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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445814/comprehensive-profiling-and-characterization-of-coumarins-from-roots-stems-leaves-branches-and-seeds-of-chimonanthus-nitensoliv-using-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-modified-mass-defect-filter
#1
Ting Tan, Yun Luo, Chen-Cong Zhong, Xu Xu, Yulin Feng
Chimonanthus nitensOliv. (CNO), having been studied and developed as the tea beverages, tea raw materials and preparations, an unique species in China, have been extensively used for treating colds and influenza for centuries. In the present study, a method based on the modified mass defect filter (MDF) was firstly developed and validated for comprehensive profiling of coumarins in the different parts of CNO via ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445588/the-relative-importance-of-pollinator-abundance-and-species-richness-for-the-temporal-variance-of-pollination-services
#2
Mark A Genung, Jeremy Fox, Neal M Williams, Claire Kremen, John Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
The relationship between biodiversity and the stability of ecosystem function is a fundamental question in community ecology, and hundreds of experiments have shown a positive relationship between species richness and the stability of ecosystem function. However, these experiments have rarely accounted for common ecological patterns, most notably skewed species abundance distributions and non-random extinction risks, making it difficult to know whether experimental results can be scaled up to larger, less manipulated systems...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445543/comparative-genomic-analysis-between-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-buffalo
#3
Marcus Vinicius Canário Viana, Henrique Figueiredo, Rommel Ramos, Luis Carlos Guimarães, Felipe Luiz Pereira, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Salah Abdel Karim Selim, Mohammad Salaheldean, Artur Silva, Alice R Wattam, Vasco Azevedo
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive, pleomorphic, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes Oedematous Skin Disease (OSD) in buffalo. To better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of OSD, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 11 strains of C. pseudotuberculosis isolated from different buffalo found to be infected in Egypt during an outbreak that occurred in 2008. Sixteen previously described pathogenicity islands (PiCp) were present in all of the new buffalo strains, but one of them, PiCp12, had an insertion that contained both a corynephage and a diphtheria toxin gene, both of which may play a role in the adaptation of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445514/the-complexity-underlying-invasiveness-precludes-the-identification-of-invasive-traits-a-comparative-study-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-heterocarpic-atriplex-congeners
#4
Jana Doudová, Jan Douda, Bohumil Mandák
Heterocarpy enables species to effectively spread under unfavourable conditions by producing two or more types of fruit differing in ecological characteristics. Although it is frequent in annuals occupying disturbed habitats that are vulnerable to invasion, there is still a lack of congeneric studies addressing the importance of heterocarpy for species invasion success. We compared two pairs of heterocarpic Atriplex species, each of them comprising one invasive and one non-invasive non-native congener. In two common garden experiments, we (i) simulated the influence of different levels of nutrients and population density on plants grown from different types of fruits and examined several traits that are generally positively associated with invasion success, and (ii) grew plants in a replacement series experiment to evaluate resource partitioning between them and to compare their competitive ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445493/polyphyly-of-the-extinct-family-oviparosiphidae-and-its-implications-for-inferring-aphid-evolution-hemiptera-sternorrhyncha
#5
Dagmara Żyła, Agnieszka Homan, Piotr Wegierek
Aphidoidea, the so-called "true aphids" are one of the most challenging groups in terms of solving the phylogenetic relationships. Morphology-based analyses were strongly affected by widespread homoplasy, while the molecular-based attempts struggled with the lack of sufficient phylogenetic signal. Despite significant improvements, the higher classification still remains unresolved and rather controversial. However, the use of the fossil record, one of the most valuable sources of information, was mainly limited to calibration of a phylogenetic tree, without a direct inclusion into the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445473/how-to-plan-reintroductions-of-long-lived-birds
#6
Virginia Morandini, Miguel Ferrer
Reintroductions have been increasingly used for species restoration and it seems that this conservation tool is going to be more used in the future. Nevertheless, there is not a clear consensus about the better procedure for that, consequently a better knowledge of how to optimize this kind of management is needed. Here we examined the dynamics of released long-lived bird populations (lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni, Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata, and bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus) in object-oriented simulated reintroduction programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445062/regioselective-functionalization-of-enamides-at-the-%C3%AE-carbon-via-unsymmetrical-2-amidoallyl-cations
#7
Mirza A Saputra, Nitin S Dange, Alexander H Cleveland, Joshua A Malone, Frank R Fronczek, Rendy Kartika
A new method to functionalize enamides via an intermediacy of unsymmetrical 2-amidoallyl cations is reported. Generated under mild Brønsted acid catalysis, these reactive species were found to undergo addition with various nucleophiles at the less substituted α-carbon to produce highly substituted enamides in high yields with complete control of regioselectivity.
