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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342446/the-impact-of-happy-and-angry-faces-on-working-memory-in-depressed-adolescents
#1
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Caroline Braet
Recent cognitive models suggest that the ability to control emotional information in working memory (WM) may be implicated in the etiology and maintenance of depression. However, few studies have examined the effects of processing relevant and irrelevant emotional stimuli on WM performance in depressed adolescents. In the current study, depressed adolescents (n = 27) and healthy adolescents (n = 49) completed two versions of an emotional n-back task: a low WM load (0-back) task and a high WM load (2-back) task...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342432/pharmacists-scope-of-practice-in-travel-health-a-review-of-state-laws-and-regulations
#2
Keri Hurley-Kim, Rebecca Snead, Karl M Hess
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to assess pharmacists' authority to provide travel health services in each state and Washington, DC. Secondary objectives were to determine the need for collaborative practice agreements (CPAs), protocols, or prescriptions for this type of pharmacy practice and to identify jurisdictions where pharmacists are able to practice as travel health providers independent of CPAs or individual physician protocols. METHODS: An online survey was developed to assess pharmacists' authority to administer travel immunizations, furnish travel-related medications, and order travel-related laboratory tests...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342419/investigation-of-the-transport-of-xanthine-dehydrogenase-inhibitors-by-the-urate-transporter-abcg2
#3
Makiko Nakamura, Kyoko Fujita, Yu Toyoda, Tappei Takada, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Kimiyoshi Ichida
Hyperuricemia induces gout and kidney stones and accelerates the progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is a urate transporter, and common dysfunctional variants of ABCG2, non-functional Q126X (rs72552713) and semi-functional Q141K (rs2231142), are risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. A recent genome wide association study suggested that allopurinol, a serum uric acid-lowering drug that inhibits xanthine dehydrogenase, is a potent substrate of ABCG2...
November 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342409/development-and-characterization-of-an-allergoid-of-cat-dander-for-immunotherapy
#4
J P Sola, Y Pedreño, A Cerezo, M Peñalver-Mellado
BACKGROUND: Allergy to cats is a frequent cause of sensitization to indoor allergens and currently there are few alternatives to specific immunotherapy with cat native extracts. The objective is to develop and characterize a new allergoid to increase the tools available for use in clinical practice. METHODS: The allergoid cat dander extract (ACD) was developed from a native cat dander extract (NCD) by modification with glutaraldehyde, and the optimal process control was determined by SDS-PAGE, DOT BLOT and determination of free amine groups...
January 13, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342400/a-unifying-framework-of-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-neural-populations
#5
Johannes Leugering, Gordon Pipa
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by constant statistical properties, the systematic relationship between its input and output processes determines the computation carried out by a population. When these statistical characteristics unexpectedly change, the population needs to adapt to its new environment if it is to maintain stable operation...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342397/imaging-the-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-cognitive-processes-at-high-temporal-resolution
#6
I Tal, M Abeles
This letter presents a noninvasive imaging technique that captures the exact timing and locations of cortical activity sequences that are specific to a cognitive process. These precise spatiotemporal sequences can be detected in the human brain as specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive specific time-position pattern associated with a cognitive task. They are consistent with direct measurements of population activity recorded in nonhuman primates, thus suggesting that specific time-position patterns associated with a cognitive task can be identified...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#7
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342390/household-contact-investigation-for-detection-of-tuberculosis-in-vietnam
#8
Greg J Fox, Nguyen V Nhung, Dinh N Sy, Nghiem L P Hoa, Le T N Anh, Nguyen T Anh, Nguyen B Hoa, Nguyen H Dung, Tran N Buu, Nguyen T Loi, Le T Nhung, Nguyen V Hung, Phan T Lieu, Nguyen K Cuong, Pham D Cuong, Jessica Bestrashniy, Warwick J Britton, Guy B Marks
Background Active case finding is a top priority for the global control of tuberculosis, but robust evidence for its effectiveness in high-prevalence settings is lacking. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of household-contact investigation, as compared with standard, passive measures alone, in Vietnam. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial at clinics in 70 districts (local government areas with an average population of approximately 500,000 in urban areas and 100,000 in rural areas) in eight provinces of Vietnam...
