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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259712/pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-potential-of-cardiac-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Hironori Hara, Norifumi Takeda, Issei Komuro
Inflammatory and fibrotic responses to myocardial damage are essential for cardiac repair; however, these responses often result in extensive fibrotic remodeling with impaired systolic function. Recent reports have suggested that such acute phase responses provide a favorable environment for endogenous cardiac regeneration, which is mainly driven by the division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes (CMs). Existing CMs in mammals can re-acquire proliferative activity after substantial cardiac damage, and elements other than CMs in the physiological and/or pathological environment, such as hypoxia, angiogenesis, and the polarity of infiltrating macrophages, have been reported to regulate replication...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249393/therapeutic-benefit-and-gene-network-regulation-by-combined-gene-transfer-of-apelin-fgf2-and-serca2a-into-ischemic-heart
#3
Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Florence Tatin, Fransky Hantelys, Benoît Lebas, Denis Calise, Oksana Kunduzova, Bernard Masri, Françoise Pujol, Pierre Sicard, Philippe Valet, Jérôme Roncalli, Xavier Chaufour, Barbara Garmy-Susini, Angelo Parini, Anne-Catherine Prats
Despite considerable advances in cardiovascular disease treatment, heart failure remains a public health challenge. In this context, gene therapy appears as an attractive approach, but clinical trials using single therapeutic molecules result in moderate benefit. With the objective of improving ischemic heart failure therapy, we designed a combined treatment, aimed to simultaneously stimulate angiogenesis, prevent cardiac remodeling, and restore contractile function. We have previously validated IRES-based vectors as powerful tools to co-express genes of interest...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238626/c-kit-positive-cardiac-outgrowth-cells-demonstrate-better-ability-for-cardiac-recovery-against-ischemic-myopathy
#4
Chuan Li, Satoshi Matsushita, Zhengqing Li, Jianjun Guan, Atsushi Amano
Objective: Resident cardiac stem cells are expected to be a therapeutic option for patients who suffer from severe heart failure. However, uncertainty remains over whether sorting cells for c-kit, a stem cell marker, improves therapeutic outcomes. Materials and methods: Cardiac outgrowth cells cultured from explants of rat heart atrium were sorted according to their positivity (+) or negativity (-) for c-kit. These cells were exposed to hypoxia for 3 d, and subsequently harvested for mRNA expression measurement...
October 2017: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146733/effects-of-chronically-increased-vegf-a-on-the-aging-heart
#5
Alexander G Marneros
Whether approaches to chronically increase VEGF-A in the heart may have beneficial effects and prevent the development of heart failure, in part by improving cardiac perfusion, or whether this increase could have detrimental effects on cardiac performance in the aging heart, has not been tested yet. In this study, a genetic mouse model with a chronic increase in VEGF-A in the heart is shown to have increased cardiac angiogenesis and develop cardiac hypertrophy with enhanced basal cardiac performance with age progression...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977054/endostatin-a-potential-biomarker-for-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#7
Michael Coll Barroso, Philip Boehme, Frank Kramer, Thomas Mondritzki, Till Koehler, Jan-Erik Gülker, Martin Karoff, Wilfried Dinh
BACKGROUND: Endostatin is a circulating endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor preventing neovascularization. Previous studies demonstrated the prognostic value of Endostatin among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, the role of Endostatin among patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between serum Endostatin levels, natriuretic peptide levels and the severity of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the diagnosis of HFpEF...
September 28, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975588/glycosylated-chromogranin-a-potential-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Anett H Ottesen, Geir Christensen, Torbjørn Omland, Helge Røsjø
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocrine and paracrine factors influence the cardiovascular system and the heart by a number of different mechanisms. The chromogranin-secretogranin (granin) proteins seem to represent a new family of proteins that exerts both direct and indirect effects on cardiac and vascular functions. The granin proteins are produced in multiple tissues, including cardiac cells, and circulating granin protein concentrations provide incremental prognostic information to established risk indices in patients with myocardial dysfunction...
