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Nitric Oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641276/atherosclerosis-and-the-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-approaches-to-disease-prevention
#1
Zhi-Jun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now admitted as a third gasotransmitter together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), albeit it was originally considered as a foul and poisonous gas. Endogenous H2S production in mammalian cells is counting on the three enzymes acting on cysteine. Involvement of H2S in various physiological and pathological processes has been extensively studied in the last fifteen years. Mounting evidence suggests that H2S is able to protect against atherosclerosis development and progression...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641022/a-randomized-single-dose-parallel-study-on-enhancement-of-nitric-oxide-in-serum-and-saliva-with-the-use-of-natural-sports-supplement-in-healthy-adults
#2
Joby Jacob, Sreeraj Gopi, Chandradhara Divya
Sports supplements that stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) are widely promoted agents in the sports nutrition domain, and nitric oxide plays an important role to enhance the cardiovascular and physical fitness of the sports participants. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether oral intake of a sports nutritional supplement (Fitnox) is able to increase nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) levels in blood serum and saliva of healthy adults. Fitnox is a unique blend of Kaempferia parviflora methoxy flavones, pomegranate peel polyphenols, and Moringa oleifera leaf saponins...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640931/ischemia-responsive-protein-94-is-a-key-mediator-of-ischemic-neuronal-injury-induced-microglial-activation
#3
Rajiv Tikamdas, Sarthak Singhal, Ping Zhang, Justin A Smith, Eric G Krause, Stanley M Stevens, Sihong Song, Bin Liu
Neuroinflammation, especially activation of microglia, the key immune cells in the brain, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. However, the dynamics and the potential mediators of microglial activation following ischemic neuronal injury are not well understood. In this study, using oxygen/glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) with neuronal and microglial cell cultures as an in vitro model of ischemic neuronal injury, we set out to identify neuronal factors released from injured neurons that are capable of inducing microglial activation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640893/oroxylin-a-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-a-rat-optic-nerve-crush-model
#4
Shu-Fang Lin, Jia-Ying Chien, Kishan Kapupara, Chi-Ying F Huang, Shun-Ping Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of oroxylin A on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the activation of microglial cells in a rat optic nerve (ON) crush model. METHODS: Oroxylin A (15mg/Kg in 0.2ml phosphate-buffered saline) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control) was immediately administered after ON crush once by subcutaneous injection. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks after the crush injury. The density of RGC was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640754/raised-tsh-is-associated-with-endothelial-dysfunction-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#5
Ashok Kumar Ahirwar, Archana Singh, Anju Jain, Surajeet Kumar Patra, Binita Goswami, M K Bhatnagar, Jayashree Bhatacharjee
Introduction- Endothelial dysfunction has been considered as one of the important factor in pathogenesis of Metabolic Syndrome (Met S). Sub clinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has also been reported to be associated with Met S. The aim of our study is to evaluate the association of raised TSH with mediators of endothelial dysfunction in Met S with Sub clinical hypothyroidism as compared to healthy controls. Methods- Study population consisted of 100 subjects, out of which 50 were cases of Met S and 50 were healthy controls...
June 15, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640652/protective-effect-against-brain-tissues-oxidative-damage-as-a-possible-mechanism-for-beneficial-effects-of-l-arginine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#6
Mahmoud Hosseini, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Farimah Beheshti, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Reza Nosratabadi
L-Arginine (LA) and nitric oxide (NO) have been suggested to have some effects on learning, memory, brain tissues oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation. In this study, protective effect against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for beneficial effects of LA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced memory impairment was investigated. The rats were grouped into and treated by (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, IP), (3) LA (200 mg/kg) - LPS (4) LA. In passive avoidance (PA) test, LPS administration shortened the latency to enter the dark compartment in LPS group compared to control (p < ...
June 22, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640644/nebivolol-alleviates-aortic-remodeling-through-enos-upregulation-and-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-l-name-induced-hypertensive-rats
#7
Yan Wang, Fei Zhang, Yu Liu, Sha Yin, Xuefen Pang, Zhidong Li, Zehui Wei
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of nebivolol on aortic remodeling in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with equal volumes of drinking water or l-NAME (60 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination with nebivolol (8 mg/kg/day) or atenolol (80 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic morphometry, plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and relaxation of aorta to acetylcholine were determined...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636794/differences-and-similarities-between-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-asthma-in-schoolchildren
#9
Björn Nordlund, Anna James, Christina Ebersjö, Gunilla Hedlin, Eva B Broström
BACKGROUND: The long-term respiratory characteristics of ex-preterm children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not established. The objective of this study was to describe hallmarks of BPD at school age in comparison to children with atopic asthma. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive comparative study in a hospital-based setting. Thirty schoolchildren diagnosed with BPD (10.4 years/born at 26.6 weeks' gestation) and 30 age- and sex-matched children with asthma and sensitized to airborne allergens (IgE >0...