January 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342367/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-guidelines-use-of-cftr-modulator-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Clement L Ren, Rebecca L Morgan, Christopher Oermann, Helaine E Resnick, Cynthia Brady, Annette Campbell, Richard DeNagel, Margaret Guill, Jeffrey Hoag, Andrew Lipton, Thomas Newton, Stacy Peters, Donna Beth Willey-Courand, Edward T Naureckas
BACKGROUND: CFTR modulators are a new class of medications that target the underlying defect in in cystic fibrosis (CF). Ivacaftor (IVA) and IVA combined with lumacaftor (IVA/LUM) have been approved by the FDA for use in CF patients. However, the FDA label for these medications encompasses patient groups that were not studied as part of the drug approval process. CF clinicians, patients, and their families have recognized a need for recommendations to guide the use of these medications...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342358/synthesis-and-biological-characterization-of-aryl-uracil-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5b-polymerase-discovery-of-abt-072-a-trans-stilbene-analog-with-good-oral-bioavailability
#10
John Randolph, A Chris Krueger, Pamela Donner, John K Pratt, Dachun Liu, Christopher E Motter, Todd W Rockway, Mike D Tufano, Rolf Wagner, Hock B Lim, Jill M Beyer, Rubina Mondal, Neeta S Panchal, Lynn Colletti, Yaya Liu, Gennadiy Koev, Warren M Kati, Lisa E Hernandez, David W A Beno, Kenton L Longenecker, Kent D Stewart, Emily O Dumas, Akhteruzzaman Molla, Clarence Maring
ABT-072 is a non-nucleoside HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor that was discovered as part of a program to identify new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of HCV infection. This compound was identified during a medicinal chemistry effort to improve on an original lead, inhibitor 1, which we described in a previous publication. Replacement of the amide linkage in 1 with a trans-olefin resulted in improved compound permeability and solubility, and provided much better pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342355/convergence-of-kirkwood-buff-integrals-of-ideal-and-non-ideal-aqueous-solutions-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#11
Jasmin Milzetti, Divya Nayar, Nico F A van der Vegt
The computation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals (KBIs) using molecular simulations of closed systems is challenging due to finite system-size effects. One of the problems involves the incorrect asymptotic behavior of the radial distribution function. Corrections to rectify such effects have been proposed in the literature. This study reports a systematic comparison of the proposed corrections (as given by Ganguly et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 1347-1355 and Krueger et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 4-7) to assess the asymptotic behavior of the RDFs, the KBIs as well as the estimation of thermodynamic quantities for ideal urea--water and non-ideal modified-urea--water mixtures using molecular dynamics simulations...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342325/the-neuromuscular-complications-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Noah A Kolb, Christopher R Trevino, Waqar Waheed, Fatemeh Sobhani, Kara K Landry, Alissa A Thomas, Mike Hehir
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI related immune diseases...
January 17, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342306/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-diarrhoea-among-children-between-6-and-59-months-of-age-in-mwanza-city-tanzania
#13
Silas Kabhele, Moses New-Aaron, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Ainory P Gesase
Background: Childhood diarrhoea is a global public health problem especially in unplanned settlements of low- and middle-income countries. Different studies have associated household settlement and childhood diarrhoea, but the prevalence and risk factors associated with childhood diarrhoea at the community level are not clearly known. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with diarrhoea in among 480 children between 6 and 59 months of age in Mwanza city from June to August 2016...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342304/introduction-of-standardised-tobacco-packaging-during-a-12-month-transition-period-findings-from-small-retailers-in-the-united-kingdom
#14
Nathan Critchlow, Martine Stead, Crawford Moodie, Douglas Eadie, Anne Marie MacKintosh
Introduction: Factory-made cigarettes (FMC) and roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco have had to be produced in standardised packaging since 20th May 2016 in the United Kingdom, with a minimum pack size of 20 sticks for FMC and 30 grams for RYO. Manufacturers and retailers were given a 12-month transition period. Methods: An observational study was conducted using monthly Electronic Point of Sale data from 500 small retailers in England, Scotland, and Wales, between May 2016 and May 2017...