December 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955040/proteomic-footprint-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-longitudinal-study-of-the-at-risk-and-remote-regions-in-the-pig-model
#9
Aleksandra Binek, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Inmaculada Jorge, Emilio Camafeita, Juan Antonio López, Navratan Bagwan, Carlos Galán-Arriola, Andres Pun, Jaume Agüero, Valentin Fuster, Borja Ibanez, Jesús Vázquez
Reperfusion alters post-myocardial infarction (MI) healing; however, very few systematic studies report the early molecular changes following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Alterations in the remote myocardium have also been neglected, disregarding its contribution to post-MI heart failure (HF) development. This study characterizes protein dynamics and contractile abnormalities in the ischemic and remote myocardium during one week after MI. Closed-chest 40 min I/R was performed in 20 pigs sacrificed at 120 min, 24 hours, 4days, and 7days after reperfusion (n = 5 per group)...
September 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954833/reactive-oxygen-species-signalling-in-the-diabetic-heart-emerging-prospect-for-therapeutic-targeting
#10
REVIEW
Adam J Wilson, Eleanor K Gill, Rawan A Abudalo, Kevin S Edgar, Chris J Watson, David J Grieve
Despite being first described 45 years ago, the existence of a distinct diabetic cardiomyopathy remains controversial. Nonetheless, it is widely accepted that the diabetic heart undergoes characteristic structural and functional changes in the absence of ischaemia and hypertension, which are independently linked to heart failure progression and are likely to underlie enhanced susceptibility to stress. A prominent feature is marked collagen accumulation linked with inflammation and extensive extracellular matrix changes, which appears to be the main factor underlying cardiac stiffness and subclinical diastolic dysfunction, estimated to occur in as many as 75% of optimally controlled diabetics...
September 27, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936442/cardiotoxicity-of-cancer-chemotherapy-identification-prevention-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Diwakar Jain, Tauseef Ahmad, Mitchel Cairo, Wilbert Aronow
Cardiotoxicity is an important complication of several cancer therapeutic agents. Several well established and newer anticancer therapies such as anthracyclines, trastuzumab and other HER2 receptor blockers, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), angiogenesis inhibitors, and checkpoint inhibitors are associated with significant cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular imaging employing radionuclide imaging, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in early detection and prevention of overt heart failure secondary to cardiotoxicity of cancer therapy...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842125/the-role-of-mir-214-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Lei Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Cuiyun Liu, Wanpeng Yu, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death throughout the world. The increase in new patients every year leads to a demand for the identification of valid and novel prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical endogenous small noncoding RNAs that negatively modulate gene expression by regulating its translation. miRNAs are implicated in most physiological processes of the heart and in the pathological progression of cardiovascular diseases...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818266/microrna-93-elevation-after-myocardial-infarction-is-cardiac-protective
#13
Kai Li, Tao Lin, Lingdan Chen, Neng Wang
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one of the most serious diseases that endangers human health worldwide, myocardial infarction (MI) is an acute form of CAD. Recent developments in MI therapies have resulted in significant reductions in mortality. However, subsequent chronic congestive heart failure and ventricle remodeling plagues an increasing number of MI patients. MicroRNAs (miR) have been reported to be involved in the process of cardiac remodeling, a recent study shows that miR-93 is elevated in the blood of CAD patients...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796163/hypertension-caused-by-lenvatinib-and-everolimus-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Mathias Alrø Fichtner Bendtsen, Daniela Grimm, Johann Bauer, Markus Wehland, Petra Wise, Nils E Magnusson, Manfred Infanger, Marcus Krüger
Multikinase inhibitors (MKI) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors prolong progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by reducing angiogenesis and tumor growth. In this regard, the MKI lenvatinib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus proved effective when applied alone, but more effective when they were administered combined. Recently, both drugs were included in clinical trials, resulting in international clinical guidelines for the treatment of mRCC...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743805/ephrinb2-regulates-cardiac-fibrosis-through-modulating-the-interaction-of-stat3-and-tgf-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling
#15
Sheng-An Su, Du Yang, Yue Wu, Yao Xie, Wei Zhu, Zhejun Cai, Jian Shen, Zurong Fu, Yaping Wang, Liangliang Jia, Yidong Wang, Jian-An Wang, Meixiang Xiang
RATIONALE: Cardiac fibrosis is a common feature in left ventricular remodeling that leads to heart failure, regardless of the cause. EphrinB2 (erythropoietin-producing hepatoma interactor B2), a pivotal bidirectional signaling molecule ubiquitously expressed in mammals, is crucial in angiogenesis during development and disease progression. Recently, EphrinB2 was reported to protect kidneys from injury-induced fibrogenesis. However, its role in cardiac fibrosis remains to be clarified...
