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GI bleeding pediatric

Seyed Ali Jafari, Mohammad Ali Kiani, Hamid Reza Kianifar, Mohammad Mansooripour, Elahe Heidari, Maryam Khalesi
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has several clinical manifestation and origins, is known as one of the most life-threatening events in children. Several etiologies have been suggested for GI bleeding. Objective: To determine the most important causes of GI bleeding in children referred to Ghaem Hospital and Dr. Sheikh Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, after obtaining written informed consent of their parents, 113 patients aging from newborn infants to 18-year-old children with GI bleeding admitted to Ghaem Hospital and Dr...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
Ayse Gultekingil, Ozlem Teksam, Hayriye Hızarcıoğlu Gulsen, Burcu Berberoğlu Ates, İnci Nur Saltık-Temizel, Hülya Demir
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a common problem in pediatric emergency department (PED). Some of these patients can lose significant amount of blood which may lead to shock. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors predicting clinically significant gastrointestinal (GIS) bleeding in patients presenting to PED. METHODS: This study was performed prospectively from January 1st 2013 to December 31th 2013 in patients with upper or lower GIS bleeding...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Paola Cianci, Chiara Luini, Maddalena Marinoni, Luigi Nespoli, Alessandro Salvatoni, Silvia Salvatore
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract originating from the myenteric ganglion cells (interstitial cells of Cajal), that are very rare in children and adolescents. The most common clinical manifestation is acute or chronic, overt or occult GI bleeding although these tumors are asymptomatic in 10-30% of patients. We report a case of gastric GIST in a 11-year-old girl presenting with an iron deficiency refractory anemia without gastrointestinal symptoms and stool evidence of GI bleeding that caused a slight diagnostic delay...
August 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Kanika Puri, Randall L Caldwell, Jean P Molleston
OBJECTIVES: Angiodysplasia (AD) is a relatively uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in children and may be seen in right heart failure. Octreotide has been used successfully in adult patients with gastrointestinal bleeding due to ADs. METHODS: We describe 2 patients who had congenital heart disease with right heart failure and gastrointestinal bleeding from AD. RESULTS: AD lesions were documented on traditional endoscopy and capsule endoscopy...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Mark Duffett, Karen Choong, Jennifer Foster, Elaine Gilfoyle, Jacques Lacroix, Nikhil Pai, Lehana Thabane, Deborah J Cook
BACKGROUND: Despite sparse pediatric data on effectiveness, the majority of critically ill children receive medications to prevent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Stress ulcer prophylaxis may have unintended consequences-increasing the risk of nosocomial infections-which may be more serious and common than the bleeding which these drugs are prescribed to prevent. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in pediatric critical care are exceptionally challenging to complete, thus a rigorous pilot RCT is crucial...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Sumantra Sarkar, Tanushree Mondal, Arpan Saha, Rakesh Mondal, Supratim Datta
OBJECTIVES: To report data on Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) from eastern India. METHODS: All IIM patients diagnosed over the last 5 y (2011-2016) were included through a retrospective review of records from the hospital and specialty clinic at Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (I.P.G.M.E.&R.), Kolkata. RESULTS: Out of the 11 IIM patients, 9 had Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and 2 had overlap myositis (OM) [with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma]...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Anna M Banc-Husu, Nuzhat A Ahmad, Vinay Chandrasekhara, Gregory G Ginsberg, David L Jaffe, Michael L Kochman, Michael W Rajala, Petar Mamula
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most common indications for urgent endoscopy in the pediatric setting. The majority of these procedures are performed for control of variceal bleeding, with few performed for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (NVUGI) bleeding. The data on therapeutic endoscopy for NVUGI are sparse. The aims of our study were to review our experience with NVUGI bleeding, describe technical aspects and outcomes of therapeutic endoscopy, and determine gastroenterology fellows' training opportunities according to the national training guidelines...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Aliza B Solomon, Rachel Reed, Keith Benkov, Joseph Kingsbery, Sarah S Lusman, Lisa B Malter, Jeremiah Levine, Simon S Rabinowitz, Martin Wolff, Sondra Zabar, Elizabeth Weinshel
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has described 6 core competencies with which trainees should demonstrate proficiency. Using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), we aimed to assess 4 of these competencies among Pediatric Gastrointestinal (GI) fellows (PGs). METHODS: Eight first-year PGs from 6 medical centers in the New York area participated in a 4-station OSCE with trained standardized patient (SP) actors. The cases included an emergency department (ED) consult, or "ED Consult" for lower gastrointestinal bleeding; "Breaking Bad News" focusing on CF nutritional complications; "Second Opinion" for abdominal pain; "Transition of Care" for inflammatory bowel disease...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yeoun Joo Lee, Jae-Yeon Hwang, Yong Hoon Cho, Yong-Woo Kim, Tae Un Kim, Dong Hoon Shin
Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in pediatric patients has several causes. Vascular malformation of the small bowel is a rare disease leading to pediatric GI bleeding. To our knowledge, few reports describe ultrasound and computed tomography findings of venous malformations involving the small bowel. We present a case of long-segmental and circumferential vascular malformation that led to GI bleeding in a pre-school aged child, focusing on the radiologic findings. Although vascular malformation including of the GI tract is rare in children, it should be considered when GI bleeding occurs in pediatric patients...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
Kyung Jae Lee, Shin Jie Choi, Hye Ran Yang, Ju Yuong Chang, Hyoung Jin Kang, Hee Young Shin, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Jae Sung Ko, Jin Soo Moon
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to establish a safe and convenient diagnostic method for acute gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in children by determining the sensitivity and negative predictive values of upper and lower endoscopic biopsies for children suspected of GI GVHD. METHODS: Patients suspected of GI GVHD who received endoscopic evaluation within 100 days after stem cell transplantation and endoscopies between January 2012 and March 2014 in Seoul National University Children's Hospital were included in our study...
