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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458156/how-to-isolate-identify-and-determine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-anaerobic-bacteria-in-routine-laboratories
#1
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy, Lyudmila Boyanova, Ulrik S Justesen
BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria, which cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described by to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458138/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-5-methoxy-2-aminoindane-meai-a-new-binge-mitigating-agent
#2
Jakob A Shimshoni, Eyal Sobol, Ezekiel Golan, Yulius Ben Ari, Orit Gal
5-Methoxy-2-aminoindane (MEAI) is a novel psychoactive aminoindane derivative, exerting euphoric, alcohol-like tipsy experience and reduced desire to consume alcoholic beverages. Our previous toxicological evaluation of MEAI in rats, clearly indicated MEAI's potential to be further evaluated as a promising binge mitigating agent due to its favorable safety profile. In the light of these observations, we have determined MEAI's pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in rats and evaluated in-vitro its pharmacodynamics (PD) profile...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458044/cryoprotective-effect-of-antifreeze-polyamino-acid-carboxylated-poly-l-lysine-on-bovine-sperm-a-technical-note
#3
Takuro Fujikawa, Shuji Imamura, Motoyuki Tokumaru, Takaaki Ando, Yuki Gen, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Chikara Kubota
In this study, investigating Carboxylated Poly-L-Lysine (CPLL) for its effectiveness as a new cryoprotectant for bovine sperm is aimed. CPLL is an ampholytic polymer compound, has cryoprotective properties similar to those of anti-freeze protein. The cryopreservation medium used for control group consisted of 6.5% (v/v) glycerol, the cryopreservation medium used for experimental group consisted of 3.25% (v/v) glycerol + 0.5% (w/v) CPLL. There was no consequential difference in sperm motility parameter after thawing whereas there was huge distinction for sperm membrane integrity rate (control vs experimental; 49...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457971/visible-light-photocatalysis-does-it-make-a-difference-in-organic-synthesis
#4
Leyre Marzo, Santhosh K Pagire, Oliver Reiser, Burkhard König
Visible light photocatalysis has evolved over the last decade into a widely used method in organic synthesis. For many important transformations, such as cross-coupling reactions, alpha-amino functionalizations, cycloadditions, ATRA reactions, or fluorinations, photocatalytic variants have been reported. In this review, we try to compare classical and photocatalytic procedures for selected classes of reactions and highlight their advantages and limitations. In many cases, the photocatalytic reactions proceed at milder reaction conditions, typically at room temperature, and stoichiometric reagents are replaced by simple oxidants or reductants, like air oxygen or amines...
February 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457730/cryo-spectroscopy-studies-of-intact-light-harvesting-antennas-reveal-empirical-electronic-energy-transitions-in-two-cyanobacteria-species
#5
Albert Collins Nganou Assonkeng, Noam Adir, Martin Mkandawire
Understanding of electronic energy transition (EET) mechanisms from the light-harvesting unit to the reaction centre in a natural system has been limited by; (a) the use of conventional transient time-resolved spectroscopy at room temperature, which result in high signal-to-noise ratio; and (b) examining extracts instead of intact light-harvesting units. Here, we report previously unknown differences and new insight in EET of two cyanobacteria species, Acaryochloris marina and Thermosynechoccocus vulvanus, which have been found only after using Uv-vis, hole-burning and fluorescence spectroscopy at ultra-low temperature and examining their intact light-harvesting unit, phycobilisomes (PBS)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457530/a-new-insight-into-the-classification-of-dusky-thrush-complex-bearings-on-the-phylogenetic-relationships-within-the-turdidae
#6
Yuanqiu Dong, Bo Li, Lizhi Zhou
Dusky thrush complex comprises of two sister species breeding in SC Siberia, which is the member of thrush Turdus from Turdidae. The phylogenetic resolution of Dusky thrush complex remains controversial, and a detailed research is still necessary. In this research, we determined the complete mtDNAs of both species, and estimated phylogenetic trees based on the mtDNA alignment of these and 21 other Turdidae species, to clarify the taxa status of the Dusky thrush complex. The squenced lengths of these three mitochondrial genomes were 16,737, 16,788 and 16,750 bp...