September 1, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737214/decline-in-cellular-function-of-aged-mouse-c-kit-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#16
Alessandra Castaldi, Ramsinh Mansinh Dodia, Amabel M Orogo, Cristina M Zambrano, Rita H Najor, Åsa B Gustafsson, Joan Heller Brown, Nicole H Purcell
KEY POINTS: While autologous stem cell-based therapies are currently being tested on elderly patients, there are limited data on the function of aged stem cells and in particular c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We isolated c-kit(+) cells from young (3 months) and aged (24 months) C57BL/6 mice to compare their biological properties. Aged CPCs have increased senescence, decreased stemness and reduced capacity to proliferate or to differentiate following dexamethasone (Dex) treatment in vitro, as evidenced by lack of cardiac lineage gene upregulation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724653/haplodeficiency-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-accelerates-heart-failure-after-myocardial-infarction
#17
Lixin Jia, Wenmei Zhang, Youcai Ma, Boya Chen, Yan Liu, Chunmei Piao, Yuan Wang, Min Yang, Tingting Liu, Junmeng Zhang, Taotao Li, Shaoping Nie, Jie Du
BACKGROUND: Cell senescence is involved in the process of organ damage and repair; however, the underlying molecular mechanism needs to be further explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: Senescence-related genes (ie, p21, p53, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM]) were shown to be elevated after myocardial infarction (MI) in both mouse and human hearts. Ten- to 12-week-old male wild-type littermates (ATM+/+) and ATM heterozygous mice (ATM+/-) were subjected to MI. Cardiac echography showed that ATM haplodeficiency did not affect the survival rate but aggravated heart failure at day 28 post MI...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688145/therapeutic-concentrations-of-digitoxin-inhibit-endothelial-focal-adhesion-kinase-and-angiogenesis-induced-by-different-growth-factors
#18
Annalisa Trenti, Elisabetta Zulato, Lorenza Pasqualini, Stefano Indraccolo, Chiara Bolego, Lucia Trevisi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiac glycosides are Na(+) /K(+) -ATPases inhibitors used to treat congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Epidemiological studies indicate that patients on digitalis therapy are more protected from cancer. Evidence of a selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells has suggested their potential use as anticancer drugs. The effect on angiogenesis of clinically used cardiac glycosides has not been extensively explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We studied the effect of digoxin, digitoxin and ouabain on early events of the angiogenic process in HUVECs...
September 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683969/impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-the-heart%C3%A2-and-vasculature-part-2-of-a-3-part-series
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Münzel, Giovanni G Camici, Christoph Maack, Nicole R Bonetti, Valentin Fuster, Jason C Kovacic
Vascular disease and heart failure impart an enormous burden in terms of global morbidity and mortality. Although there are many different causes of cardiac and vascular disease, most causes share an important pathological mechanism: oxidative stress. In the failing heart, oxidative stress occurs in the myocardium and correlates with left ventricular dysfunction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively affect myocardial calcium handling, cause arrhythmia, and contribute to cardiac remodeling by inducing hypertrophic signaling, apoptosis, and necrosis...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650928/circulating-exosomes-isolated-from-septic-mice-induce-cardiovascular-hyperpermeability-through-promoting-podosome-cluster-formation
#20
Xingjiang Mu, Xiaohong Wang, Wei Huang, Rui-Tao Wang, Kobina Essandoh, Yutian Li, Amanda M Pugh, Jiangtong Peng, Shan Deng, Yigang Wang, Charles C Caldwell, Tianqing Peng, Kai-Jiang Yu, Guo-Chang Fan
Septic shock increases vascular permeability, leading to multiple organ failure including cardiac dysfunction, a major contributor to septic death. Podosome, an actin-based dynamic membrane structure, plays critical roles in extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. However, whether podosome contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. In this study, we found that the endothelial hyperpermeability, stimulated by PMA and thrombin, was accompanied by increased formation of podosome clusters at the cell periphery, indicating a positive correlation between podosome clusters and endothelial leakage...
June 23, 2017: Shock
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