January 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342289/recent-advances-in-kidney-transplantation-a-viewpoint-from-the-descartes-advisory-board
#15
Daniel Abramowicz, Rainer Oberbauer, Uwe Heemann, Ondrej Viklicky, Licia Peruzzi, Christophe Mariat, Marta Crespo, Klemens Budde, Gabriel C Oniscu
Transplantation medicine is a rapidly evolving field. Keeping afloat of the published literature to offer the best clinical care to our patients is a daunting task. As part of its educational mission, the Descartes advisory board identified seven topics in kidney transplantation where there has been substantial progresses over the last years: kidney allocation within Eurotransplant; kidney exchange strategies; kidney machine perfusion strategies; the changing landscape of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies; the new immunosuppressive drugs in the pipeline; strategies for immunosuppression minimization; and the continuous enigma of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis recurrence after transplantation...
January 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342288/association-between-abcg2-rs2231142-and-poor-response-to-allopurinol-replication-and-meta-analysis
#16
Mary C Wallace, Rebecca L Roberts, Payal Nanavati, Jeffrey N Miner, Nicola Dalbeth, Ruth Topless, Tony R Merriman, Lisa K Stamp
Objective: ABCG2 rs2231142 (Q141K) has been reported to be associated with poor response to allopurinol, while there are conflicting data on the association between the genetically independent ABCG2 rs10011796 variant and allopurinol response. The aim of this study was to replicate the association of ABCG2 rs2231142 and rs10011796 with allopurinol response and perform a meta-analysis. Methods: Participants in the Long-term Allopurinol Safety Study Evaluating Outcomes in Gout Patients (LASSO) (n = 299) were studied...
January 12, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342287/to-the-brain-and-back-migratory-paths-of-dendritic-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Maxime De Laere, Zwi N Berneman, Nathalie Cools
Migration of dendritic cells (DC) to the central nervous system (CNS) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). While up until now, research has mainly focused on the transmigration of DC through the blood-brain barrier, experimental evidence points out that also the choroid plexus and meningeal vessels represent important gateways to the CNS, especially in early disease stages. On the other hand, DC can exit the CNS to maintain immunological tolerance to patterns expressed in the CNS, a process that is perturbed in MS...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342286/the-ethics-of-general-population-preventive-genomic-sequencing-rights-and-social-justice
#18
Clair Morrissey, Rebecca L Walker
Advances in DNA sequencing technology open new possibilities for public health genomics, especially in the form of general population preventive genomic sequencing (PGS). Such screening programs would sit at the intersection of public health and preventive health care, and thereby at once invite and resist the use of clinical ethics and public health ethics frameworks. Despite their differences, these ethics frameworks traditionally share a central concern for individual rights. We examine two putative individual rights-the right not to know, and the child's right to an open future-frequently invoked in discussions of predictive genetic testing, in order to explore their potential contribution to evaluating this new practice...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342280/epigenetic-differentiation-of-natural-populations-of-lilium-bosniacum-associated-with-contrasting-habitat-conditions
#19
V Zoldoš, I Biruš, E Muratovic, Z Šatovic, A Vojta, O Robin, F Pustahija, F Bogunic, V Vicic Bockor, S Siljak-Yakovlev
Epigenetic variation in natural populations with contrasting habitats might be an important element, in addition to the genetic variation, in plant adaptation to environmental stress. Here, we assessed genetic, epigenetic and cytogenetic structure of the three Lilium bosniacum populations growing on distinct habitats. One population was growing under habitual ecological conditions for this species and the other two were growing under stress associated with high altitude and serpentine soil. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses revealed that the three populations did not differentiate genetically, but were clearly separated in the three distinct clusters according to DNA methylation profiles...
January 12, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342279/incidence-and-predictors-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disease-after-kidney-transplantation-during-adulthood-and-childhood-a-registry-study
#20
Anna Francis, David W Johnson, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Jonathan C Craig, Germaine Wong
Background: Differences in the epidemiology of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) between adult and paediatric kidney transplant recipients remain unclear. Methods: Using the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (1963-2015), the cumulative incidences of PTLD in children (age <20 years) and adults were calculated using a competing risk of death model and compared with age-matched population-based data using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs)...
January 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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