February 18, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457354/nitrogen-enriched-carbon-cnt-composites-based-on-schiff-base-networks-ultrahigh-n-content-and-enhanced-lithium-storage-properties
#7
Zhichang Xiao, Qi Song, Ruiying Guo, Debin Kong, Shanke Zhou, Xiaoxiong Huang, Rashid Iqbal, Linjie Zhi
To improve the electrochemical performance of carbonaceous anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the incorporation of both well-defined heteroatom species and the controllable 3D porous networks are urgently required. In this work, a novel N-enriched carbon/carbon nanotube composite (NEC/CNT) through a chemically induced precursor-controlled pyrolysis approach is developed. Instead of conventional N-containing sources or precursors, Schiff-base network (SNW-1) enables the desirable combination of a 3D polymer with intrinsic microporosity and ultrahigh N-content, which can significantly promote the fast transport of both Li+ and electron...
February 19, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#8
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457202/three-new-coccidians-cyclospora-eimeria-from-eastern-moles-scalopus-aquaticus-linnaeus-mammalia-soricomorpha-talpidae-from-arkansas-usa
#9
Chris T McAllister, Dagmara Motriuk-Smith, Catherine M Kerr
Three new species of coccidians (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from eastern moles, Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus) from Arkansas. Oöcysts of Cyclospora duszynskii n. sp. are subspheroidal with a smooth bi-layered wall, measure 11.4 × 10.0 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a single polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 7.2 × 5.4 µm, L/W 1.3; an indistinct Stieda body is present, but the sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent and the sporocyst residuum is composed of medium to large granules of different sizes along the edge of the sporocyst...
February 19, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456887/a-new-slider-turtle-testudines-emydidae-deirochelyinae-trachemys-from-the-late-hemphillian-late-miocene-early-pliocene-of-eastern-tennessee-and-the-evolution-of-the-deirochelyines
#10
Steven E Jasinski
Trachemys (Testudines: Emydidae) represents one of the most well-known turtle genera today. The evolution of Trachemys , while being heavily documented with fossil representatives, is not well understood. Numerous fossils from the late Hemphillian Gray Fossil Site (GFS) in northeastern Tennessee help to elucidate its evolution. The fossil Trachemys at the GFS represent a new species. The new taxon, Trachemys haugrudi , is described, and currently represents the most thoroughly described fossil emydid species known...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456811/-in-vivo-activity-assessment-of-some-tanacetum-species-used-as-traditional-wound-healer-along-with-identification-of-the-phytochemical-profile-by-a-new-validated-hplc-method
#11
Serkan Özbilgin, Esra Küpeli Akkol, Burçin Ergene Öz, Mert Ilhan, Gülçin Saltan, Özlem Bahadır Acıkara, Mehmet Tekin, Hikmet Keleş, Ipek Süntar
Objectives: Tanacetum species are traditionally used as insecticide, and externally wound healer as well as for anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic properties. The in vivo wound-healing and anti-inflammatory potential of four Tanacetum species, Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. subsp. argenteum (TA) , Tanacetum heterotomum (Bornm.) Grierson (TH), Tanacetum densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. subsp. sivasicum (TD), and Tanacetum vulgare L. (TV) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The chloroform (CHCl3 ) and methanol:water (80:20) extracts were prepared from the aerial parts of each plant...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456551/genetic-diversity-of-the-endangered-neotropical-cichlid-fish-gymnogeophagus-setequedas-in-brazil
#12
Lenice Souza-Shibatta, Thais Kotelok-Diniz, Dhiego G Ferreira, Oscar A Shibatta, Silvia H Sofia, Lucileine de Assumpção, Suelen F R Pini, Sergio Makrakis, Maristela C Makrakis
Gymnogeophagus setequedas is a rare and rheophilic species of tribe Geophagini, considered endangered in Brazilian red lists. Its previously known geographical distribution range was the Paraná River basin, in Paraguay, and a tributary of the Itaipu Reservoir in Brazil. Since its description no specimens have been collected in the original known distribution area. However, recent records of G. setequedas in the lower Iguaçu River, in a region considered highly endemic for the ichthyofauna, extended the known geographical distribution and may represent one of the last remnants of the species...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456524/-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-s-kudriavzevii-synthetic-wine-fermentation-performance-dissected-by-predictive-modeling
#13
David Henriques, Javier Alonso-Del-Real, Amparo Querol, Eva Balsa-Canto
Wineries face unprecedented challenges due to new market demands and climate change effects on wine quality. New yeast starters including non-conventional Saccharomyces species, such as S. kudriavzevii , may contribute to deal with some of these challenges. The design of new fermentations using non-conventional yeasts requires an improved understanding of the physiology and metabolism of these cells. Dynamic modeling brings the potential of exploring the most relevant mechanisms and designing optimal processes more systematically...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456465/-barrmaelia-and-entosordaria-in-barrmaeliaceae-fam-nov-xylariales-and-critical-notes-on-anthostomella-like-genera-based-on-multigene-phylogenies
#14
Hermann Voglmayr, Gernot Friebes, Alain Gardiennet, Walter M Jaklitsch
Phylogenetic analyses of a combined DNA data matrix containing ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2 sequences of representative Xylariales revealed that the genus Barrmaelia is a well-defined monophylum, as based on four of its described species ( B. macrospora , B. moravica , B. oxyacanthae , B. rhamnicola ) and the new species B. rappazii . The generic type of Entosordaria , E. perfidiosa , is revealed as the closest relative of Barrmaelia , being phylogenetically distant from the generic type of Clypeosphaeria , C. mamillana , which belongs to Xylariaceae sensu stricto...
