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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786953/iatrogenic-botulism-outbreak-in-egypt-due-to-a-counterfeit-botulinum-toxin-a-preparation-a-descriptive-series-of-patient-features-and-outcome
#1
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N=7), spastic dystonia (N=1), and hyperhidrosis (N=1). Detailed findings were available in 5/9 cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#2
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785923/cholera-outbreak-due-to-raw-seafood-consumption-in-south-korea-2016
#3
Jeong Hyun Kim, Jin Lee, Sahyun Hong, Sangwon Lee, Hae-Young Na, Young-Il Jeong, Eun Jin Choi, Junyoung Kim, Hyo Sun Kawk, Enhi Cho
Three cases of cholera occurred in South Korea during a period of three weeks in August 2016. All the cases were associated with the consumption of raw seafood in southern coastal area of South Korea. Epidemiologic investigations were performed to track the spread of cholera, including persons in contact with the cholera patients, seafood, and seawater from the fish tank and marine environments. A microbiological investigation demonstrated that cholera isolated from the three patients and a seawater sample at the Korea Strait showed identical serotype (O1 Ogawa), biotype (El tor), and toxin ( ctx -positive)...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785814/botulinum-toxin-type-a-for-wrinkles-the-least-interesting-use-of-this-versatile-protein
#4
D M Ozog
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785701/botulin-toxin-injection-to-improve-the-results-of-sphincter-overlap-in-high-grade-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-syndrome
#5
N Falco, L Pisegna Cerone, R Bellomo, A Infantino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784863/the-gpi-transamidase-complex-subunit-pbgpi16-of-plasmodium-berghei-is-important-for-inducing-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#6
Qingyang Liu, Yan Zhao, Li Zheng, Xiaotong Zhu, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
In animal models of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and GPI anchors are the major factors that induce nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and proinflammatory responses, which contribute to malaria pathogenesis. GPIs and GPI anchors are transported to the cell surface via a process called GPI transamidation, which involves the GPI transamidase (GPI-T) complex. In this study, we showed that GPI16, one of the GPI-T subunits, is highly conserved among Plasmodium species...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784857/cytosolic-delivery-of-multi-domain-cargos-by-the-n-terminus-of-pasteurella-multocida-toxin
#7
Nathan C Clemons, Yuka Bannai, Elizabeth E Haywood, Yiting Xu, James D Buschbach, Mengfei Ho, Brenda A Wilson
The zoonotic pathogen Pasteurella multocida produces a 146-kDa modular toxin (PMT) that enters host cells and manipulates intracellular signaling through action on its Gα-protein targets. The N-terminus of PMT (PMT-N) mediates cellular uptake through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by delivery of the C-terminal catalytic domain from acidic endosomes into the cytosol. The putative native cargo of PMT consists of a 710-residue polypeptide of three distinct modular subdomains (C1-C2-C3), where C1 contains a membrane localization domain (MLD), C2 has as-of-yet undefined function, and C3 catalyzes deamidation of a specific active-site glutamine residue in Gα-protein targets...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784845/interaction-of-bacterial-phenazines-with-colistimethate-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#8
Valeri V Mossine, Deborah L Chance, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are being increasingly treated in clinics with polymyxins, a class of antibiotics associated with adverse effects in the kidney, nervous system, or airways of a significant proportion of human and animal patients. Although many of the resistant pathogens display enhanced virulence, a hazard of cytotoxic interactions between polymyxin antibiotics and bacterial virulence factors (VFs) has not been assessed, to date. We report here on testing paired combinations of four Pseudomonas aeruginosa VF phenazine toxins, pyocyanin (PYO), 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), and two commonly prescribed polymyxin drugs, colistimethate (CMS)/colistin and polymyxin B, in three human airway cell lines, BEAS-2B, HBE-1, and CFT-1...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784672/genetic-screening-and-multipotency-in-rhesus-monkey-haploid-neural-progenitor-cells
#9
Haisong Wang, Wenhao Zhang, Jian Yu, Congyu Wu, Qian Gao, Xu Li, Yanni Li, Jinxin Zhang, Yaru Tian, Tao Tan, Weizhi Ji, Luyuan Li, Yang Yu, Ling Shuai
Haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) have been extensively applied in forward and reverse genetic screening. However, the mammalian haploid somatic cell line is difficult to achieve because of spontaneous diploidization in differentiation. As a non-human primate species, monkeys are widely used in basic and pre-clinical research in which haploid cells are restricted to ESCs. Here, we report that rhesus monkey haESCs in an optimized culture medium showed naïve-state pluripotency and stable haploidy. This model facilitated the derivation of haploid neural progenitor cells (haNPCs), which maintained haploidy and differentiation potential into neurons and glia for a long period in vitro High-throughput trapping mutations can be efficiently introduced into haNPCs via piggyBac transposons...
May 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784660/interleukin-6-reduces-%C3%AE-cell-oxidative-stress-by-linking-autophagy-with-the-antioxidant-response
#10
Michelle R Marasco, Abass M Conteh, Christopher A Reissaus, John E Cupit V, Evan M Appleman, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann
Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key instigator of β-cell dysfunction in diabetes. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 has previously been linked to β-cell autophagy but has not been studied in the context of β-cell antioxidant response. We used a combination of animal models of diabetes and analysis of cultured human islets and rodent β-cells to study how IL-6 influences antioxidant response. We show that IL-6 couples autophagy to antioxidant response to reduce β-cell and human islet ROS. β cell-specific loss of IL-6 signaling in vivo renders mice more susceptible to oxidative damage and cell death by the selective β-cell toxins streptozotocin and alloxan...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784499/erratum-to-antibodies-derived-from-a-toxoid-mefa-multiepitope-fusion-antigen-show-neutralizing-activities-against-heat-labile-toxin-lt-heat-stable-toxins-sta-stb-and-shiga-toxin-2e-stx2e-of-porcine-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-vet-microbiol-202-2017
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784413/a-ricin-forensic-profiling-approach-based-on-a-complex-set-of-biomarkers
#12
Sten-Åke Fredriksson, David S Wunschel, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Calle Nilsson, Karen Wahl, Crister Åstot
A forensic method for the retrospective determination of preparation methods used for illicit ricin toxin production was developed. The method was based on a complex set of biomarkers, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, seed storage proteins, in combination with data on ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin. The analyses were performed on samples prepared from four castor bean plant (R. communis) cultivars by four different sample preparation methods (PM1-PM4) ranging from simple disintegration of the castor beans to multi-step preparation methods including different protein precipitation methods...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784365/rapid-detection-of-four-mycotoxins-in-corn-using-a-microfluidics-and-microarray-based-immunoassay-system
#13
Yiqi Chen, Xiangrui Meng, Yunzeng Zhu, Minjie Shen, Ying Lu, Jing Cheng, Youchun Xu
Mycotoxins threaten human health seriously because they usually exist in food, fodder and commodities. In this study, a rapid and sensitive immunoassay system for commonly encountered mycotoxins was established based on microfluidics and protein microarrays. Four mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) can be automatically detected in a custom-made microdevice within 30 min under the assistance of a prototype of the instrument with a fluid control system and an imaging system. Once the microdevices are fabricated, they are small-sized and user-friendly...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784071/efficacy-of-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-against-mixed-cultures-of-field-collected-and-laboratory-larvae-of-aedes-aegypti-and-culex-quinquefasciatus
#14
J C Santana-Martinez, J J Silva, J Dussan
Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bacillales: Planococcaceae) is a spore-forming bacillus used for the biological control of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) due to its larvicidal activity determined by various toxins and S-layer protein produced either during sporulation or by the vegetative cell. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are the vectors of arboviruses that cause tropical diseases representing a current public health problem. Both species may coexist in the same larval development sites and are susceptible to the larvicidal activity of L...
May 22, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783772/acid-sphingomyelinase-promotes-cellular-internalization-of-clostridium-perfringens-iota-toxin
#15
Masahiro Nagahama, Masaya Takehara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Kazumi Ishidoh, Keiko Kobayashi
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ib binds to a cell surface receptor, forms Ib oligomer in lipid rafts, and associates with Ia. The Ia-Ib complex then internalizes by endocytosis. Here, we showed that acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) facilitates the cellular uptake of iota-toxin. Inhibitions of ASMase and lysosomal exocytosis by respective blockers depressed cell rounding induced by iota-toxin...
May 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783743/cell-propagation-of-cholera-toxin-cta-adp-ribosylating-factor-by-exosome-mediated-transfer
#16
Cristiana Zanetti, Angelo Gallina, Alessia Fabbri, Sofia Parisi, Angela Palermo, Katia Fecchi, Zaira Boussadia, Maria Carollo, Mario Falchi, Luca Pasquini, Maria Luisa Fiani, Massimo Sargiacomo
In this study, we report how the cholera toxin (CT) A subunit (CTA), the enzyme moiety responsible for signaling alteration in host cells, enters the exosomal pathway, secretes extracellularly, transmits itself to a cell population. The first evidence for long-term transmission of CT's toxic effect via extracellular vesicles was obtained in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To follow the CT intracellular route towards exosome secretion, we used a novel strategy for generating metabolically-labeled fluorescent exosomes that can be counted by flow cytometry assay (FACS) and characterized...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783636/transcriptomic-analysis-of-pseudoscorpion-venom-reveals-a-unique-cocktail-dominated-by-enzymes-and-protease-inhibitors
#17
Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Andrew Z Ontano, Mark S Harvey, Prashant P Sharma
Transcriptomic and genomic analyses have illuminated the diversity of venoms in three of the four venomous arachnid orders (scorpions, spiders, and ticks). To date, no venom gland transcriptome analysis has been available for pseudoscorpions, the fourth venomous arachnid lineage. To redress this gap, we sequenced an mRNA library generated from the venom glands of the species Synsphyronus apimelus (Garypidae). High-throughput sequencing by the Illumina protocol, followed by de novo assembly, resulted in a total of 238,331 transcripts...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783632/effects-of-dietary-arginine-ornithine-and-zeolite-supplementation-on-uremic-toxins-in-cats
#18
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783628/is-3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate-cmpf-a-clinically-relevant-uremic-toxin-in-haemodialysis-patients
#19
Mathilde Luce, Anais Bouchara, Myriam Pastural, Samuel Granjon, Jean Christophe Szelag, Maurice Laville, Walid Arkouche, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage, Laetitia Koppe
3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF) is a metabolite of furan fatty acid and a marker of fish oil intake. CMPF is described as a protein-bound uremic toxin and interacts with free oxygen radicals, which can induce cell damages. However, the clinical consequences of CMPF accumulation in haemodialysis patients remain poorly documented. The aims of this study are to investigate potential association between CMPF levels and (i) biochemical and nutritional parameters; (ii) cardiovascular events and (iii) mortality...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782950/geographic-range-expansion-of-tetrodotoxin-in-amphibians-first-record-in-atelopus-hoogmoedi-from-the-guiana-shield
#20
Dietrich Mebs, Max Lorentz, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Daniela C Rößler, Raffael Ernst, Stefan Lötters
For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by high resolution hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. One specimen from Suriname was found to contain TTX and 4-epiTTX. Using a monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical staining technique, TTX was localized mainly in the granular glands and epithelium of the skin, but not in internal organs except liver showing weak TTX-positive reaction...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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