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Nitric Oxide

Esteban M Repetto, Morena Wiszniewski, Ana L Bonelli, Carolina V Vecino, Camila Martinez Calejman, Pablo Arias, Cora B Cymeryng
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the involvement of oxidative stress and inflammation in the modulation of glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with or without streptozotocin (STZ, an insulinopenic model of diabetes) and either α-lipoic (90 mg/kg ip.), α-tocopherol (200 mg/kg po.) or with STZ and supplemented with insulin (STZ + INS: 2.5U/day) for 4 weeks. Oxidative/nitrosative stress parameters and antioxidant enzymes were determined in adrenocortical tissues...
September 21, 2018: Endocrine
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Veena Manja, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Kevin R Ellsworth, Amy L Weaver, William A Carey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Jeppe B Rosenbaek, Erling B Pedersen, Jesper N Bech
BACKGROUND: Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ) causes vasodilation, presumably by enzymatic conversion to nitric oxide (NO). Several enzymes with nitrite reducing capabilities have been discovered in vitro, but their relative importance in vivo has not been investigated. We aimed to examine the effects of NaNO2 on blood pressure, fractional sodium excretion (FENa ), free water clearance (CH2O ) and GFR, after pre-inhibition of xanthine oxidase, carbonic anhydrase, and angiotensin-converting enzyme...
September 21, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Kun-Chang Wu, Yu-Ling Ho, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Shyh-Shyun Huang, Guan-Jhong Huang, Yuan-Shiun Chang
The present study aimed to discover the possible effectiveness of Ugonin M, a unique flavonoid isolated from Helminthostachys zeylanica -a traditional Chinese medicine used as anti-inflammatory medicine-and to elucidate the potential mechanisms of Ugonin M in the acute liver injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). In this study, Ugonin M significantly ameliorated APAP-induced histopathological changes and the typical liver function biomarkers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (T-Bil))...
September 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jozef Kováčik, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Sławomir Dresler, Petr Babula, Juraj Hladký, Alexander Chemodanov, Luigi Mondello
Accumulation of metals and metabolic responses were studied for two Cd and Cu concentrations (1 and 10 μM) either alone or as a combination in marine macroalga after 7 days of exposure. Cd accumulated more at a low dose (115 μg of Cd/g DW) but Cu at a high dose (378 μg of Cu/g DW); