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Lupus atherosclerosis statin

Michael Garshick, James A Underberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many guidelines exist for the use of statins in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Few have focused on disease specific states that predispose to ASCVD. This review is intended to focus on the recommendations and evidence in inflammatory diseases that predispose to an increased risk of ASCVD beyond what conventional cardiac risk scores would predict. RECENT FINDINGS: Certain autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), and psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis have all been shown to increase the risk of ASCVD...
October 17, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
F A Yousef Yengej, M Limper, H L Leavis
OBJECTIVE: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of long-term morbidity, which could be affected by statin use. Here we review the evidence for the use of statins for the prevention of CVD in patients with SLE. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using a query combining SLE and statins. RESULTS: The search yielded nine relevant clinical studies. Seven studies reported on radiological findings that correlate with atherosclerosis and mainly revealed that statin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in progression of carotid intima-media thickness and an increase in flow-mediated vasodilatation...
April 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Melinda Zsuzsanna Szabó, Peter Szodoray, Emese Kiss
Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Accelerated atherosclerosis is related to traditional (age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, and positive family history) and non-traditional, disease-related factors. Traditional risk factors are still more prominent in patients with lupus, as both hypertension and hypercholesterinemia were independently associated with premature atherosclerosis in several SLE cohorts...
April 2017: Immunologic Research
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
R Castejon, A Castañeda, A Sollet, S Mellor-Pita, P Tutor-Ureta, C Jimenez-Ortiz, M Yebra-Bango
Objectives Statins have been proposed as a potential treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) due to their immunomodulatory properties, their role restoring endothelial function and preventing atherosclerosis. We evaluate the effect of a short period treatment with a low dose of atorvastatin and its withdrawal on early stage subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Thirty-seven SLE females received 20 mg/day atorvastatin during eight weeks. At baseline, at the end of treatment and six months after atorvastatin withdrawal, disease activity, subclinical atherosclerosis -assessed by measuring carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) - and quantification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) - as a surrogate biological marker of subclinical atherosclerosis - were carried out...
April 2017: Lupus
Konstantinos Tselios, Charalambos Koumaras, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz
OBJECTIVE: Among traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, dyslipidemia is believed to decisively affect the long-term prognosis of lupus patients, not only with regard to cardiovascular events but also by influencing other manifestations, such as lupus nephritis. The aim of this study was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, evidence for its impact on atherosclerosis manifestations and management of dyslipidemia in lupus patients. METHODS: English-restricted MEDLINE database search (Medical Subject Headings: lupus or systemic lupus erythematosus and dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia)...
April 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Ch Lopez-Pedrera, M A Aguirre, P Ruiz-Limon, C Pérez-Sánchez, Y Jimenez-Gomez, N Barbarroja, M J Cuadrado
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a disorder characterized by the association of arterial or venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and/or anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies). Thrombosis is the major manifestation in patients with aPLs, but the spectrum of symptoms and signs associated with aPLs has broadened considerably, and other manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia, non-thrombotic neurological syndromes, psychiatric manifestations, livedo reticularis, skin ulcers, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac valve abnormality, and atherosclerosis, have also been related to the presence of those antibodies...
August 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Ada Lo Schiavo, Rosa Valentina Puca, Francesca Romano, Roberto Cozzi
Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear...
2014: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Zoubida Tazi Mezalek, Hicham Harmouche, Wafaa Ammouri, Mouna Maamar, Mohamed Adnaoui, Patrice Cacoub
CONTEXT: Evidence from epidemiological studies demonstrates that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors' play an important role in this phenomenon but do not account for the entire risk in lupus patients. OBJECTIVES: The incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular events and infraclinical atherosclerosis are reviewed. Combinations of traditional risk factors with lupus-specific and treatment-related variables are detailed...
October 2014: La Presse Médicale
Erwan Salaun, Michel Alain Bartoli, Raphael Soler, Hajar Khibri, Mickael Ebbo, Emmanuelle Bernit, Antonin Flavian, Jean Robert Harlé, Pierre Edouard Magnan, Gabrielle Sarlon-Bartoli
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder with combination of at least 1 clinical and 1 laboratory criterion as defined by the SAPPORO statement. Clinical criteria result from vascular thrombosis that can affect artery, venous, or small vessel in any tissue or organ. Arterial stenosis is a rare lesion involved in APS, affecting mainly renal or intracranial arteries. We reported a case of a 33-year-old woman with abdominal angina and high blood pressure (BP). Imaging showed tight, not calcified, and hypodense stenosis of mesenteric superior artery and left renal artery, and a thrombosis of the celiac trunk...
October 2014: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Patricia Ruiz-Limon, Nuria Barbarroja, Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Maria Angeles Aguirre, Maria Laura Bertolaccini, Munther A Khamashta, Antonio Rodriguez-Ariza, Yolanda Almadén, Pedro Segui, Husam Khraiwesh, Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Reyes, Jose Manuel Villalba, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Maria Jose Cuadrado, Chary Lopez-Pedrera
OBJECTIVE: Statins may have beneficial vascular effects in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) beyond their cholesterol-lowering action, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. We investigated potential mechanisms involved in the efficacy of fluvastatin in preventing atherothrombosis in SLE. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with SLE and 62 healthy donors were included in the study. Selected patients (n=27) received 20 mg/day fluvastatin for 1 month...
July 2015: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Jason S Knight, Mariana J Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improved management of the classical disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. This review in particular focuses on progress over the past year in clinical and basic aspects of SLE-driven accelerated atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Both subclinical CVD and CV events continue to be recognized at increased frequency in previously unstudied lupus cohorts and populations...
September 2013: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Julie Barsalou, Deborah M Levy, Earl D Silverman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This manuscript will provide a review of studies published in the last year examining the major disease manifestations, comorbidities, biomarkers and therapeutic trials involving childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent multicenter prospective cohort studies supported previous findings that cSLE patients accrue damage early on their disease. Four studies showed that ethnicity altered disease severity and incidence of both cSLE and lupus nephritis...
September 2013: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
George Stojan, Michelle Petri
Accelerated atherosclerosis and its long-term sequelae are a major cause of late mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and smoking do not account in entirety for this risk. SLE specific factors like disease activity and duration, use of corticosteroids, presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and others are important risk factors. SLE is considered a coronary heart disease; equivalent and aggressive management of all traditional risk factors is recommended...
September 2013: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Saakshi Khattri, Gisele Zandman-Goddard
Statins have immunomodulatory effects. Hence, they could be advantageous for different reasons. First, statins can serve as adjunct therapy in autoimmune diseases. Second, they may play a role in the prevention of accelerated atherosclerosis in the same population. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of immune regulation by statins and review the literature for their benefit in many autoimmune diseases. In these studies, statins lead to an improvement in the disease activity scores in rheumatoid arthritis patients; a reduction in prothrombotic factors in anti-phospholipid syndrome patients; changes in vasculature, proteinuria, and cardiac events in systemic lupus erythematosus patients; changes in vasculature and proteinuria in patients with vasculitis; disease activity scores in ankylosing spondylitis; and finally vascular changes in patients with systemic sclerosis...
July 2013: Immunologic Research
Stacy P Ardoin, Laura Eve Schanberg, Christy I Sandborg, Huiman X Barnhart, Greg W Evans, Eric Yow, Kelly L Mieszkalski, Norman T Ilowite, Anne Eberhard, Lisa F Imundo, Yuki Kimura, Deborah Levy, Emily von Scheven, Earl Silverman, Suzanne L Bowyer, L Punaro, Nora G Singer, David D Sherry, Deborah K McCurdy, Marissa Klein-Gitelman, Carol Wallace, Richard M Silver, Linda Wagner-Weiner, Gloria C Higgins, Hermine I Brunner, Lawrence Jung, Jennifer B Soep, Ann M Reed, Susan D Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Participants in the Atherosclerosis Prevention in Paediatric Lupus Erythematosus (APPLE) trial were randomised to placebo or atorvastatin for 36 months. The primary endpoint, reduced carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) progression, was not met but atorvastatin-treated participants showed a trend of slower CIMT progression. Post-hoc analyses were performed to assess subgroup benefit from atorvastatin therapy. METHODS: Subgroups were prespecified and defined by age (> or ≤15...
March 2014: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Sumeet Gandhi, Neeraj Narula, John K Marshall, Michael Farkouh
The inflammatory state of atherosclerosis has been established as those with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, who are at increased risk of coronary artery disease. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve high-quality, peer-reviewed studies of inflammatory bowel disease and coronary artery disease. Recent literature supports an association between inflammatory bowel disease and coronary artery disease. While hypertension increases the risk of coronary artery disease in inflammatory bowel disease patients, other typical risk factors have not been confirmed, and markers of inflammation may predict coronary artery disease risk in this population...
October 2012: American Journal of Medicine
Haiyan Tu, Qi Li, Shilong Xiang, Hong Jiang, Youying Mao, Zhangfei Shou, Jianghua Chen
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis independent of traditional risk factors. Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been widely prescribed for hyperlipidemia, which could slow the atherosclerosis progression, and reduce cardiovascular disease events. Nonetheless, accumulated evidences suggested that statins exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions independent of their lipid-lowering effects...
May 2012: Atherosclerosis
Chary Lopez-Pedrera, Patricia Ruiz-Limon, Araceli Valverde-Estepa, Nuria Barbarroja, Antonio Rodriguez-Ariza
Statins have been successfully used in patients with hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases, but there is increasing evidence that they exert effects by much exceeding the lowering of cholesterol levels. Statins have antiatherosclerotic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antithrombotic effects. These "pleiotropic" effects stem from their inhibition of prenylation of the small GTP-binding proteins Ras and Rho, and to the disruption, or depletion, of cholesterol rich membrane micro-domains (membrane rafts)...
June 2012: Current Drug Targets
M John Chapman
Atherogenic dyslipidemia is characterised by high levels of triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and moderate to marked elevations in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations; such dyslipidemia is further characterised by high apolipoprotein B (apoB): apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) ratios. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated that statins are effective in lowering LDL-C and reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with dyslipidemia. However, the most effective treatments should target all of the key atherogenic features, rather than LDL-C alone...
November 2011: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
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