in-vivo-screening-for-compounds-amplifying-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-preclinical-validation-in-human-cd34-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#14
Guruchandar Arulmozhivarman, Martin Kräter, Manja Wobus, Jens Friedrichs, Elham Pishali Bejestani, Katrin Müller, Katrin Lambert, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Andreas Dahl, Martin Stöter, Marc Bickle, Nona Shayegi, Jochen Hampe, Friedrich Stölzel, Michael Brand, Malte von Bonin, Martin Bornhäuser
The identification of small molecules that either increase the number and/or enhance the activity of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (hHSPCs) during ex vivo expansion remains challenging. We used an unbiased in vivo chemical screen in a transgenic (c-myb:EGFP) zebrafish embryo model and identified histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), particularly valproic acid (VPA), as significant enhancers of the number of phenotypic HSPCs, both in vivo and during ex vivo expansion. The long-term functionality of these expanded hHSPCs was verified in a xenotransplantation model with NSG mice...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935812/mir-130a-deregulates-pten-and-stimulates-tumor-growth
#15
Huijun Wei, Ri Cui, Julian Bahr, Nicola Zanesi, Zhenghua Luo, Wei Meng, Guang Liang, Carlo M Croce
H-RasV12 oncogene has been shown to promote autophagic cell death. Here we provide evidence of a contextual role for H-RasV12 in cell death that is varied by its effects on miR-130a. In E1A-immortalized murine embryo fibroblasts, acute expression of H-RasV12 promoted apoptosis but not autophagic cell death. miRNA screens in this system showed that miR-130a was strongly downregulated by H-RasV12 in this model system. Enforced expression of miR-130a increased cell proliferation in part via repression of PTEN...
September 21, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935787/embryo-edit-makes-human-knockout
#16
Gretchen Vog
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935585/developmental-exposure-to-low-concentrations-of-two-brominated-flame-retardants-bde-47-and-bde-99-causes-life-long-behavioral-alterations-in-zebrafish
#17
Lilah Glazer, Corinne N Wells, Meghan Drastal, Kathryn-Ann Odamah, Richard E Galat, Mamta Behl, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants until the early 2000s, mainly in home furnishings and electronics. The persistence of PBDEs in the environment leads to continued ubiquitous exposure to low levels, with infants and children experiencing higher exposures than adults. Accumulating evidence suggest that low-level exposures during early life stages can affect brain development and lead to long-term behavioral impairments. We investigated the effects of zebrafish exposure to low doses of the two prominent PBDEs; 2,2',4,4',5,-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2',4,4',-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), during embryo-development on short- and long-term behavioral endpoints...
September 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935154/inducible-knockout-of-syncytin-a-gene-leads-to-an-extensive-placental-vasculature-deficiency-implications-for-preeclampsia
#18
Shan Qiao, Fengchao Wang, Haibin Chen, Shi-Wen Jiang
Syncytin-1, a human endogenous retroviral envelope gene (HERVW1), is specifically expressed in placental trophoblasts and mediates the formation of syncytiotrophoblasts through a fusogenic activity. Syncytin-1 expression deficiency has been repeatedly observed in preeclamptic/IUGR placentas. Previous gene knockout studies indicated that in mice, complete syncytin-A null mouse embryos died in utero between 11.5 and 13.5days of gestation. However, the complete knockout model could not fully recapitulate the mid- to third-trimester, time-specific syncytin-1 deficiency in preeclampsia patients...
September 18, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934690/butyl-benzyl-phthalate-bbp-induces-caudal-defects-during-embryonic-development
#19
Nicole M Roy, Ewelina Zambrzycka, Jenna Santangelo
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is commonly added during the manufacturing of plastics to increase flexibility and elasticity. However, BBP leaches off of plastic and environment presence has been detected in soil, groundwater and sediment potentially effecting organisms in the environment. Given the widespread uses of BBP in household, consumer goods and the presence of BBP in the environment, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here, we use a zebrafish model to investigate the early developmental toxicity of BBP...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934391/homozygous-kidins220-loss-of-function-variants-in-fetuses-with-cerebral-ventriculomegaly-and-limb-contractures
#20
I-L Mero, H H Mørk, Y Sheng, A Blomhoff, G L Opheim, Aa Erichsen, M D Vigeland, K K Selmer
Heterozygous mutations in KIDINS220 were recently suggested a cause of spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus and obesity. All patients carried terminal nonsense de novo mutations that seemed to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The mechanism for pathogenicity is yet unexplained, as it seems that heterozygous loss-of-function variants of KIDINS220 are generally well tolerated. We present a consanguineous couple who experienced four pregnancy terminations due to repeated findings in the fetuses comprising enlarged cerebral ventricles and limb contractures...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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