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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220797/primaquine-hybrids-as-promising-antimycobacterial-and-antimalarial-agents
#1
Kristina Pavić, Ivana Perković, Šárka Pospíšilová, Marta Machado, Diana Fontinha, Miguel Prudêncio, Josef Jampilek, Aidan Coffey, Lorraine Endersen, Hrvoje Rimac, Branka Zorc
Four series of primaquine (PQ) derivatives were screened for antitubercular and antiplasmodial activity: amides 1a-k, ureas 2a-s, semicarbazides 3a-c and bis-ureas 4a-u. Antimycobacterial activity of PQ derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in vitro and compared with PQ and the standard antitubercular drugs. In general, the PQ derivatives showed higher potency than the parent compound. Most of the compounds of series 1 and 2 showed high activity against MAP, comparable or even higher than the relevant drug ciprofloxacin, and weak or no activity against MTB and MAC...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220521/trypanosomatid-mitochondrial-rna-editing-dramatically-complex-transcript-repertoires-revealed-with-a-dedicated-mapping-tool
#2
Evgeny S Gerasimov, Anna A Gasparyan, Iosif Kaurov, Boris Tichý, Maria D Logacheva, Alexander A Kolesnikov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Sara L Zimmer, Pavel Flegontov
RNA editing by targeted insertion and deletion of uridine is crucial to generate translatable mRNAs from the cryptogenes of the mitochondrial genome of kinetoplastids. This type of editing consists of a stepwise cascade of reactions generally proceeding from 3' to 5' on a transcript, resulting in a population of partially edited as well as pre-edited and completely edited molecules for each mitochondrial cryptogene of these protozoans. Often, the number of uridines inserted and deleted exceed the number of nucleotides that are genome-encoded...
December 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220519/aggregation-patterns-sampling-plan-and-economic-injury-levels-for-the-new-citrus-pest-delottococcus-aberiae-hemiptera-pseudococcidae
#3
J Pérez-Rodríguez, V Martínez-Blay, A Soto, J Selfa, C Monzó, A Urbaneja, A Tena
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is the latest exotic mealybug species introduced in citrus in the Mediterranean basin. It causes severe distortion and size reduction on developing fruits. Due to its first interaction with citrus, D. aberiae economic thresholds are still unknown for this crop and the current Integrated Pest Management programs have been disrupted. The objectives of this study were to determine the aggregation patterns of D. aberiae in citrus, develop an efficient sampling plan to assess its population density, and calculate its Economic and Economic Environmental Injury Levels (EIL and EEIL, respectively)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220515/busco-applications-from-quality-assessments-to-gene-prediction-and-phylogenomics
#4
Robert M Waterhouse, Mathieu Seppey, Felipe A Simão, Mosè Manni, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Guennadi Klioutchnikov, Evgenia V Kriventseva, Evgeny M Zdobnov
Genomics promises comprehensive surveying of genomes and metagenomes, but rapidly changing technologies and expanding data volumes make evaluation of completeness a challenging task. Technical sequencing quality metrics can be complemented by quantifying completeness of genomic datasets in terms of the expected gene content of Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO, http://busco.ezlab.org). The latest software release implements a complete refactoring of the code to make it more flexible and extendable to facilitate high-throughput assessments...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220506/a-molecular-portrait-of-de-novo-genes-in-yeasts
#5
Nikolaos N Vakirlis, Alex S Hebert, Dana A Opulente, Guillaume Achaz, Chris Todd Hittinger, Gilles Fischer, Joshua J Coon, Ingrid Lafontaine
New genes, with novel protein functions, can evolve "from scratch" out of intergenic sequences. These de novo genes can integrate the cell's genetic network and drive important phenotypic innovations. Therefore, identifying de novo genes and understanding how the transition from noncoding to coding occurs are key problems in evolutionary biology. However, identifying de novo genes is a difficult task, hampered by the presence of remote homologs, fast evolving sequences and erroneously annotated protein coding genes...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220487/ancestral-genome-estimation-reveals-the-history-of-ecological-diversification-in-agrobacterium
#6
Florent Lassalle, Rémi Planel, Simon Penel, David Chapulliot, Valérie Barbe, Audrey Dubost, Alexandra Calteau, David Vallenet, Damien Mornico, Thomas Bigot, Laurent Guéguen, Ludovic Vial, Daniel Muller, Vincent Daubin, Xavier Nesme
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is considered as a major source of innovation in bacteria, and as such is expected to drive adaptation to new ecological niches. However, among the many genes acquired through HGT along the diversification history of genomes, only a fraction may have actively contributed to sustained ecological adaptation. We used a phylogenetic approach accounting for the transfer of genes (or groups of genes) to estimate the history of genomes in Agrobacterium biovar 1, a diverse group of soil and plant-dwelling bacterial species...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218538/belowground-competition-drives-invasive-plant-impact-on-native-species-regardless-of-nitrogen-availability
#7
Arthur Broadbent, Carly J Stevens, Duane A Peltzer, Nicholas J Ostle, Kate H Orwin
Plant invasions and eutrophication are pervasive drivers of global change that cause biodiversity loss. Yet, how invasive plant impacts on native species, and the mechanisms underpinning these impacts, vary in relation to increasing nitrogen (N) availability remains unclear. Competition is often invoked as a likely mechanism, but the relative importance of the above and belowground components of this is poorly understood, particularly under differing levels of N availability. To help resolve these issues, we quantified the impact of a globally invasive grass species, Agrostis capillaris, on two co-occurring native New Zealand grasses, and vice versa...