June 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636643/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-prevents-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rat
#10
Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Keita Kanzaki, Masanobu Wada, Håkan Westerblad, Johanna T Lanner, Takashi Yamada
Skeletal muscle weakness is a prominent feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training protects against skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). AIA was produced by intraarticular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the knees of Wistar rats. For NMES training, dorsiflexor muscles were stimulated via a surface electrode (0.5 ms pulse, 50 Hz, 2 s on/4 s off). NMES training was performed every other day for three weeks and consisted of three sets produced at three min intervals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636533/microrna-149-suppresses-hepatic-inflammatory-response-through-antagonizing-stat3-signaling-pathway
#11
Qiqi Zhang, Jia Su, Ziwei Wang, Hui Qi, Zeyong Ge, Zhijun Li, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Chronic inflammation is increasingly recognized as an important component of tumorigenesis and metabolic diseases. The roles of microRNA149* (miRNA149*) in inflammation remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that miR-149* is a suppressor of STAT3-mediated inflammation. MiR-149*-/- mice were generated with CRISPR/CAS9 technique. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, miR-149*-/- mice show more severe liver injury and inflammation, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. MiR-149*-/- mice also displayed elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of interleukin (IL)-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), complement C3 (C3) and IL-4 in response to LPS...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636310/sensing-mechanisms-in-the-redox-regulated-2fe-2s-cluster-containing-bacterial-transcriptional-factor-soxr
#12
Kazuo Kobayashi
Bacteria possess molecular biosensors that enable responses to a variety of stressful conditions, including oxidative stress, toxic compounds, and interactions with other organisms, through elaborately coordinated regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the transcription factor SoxR functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). SoxR protein contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster essential for its transcription-enhancing activity, which is regulated by redox changes in the [2Fe-2S] cluster...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636034/upregulation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-mediates-the-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-casein-glycomacropeptide-gmp-hydrolysates-in-lps-stimulated-macrophages
#13
Tiange Li, Xue Cheng, Min Du, Bin Chen, Xueying Mao
Recently, we have shown that casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates (GHP) exhibit both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities in vitro. However, whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in the cytoprotective effect of GHP against the inflammatory status remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that HO-1 is a potential target of GHP, which mediates its anti-inflammatory effect. Here, GHP inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression and enhanced reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264...
June 21, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635681/antimicrobial-activity-of-nitric-oxide-releasing-ti-6al-4v-metal-oxide
#14
Nina A Reger, Wilson S Meng, Ellen S Gawalt
Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#15
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635255/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-peptide-ecfsta-from-wheat-germ-globulin
#16
Wenjia Wu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yao Ren, Xinze Cai, Zhina Yin, Xiaoai Zhang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
A novel peptide was extracted from wheat germ globulin and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The sequence of the peptide was found to be Glu-Cys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala (ECFSTA). Its immunomodulatory effects were evaluated, and the results showed that ECFSTA could enhance phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells and significantly increase their secretion of nitric oxide (NO), interleukins-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634786/inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-aminoguanidine-alleviates-neuroinflammation-induced-by-hyperglycemia
#17
Yuanjian Song, Fang Zhang, Changjiang Ying, Kiran Ashok Kumar, Xiaoyan Zhou
Neuroinflammation is a key feature of cerebral complication which is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. However, how iNOS facilitates the development of inflammation in brain is still unidentified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of iNOS and neuroinflammation in diabetic mice, and elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying aminoguanidine (AG), the selective inhibitor of iNOS, protected neurons against inflammation in diabetic mice...
June 20, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634570/to-use-or-not-to-use-metformin-in-cerebral-ischemia-a-review-of-the-application-of-metformin-in-stroke-rodents
#18
REVIEW
Isaac Arbeláez-Quintero, Mauricio Palacios
Ischemic strokes are major causes of death and disability. Searching for potential therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat stroke is necessary, given the increase in overall life expectancy. Epidemiological reports indicate that metformin is an oral antidiabetic medication that can reduce the incidence of ischemic events in patients with diabetes mellitus. Its mechanism of action has not been elucidated, but metformin pleiotropic effects involve actions in addition to glycemic control. AMPK activation has been described as one of the pharmacological mechanisms that explain the action of metformin and that lead to neuroprotective effects...
2017: Stroke Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#19
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634172/identifying-an-oxygenation-index-threshold-for-increased-mortality-in-acute-respiratory-failure
#20
Brandon G Hammond, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Paul Kang, Mounica Y Rao, Brigham C Willis, Heidi J Dalton
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to examine current oxygenation index (OI) data and outcomes using electronic medical record data to identify a specific OI value associated with mortality. METHODS: This study was a retrospective electronic medical record data review from the pediatric ICU of Phoenix Children's Hospital, with data mining for variables to calculate OIs on subjects age 1 month to 20 y mechanically ventilated >24 h, excluding those with known intracardiac shunts or cyanotic heart disease...
June 20, 2017: Respiratory Care
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