April 26, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445033/c-h-functionalization-of-azines
#8
Kei Murakami, Shuya Yamada, Takeshi Kaneda, Kenichiro Itami
Azines, which are six-membered aromatic compounds containing one or more nitrogen atoms, serve as ubiquitous structural cores of aromatic species with important applications in biological and materials sciences. Among a variety of synthetic approaches toward azines, C-H functionalization represents the most rapid and atom-economical transformation, and it is advantageous for the late-stage functionalization of azine-containing functional molecules. Since azines have several C-H bonds with different reactivities, the development of new reactions that allow for the functionalization of azines in a regioselective fashion has comprised a central issue...
April 26, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445027/structurally-linked-dynamics-in-lactate-dehydrogenases-of-evolutionarily-distinct-species
#9
Matthew J Varga, Michael W Dzierlenga, Steven D Schwartz
We present new findings on how primary and secondary structure affects the role of fast protein motions in the reaction coordinates of enzymatic reactions. Using transition path sam- pling (TPS) and committor distribution analysis, we examined the difference in the role of these fast protein motions in the reaction coordinate of lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of Api- complexa organisms Plasmodium falciparum and Cryptosporidium parvum. Having evolved separately from a common malate dehydrogenase ancestor, there are several important struc- tural differences between the two enzymes, notably a five amino acid insertion into the active site loop of P...
April 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444868/an-ecological-approach-to-discover-new-bioactive-extracts-and-products-the-case-of-extremophile-plants
#10
Ramla Sahli, Céline Rivière, Christel Neut, Joanne Bero, Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc, Abderrazak Smaoui, Claire Beaufay, Vincent Roumy, Thierry Hennebelle, Yves Rouillé, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Karin Séron, Riadh Ksouri, Sevser Sahpaz
OBJECTIVES: Eight extremophile plants from Tunisia were screened to find natural products with benefits in human health. METHODS: These plants were collected in different areas in Tunisia. Their methanolic extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content and for their antiradical (DPPH), antimicrobial (on 35 bacteria and one yeast), antiviral (hepatitis C virus, HCV) and cytotoxic activity (against WI38 and J774 cell lines). The most active species were subjected to a bioguided fractionation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444795/systematics-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-ciliate-genus-pseudokeronopsis-ciliophora-hypotrichia
#11
Ju Li, Zifeng Zhan, Kuidong Xu
A still challenging study on ciliate systematics is to clarify the taxonomic and phylogenetic confusions of the fascinating pigmented Pseudokeronopsis species because of their high inter-specific similarities. We evaluated the identities and internal relationships within Pseudokeronopsis based on morphological descriptions in combination with the 18S and ITS-5.8S rDNA genetic distances, ITS2 secondary structures and phylogenetic analyses. Results showed that (1) Pseudokeronopsis pararubra, a species ever synonymized as Pseudokeronopsis carnea, is a valid species; (2) most Chinese populations identified as Pseudokeronopsis rubra represent a new species namely Pseudokeronopsis songi sp...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444537/molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-bipartite-begomovirus-isolated-from-lycianthes-biflora-in-china
#12
Y F Tang, Z F He, J K Brown, X M She, G B Lan
A bipartite begomovirus isolate GD was isolated from Lycianthes biflora plants showing yellow mosaic symptoms in Nanxiong, Guangdong Province, China. The apparently full-length DNA-A and DNA-B viral components were cloned after enrichment of circular DNA by rolling circle amplification, restriction digestion, cloning, and DNA sequencing. The DNA-A component (2752nt, KT582302) shares highest (80.2%) nucleotide (nt) sequence identity with tomato leaf curl Sulawesi virus [Indonesia-Sulawesi-Langowan F101-2006] (ToLCSuV- [ID-Sul -LanF09-06], FJ237618), reported in Indonesia as causing yellow leaf curl disease of chilli pepper...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444503/comparative-evaluation-of-the-algorithms-for-parametric-mapping-of-the-novel-myocardial-pet-imaging-agent-18-f-fptp
#13
Ji Who Kim, Seongho Seo, Hyeon Sik Kim, Dong-Yeon Kim, Ho-Young Lee, Keon Wook Kang, Dong Soo Lee, Hee-Seung Bom, Jung-Joon Min, Jae Sung Lee
OBJECTIVE: ((18)F-fluoropentyl)triphenylphosphonium salt ((18)F-FPTP) is a new promising myocardial PET imaging tracer. It shows high accumulation in cardiomyocytes and rapid clearance from liver. We performed compartmental analysis of (18)F-FPTP PET images in rat and evaluated two linear analyses: linear least-squares (LLS) and a basis function method (BFM) for generating parametric images. The minimum dynamic scan duration for kinetic analysis was also investigated and computer simulation undertaken...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444421/metal-levels-in-shorebird-feathers-and-blood-during-migration-through-delaware-bay
#14
Nellie Tsipoura, Joanna Burger, Lawrence Niles, Amanda Dey, Michael Gochfeld, Mark Peck, David Mizrahi