December 7, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218508/use-of-huh6-and-other-human-derived-hepatoma-lines-for-the-detection-of-genotoxins-a-new-hope-for-laboratory-animals
#8
Monika Waldherr, Miroslav Mišík, Franziska Ferk, Jana Tomc, Bojana Žegura, Metka Filipič, Wolfgang Mikulits, Sören Mai, Oskar Haas, Wolfgang W Huber, Elisabeth Haslinger, Siegfried Knasmüller
Cell lines which are currently used in genotoxicity tests lack enzymes which activate/detoxify mutagens. Therefore, rodent-derived liver preparations are used which reflect their metabolism in humans only partly; as a consequence misleading results are often obtained. Previous findings suggest that certain liver cell lines express phase I/II enzymes and detect promutagens without activation; however, their use is hampered by different shortcomings. The aim of this study was the identification of a suitable cell line...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218137/low-temperature-limits-for-root-growth-in-alpine-species-are-set-by-cell-differentiation
#9
Sebastian Nagelmüller, Erika Hiltbrunner, Christian Körner
Plant growth in cold climates is not limited by carbon assimilation (source activity) but rather by reduced carbon investment into new tissues (sink limitation). It has been hypothesized that all cold-adapted plants face similar growth constraints at low temperature mainly associated with the formation of new tissues. To explore the thermal limitation of plant tissue formation, we studied root growth and anatomical root tissue characteristics in four cold-adapted alpine species (Ranunculus glacialis, Rumex alpinus, Tussilago farfara, Poa alpina), grown in thermostated soils with a vertical temperature gradient approaching 1 °C...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218050/heme-drives-oxidative-stress-associated-cell-death-in-human-neutrophils-infected-with-leishmania-infantum
#10
Graziele Quintela-Carvalho, Nívea F Luz, Fabiana S Celes, Dalila L Zanette, Daniela Andrade, Diego Menezes, Natália M Tavares, Claudia I Brodskyn, Deboraci B Prates, Marilda S Gonçalves, Camila I de Oliveira, Roque P Almeida, Marcelo T Bozza, Bruno B Andrade, Valeria M Borges
Free heme is an inflammatory molecule capable of inducing migration and activation of neutrophils. Here, we examine the heme-driven oxidative stress-associated cell death mechanisms in human neutrophils infected with Leishmania infantum, an etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We first performed exploratory analyses in a population of well characterized treatment-naïve VL patients as well as uninfected controls, who were part of previously reported studies. We noted a positive correlation between serum concentrations of heme with heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and lactate deydrogenase, as well as, a negative correlation between heme values and peripheral blood neutrophils counts...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217751/cellular-basis-of-brain-maturation-and-acquisition-of-complex-behaviors-in-salamanders
#11
Alberto Joven, Heng Wang, Tiago Pinheiro, L Shahul Hameed, Laure Belnoue, András Simon
The overall bauplan of the tetrapod brain is highly conserved, yet significant variations exist among species in terms of brain size, structural composition and cellular diversity. Understanding processes underlying neural and behavioral development in a wide range of species is important both from an evolutionary developmental perspective as well as for the identification of cell sources with post-developmental neurogenic potential. Here we characterize germinal processes in the brain of Notophthalmus viridescens and Pleurodeles waltl during both development and adulthood...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217522/drosophila-syd-1-has-rhogap-activity-that-is-required-for-presynaptic-clustering-of-bruchpilot-elks-but-not-neurexin-1
#12
Michael A Spinner, David A Walla, Tory G Herman
Syd-1 proteins are required for presynaptic development in worm, fly, and mouse. Syd-1s in all three species contain a Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP)-like domain of unclear significance. Invertebrate Syd-1s are thought to lack GAP activity, and mouse mSYD1A has GAP activity that is thought to be dispensible for its function. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Syd-1 can interact with all six fly Rhos and has GAP activity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. During development, fly Syd-1 clusters multiple presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), including the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin (Nrx-1) and the active zone (AZ) component Bruchpilot (Brp), both of which Syd-1 binds directly...
December 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217417/cat-fleas-ctenocephalides-felis-carrying-rickettsia-felis-and-bartonella-species-in-hong-kong
#13
Jan Šlapeta, Andrea Lawrence, Michael P Reichel
Fleas are commonly recorded on stray as well as domestic dogs and cats in Hong Kong. Fleas can be a major cause of pruritus in dogs and cats and also vectors of potentially zoonotic bacteria in the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella. Morphological examination of 174 fleas from dogs and cats living in Hong Kong revealed only cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) genotyping of 20 randomly selected specimens, revealed three cox1 haplotypes (HK-h1 to HK-h3). The most common haplotype was HK-h1 with 17 specimens (17/20, 85%)...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217385/4-methylesculetin-a-coumarin-derivative-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-intestinal-inflammation
#14
Aline Witaicenis, Ellen Cristina Souza de Oliveira, Alexandre Tanimoto, Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Silvio Luiz de Oliveira, Alexandrina Sartori, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
4-methylesculetin is one of the coumarin derivatives with great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies shown that 4-methylesculetin has a promising potentiality to treat inflammatory diseases, especially those related to reactive oxygen species, as inflammatory bowel disease. Based on this, the present study aims to investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of 4-methylesculetin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model. For this purpose, mice received DSS 5% for 5 days followed by 2 days of filtered tap water...
December 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217383/detection-of-latino-virus-arenaviridae-mammarenavirus-naturally-infecting-calomys-callidus
#15
Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Ana Claudia Pereira Terças, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira Coelho, Ortrud Monika Barth, Sergio Paulo D'Andrea, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Mammarenavirus species are associated with a specific rodent host species, although an increasing number of virus has been associated to more than one host, suggesting that co-evolution is less robust than initially thought. There are few eco-epidemiological studies of South America mammarenaviruses in non-endemic areas of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fever, affecting specially our current knowledge about animal reservoirs and virus range and host-virus relations. In Brazil, seven arenavirus species were described in seven different rodent species...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217382/new-records-of-13-species-of-black-flies-diptera-simuliidae-from-myanmar
#16
Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Wanchai Maleewong, Atiporn Saeung
A faunistic survey of black flies in Shan State, central Myanmar, was carried out in 2013. A total of 16 species were collected, of which 13 species are newly recorded from Myanmar. Among 13 newly recorded species, S. (S.) chiangmaiense Takaoka & Suzuki varied in the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to 10. This survey increases the number of species of black flies from Myanmar from 8 to 23. They are classified in five subgenera of the genus Simulium: one in Asiosimulium, seven in Gomphostilbia, one in Montisimulium, two in Nevermannia and 12 in Simulium...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217269/bacterial-and-fungal-composition-profiling-of-microbial-based-cleaning-products
#18
R M Subasinghe, A D Samarajeewa, M Meier, G Coleman, H Clouthier, J Crosthwait, A F Tayabali, R Scroggins, P S Shwed, L A Beaudette
Microbial based cleaning products (MBCPs) are a new generation of cleaning products that are gaining greater use in household, institutional, and industrial settings. Little is known about the exact microbial composition of these products because they are not identified in detail on product labels and formulations are often proprietary. To gain a better understanding of their microbial and fungal composition towards risk assessment, the cultivable microorganisms and rDNA was surveyed for microbial content in five different MBCPs manufactured and sold in North America...
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216824/use-of-a-mixed-culture-strategy-to-isolate-halophilic-bacteria-with-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activity-from-the-manaure-solar-saltern-in-colombia
#19
Natalia Conde-Martínez, Alejandro Acosta-González, Luis E Díaz, Edisson Tello
BACKGROUND: Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216781/comparative-analyses-of-species-delimitation-methods-with-molecular-data-in-snappers-perciformes-lutjaninae
#20
Raimundo da Silva, Pedro L V Peloso, Marcelo José Sturaro, Ivana Veneza, Iracilda Sampaio, Horacio Schneider, Grazielle Gomes
The integration of approaches that allow the incorporation of stochasticity of gene histories with phylogenetic methods resulted in new approaches for the old issue of species delimitation. Nevertheless, coalescent methods seem problematic for taxa with large effective population size and shallow temporal diversification (like marine fishes). Here, we investigate the performance of single-locus (cytochrome oxidase 1, commonly used in DNA barcoding initiatives) methods for molecular species delimitation in snappers of Lutjaninae from the Western Atlantic and Pacific Eastern...
December 7, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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