March 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Tara Neubrand, Rakesh Mistry, Roxanna Lefort
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital heart lesion with a known complication of collateral vessel formation if left untreated. OBJECTIVE: To alert pediatric emergency physicians of a rare and life-threatening presentation of previously undiagnosed congenital heart disease in the adolescent. CASE: We discuss the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with hypertension and massive upper GI bleed due to aortoenteric fistula formation associated with undiagnosed coarctation of the aorta...
April 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Erin Grady
Gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy performed with (99m)Tc-labeled autologous erythrocytes or historically with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid has been a clinically useful tool since the 1970s. This article reviews the history of the techniques, the different methods of radiolabeling erythrocytes, the procedure, useful indications, diagnostic accuracy, the use of SPECT/CT and CT angiography to evaluate gastrointestinal bleeding, and Meckel diverticulum imaging. The causes of pediatric bleeding are discussed by age...
February 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ruchi Sharma, Mridula Trehan, Sunil Sharma, Vikas Jharwal, Nidhi Rathore
INTRODUCTION: Maintenance of good oral hygiene is important for patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a manual orthodontic toothbrush, powered toothbrush with oscillating head and sonic toothbrush in controlling plaque, gingivitis and interdental bleeding in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and to compare their relative efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty subjects, who were to receive orthodontic treatment with both upper and lower fixed appliances, were randomly divided into three study groups, with 20 patients in each group...
September 2015: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Jérôme Ouellet, Dennis Bailey, Marie-Ève Samson
OBJECTIVE: To describe current opinions about stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) prevention in Canadian pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). METHODS: A 22-question survey covering several aspects of SRMD was sent to all identified PICU attendings in Canada. RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of identified attendings completed the questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent were based in Quebec, 31% in Alberta, and 31% from other provinces. Most attendings (78%) had worked in a PICU for 6 years or more...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Mahdi Haghighatafshar, Farshid Gheisari, Tahereh Ghaedian
We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both Tc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, Tc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia...
August 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sara Naramore, Amy Virojanapa, Moshe Bell, Punit N Jhaveri
A bezoar is a mass of indigestible material. Bezoars can present with a gradual onset of non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. However, bezoars can result in more serious conditions such as intestinal bleeding or obstruction. Without quick recognition, particularly in susceptible individuals, the diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. Currently resolution is achieved with enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic fragmentation or surgery. We describe, to our knowledge, the first pediatric patient with lymphoma to have had a bezoar treated with Coca-Cola...
May 2015: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Kamuran Karaman, Sinan Akbayram, Mesut Garipardıç, Ahmet Fayik Öner
AIM: Hemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder resulting from factor VIII deficiency and is a group of diseases characterized by intra-articular and intramuscular bleeding. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the treatment outcomes, demographic and clinical characteristics of our patients who were treated and followed up for last 17 years in our pediatric hematology unit with a diagnosis of Hemophilia A. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of 83 patients who were diagnosed with Hemophilia A and followed up between 1997 and 2014 in our hospital's pediatric hematology clinic were reviewed retrospectively...
June 2015: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Marsha Kay, Katharine Eng, Robert Wyllie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal polyps are commonly encountered during childhood and are one of the most common causes of rectal bleeding in this age group. Most polyps are benign and located in the colon, with the most frequent type being juvenile polyps. However, in older pediatric patients, if multiple polyps are present, in patients who have a positive family history, or if polyps are located outside of the colon, either adenomatous polyps or polyps associated with genetic abnormalities are more common...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Javier El-Bietar, Mikako Warren, Christopher Dandoy, Kasiani C Myers, Adam Lane, Gregory Wallace, Stella M Davies, Sonata Jodele
High-risk transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) can present with multisystem involvement and is associated with a poor outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with < 20% 1-year survival. TMA may involve the intestinal vasculature and can present with bleeding and ischemic colitis. There are no established pathologic criteria for the diagnosis of intestinal TMA (iTMA). The goal of our study was to identify histologic features of iTMA and describe associated clinical features...
November 2015: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jennifer Mait-Kaufman, Stacie Kahn, Gitit Tomer
AIM: To investigate the safety profile of acquiring additional intestinal biopsies for research purposes in children undergoing a medically indicated colonoscopy. METHODS: A retrospective review of 122 pediatric patients who underwent colonoscopy over a 9 mo time period was completed. 38/122 participants consented to a research study in which 4 additional biopsies were obtained, in addition to routine biopsies. The outcomes after colonoscopy were measured in the research participants, and compared to 84 control participants who did not consent for the study...
June 25, 2015: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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