2018: Mycological Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456146/a-comprehensive-and-dated-phylogenomic-analysis-of-butterflies
#15
Marianne Espeland, Jesse Breinholt, Keith R Willmott, Andrew D Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Sarah C Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rod Eastwood, Marta A Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J Lohman, Naomi E Pierce, Akito Y Kawahara
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species representing 98% of tribes, a 35-fold increase in gene sampling and 3-fold increase in taxon sampling over previous studies [4]...
February 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455706/review-the-potential-of-seminal-fluid-mediated-paternal-maternal-communication-to-optimise-pregnancy-success
#16
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455691/a-new-species-of-parapharyngodon-chatterji-1933-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-parasitic-in-osteocephalus-taurinus-anura-hylidae-from-brazil
#17
T A P Santos, E G G Argolo, A N Santos, A R O Rodrigues, C E Gonzaléz, J N Santos, F T V Melo
Parapharyngodon politoedi n. sp. is described here, based on specimens found in the large intestines of Osteocephalus taurinus from the Caxiuanã National Forest, State of Pará, Brazil. The new species is assigned to Parapharyngodon based on the presence of non-embryonated eggs with sub-terminal opercula, when in the ovijector. Parapharyngodon politoedi belongs to a group of species with three pairs of cloacal papillae and differs from its congeners by morphometric aspects, such as the length of the spicule, and the combination of the following morphological characters: ovaries never encircling the oesophagus, tail shape in females, cloacal lips, sharply pointed spicule and presence of genital cone...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455467/predicting-reintroduction-outcomes-for-highly-vulnerable-species-that-do-not-currently-coexist-with-their-key-threats
#18
Elizabeth H Parlato, Doug P Armstrong
Predicting reintroduction outcomes before populations are released is inherently challenging. It becomes even more difficult when the species being considered for reintroduction no longer co-exists with the key threats limiting its distribution. However, data from other species facing the same threats can be used to make predictions under these circumstances. We present an integrated Bayesian modelling approach for predicting growth of a reintroduced population at a range of predator densities when no data are available for the species in the presence of that predator...
February 17, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455459/first-draft-genome-of-an-iconic-clownfish-species-amphiprion-frenatus
#19
Anna Marcionetti, Victor Rossier, Joris A M Bertrand, Glenn Litsios, Nicolas Salamin
Clownfishes (or anemonefishes) form an iconic group of coral reef fishes, principally known for their mutualistic interaction with sea anemones. They are characterized by particular life-history traits, such as a complex social structure and mating system involving sequential hermaphroditism, coupled with an exceptionally long lifespan. Additionally, clownfishes are considered to be one of the rare group to have experienced an adaptive radiation in the marine environment. Here, we assembled and annotated the first genome of a clownfish species, the tomato clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus)...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455324/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-aleutian-mink-disease-virus-isolates-in-north-east-china
#20
Xue Leng, Dongxu Liu, Jianming Li, Kun Shi, Fanli Zeng, Ying Zong, Yi Liu, Zhibo Sun, Shanshan Zhang, Yadong Liu, Rui Du
Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Virology
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