We investigated levels of arsenic mercury, lead, cadmium, and chromium in Red Knot (Calidris canutus), Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), and Sanderling (Calidris alba) migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey to determine if contaminant levels are likely to be causing negative effects on the populations of these shorebirds, to compare among species, and to explore differences among individuals collected early and late during their migration stopover. We analyzed blood and feathers, both nonlethal ways of exploring contaminants in birds...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444389/smithrnas-could-mitochondria-bend-nuclear-regulation
#15
Andrea Pozzi, Federico Plazzi, Liliana Milani, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Marco Passamonti
Typically, animal mitochondria have very compact genomes, with few short intergenic regions, and no introns. Hence, it may seem that there is little space for unknown functions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, mtDNA can also operate through RNA interference, as small non coding RNAs (sncRNAs) produced by mtDNA have already been proposed for humans. We sequenced sncRNA libraries from isolated mitochondria of Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca Bivalvia) gonads, a species with doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria (DUI), and identified several putative sncRNAs of mitochondrial origin...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#16
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444368/simultaneous-targeting-of-multiple-gene-homeologues-to-alter-seed-oil-production-in-camelina-sativa
#17
J A Aznar-Moreno, T P Durrett
The ability to easily transform Camelina sativa with biosynthetic enzymes derived from other plants has made this oil seed crop an ideal platform for the production of unusual lipids valuable for different applications. However, in addition to expressing transgenic enzymes, the suppression of endogenous enzyme activity to reduce competition for common substrates or cofactors is also required to enhance the production of target compounds. As camelina possesses a relatively undifferentiated hexaploid genome, up to three gene homeologues can encode for any particular enzymatic activity, complicating efforts to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways...
April 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444231/whole-genome-sequencing-of-7-strains-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-allows-identification-of-mobile-genetic-elements
#18
Xavier Argemi, Véronique Martin, Valentin Loux, Sandrine Dahyot, Jérémie Lebeurre, Aurélien Guffroy, Mickael Martin, Aurélie Velay, Daniel Keller, Philippe Riegel, Yves Hansmann, Nicodème Paul, Gilles Prévost
Coagulase negative staphylococci are normal inhabitant of the human skin flora that account for an increasing number of infections, particularly hospital-acquired infections. Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a most virulent species causing various infections with clinical characteristics close to what clinicians usually observe with Staphylococcus aureus and both bacteria share more than 70% of their genome. Virulence of S. aureus relies on a large repertoire of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile genetic elements...
April 21, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444193/quantitative-assessment-of-timing-efficiency-specificity-and-genetic-mosaicism-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-of-hemoglobin-beta-gene-in-rhesus-monkey-embryos
#19
Uros Midic, Pei-Hsuan Hung, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Patrick G Schupp, Diane D Chen, Daniel E Bauer, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Gene editing technologies offer new options for developing novel biomedical research models and for gene and stem cell based therapies. However, applications in many species demand high efficiencies, specificity, and a thorough understanding of likely editing outcomes. To date, overall efficiencies, rates of off-targeting, and degree of genetic mosaicism have not been well-characterized for most species, limiting our ability to optimize methods. As a model gene for measuring these parameters of CRISPR/Cas9 application in a primate species (rhesus monkey), we selected the β-hemoglobin gene (HBB), which also has high relevance to potential application of gene editing and stem-cell technologies for treating human disease...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443924/investigations-on-the-photochromic-properties-of-2-6-bis-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene-cyclohexanone
#20
L N Corîci, S Shova, V Badea, D Aparaschivei, O Costisor, L Cseh
The network of chemical reactions of 2,6-bis(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHBC) when subjected to light and different pH values has been investigated. The pH dependent species involved in the chemical network have been identified and characterized by NMR and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Direct pH jumps were carried out by adding a strong acid to equilibrated solutions of trans-chalcone (Ct) forming the flavylium cation which was stable only under extremely acidic conditions (pH < 0.5). The single crystal X-ray study and NMR analysis has confirmed the structure of the new flavylium cation...
April 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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