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Athina Kaprara, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi
Reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a central role in this axis through production of GnRH, which binds to a membrane receptor on pituitary gonadotrophs and stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Multiple factors affect GnRH neuron migration, GnRH gene expression, GnRH pulse generator, GnRH secretion, GnRH receptor expression, and gonadotropin synthesis and release...
December 6, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Marius Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes renewal and repair throughout life through the process of bone remodelling. Skeletal homeostasis is achieved through coupled and balanced bone resorption and bone formation. Several local and systemic factors regulate these processes, including sex hormones. Estrogenes and androgens influence growth, maturation and maintenance of bone mass. Sex homones act on bone through multiple mechansims. Sex hormones influence synthesis and secretion of many growth factors and cytokines, and play therefore a central role in the regulation of bone metabolism...
April 2014: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Cristina Ros, Anna Tercero, Isam Alobid, Juan Balasch, Joan Santamaria, Joaquim Mullol, Camil Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVES: To define the patterns and causes of hearing decline associated to Turner's syndrome (TS). METHODS: An observational study with three cohorts was designed: 31 TS patients, 15 women with other congenital hypogonadims (OCH) and 41 healthy age-matched women taking contraception. Microotoscopy, standard pure-tone audiometry brain auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were performed to study hearing function. RESULTS: Up to 87% of TS subjects suffered from some degree of hearing loss (HL) in the audiograms, compared with 20% OCH and 27% controls...
February 2014: Gynecological Endocrinology
Athanasios Sakadamis, Nickoletta Angelopoulou, Chrysoula Matziari, Vasilios Papameletiou, Vasilios Souftas
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to find out whether biochemical and hormonal profile of sexual function and mineral metabolism are related to low bone mass in young men with Down syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Eleven young men with trisomy 21 (mean age 26.45 years) and 12 healthy university students of similar age, participated in the study. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior (PA) projection. Sexual development was assessed by clinical examination...
January 10, 2002: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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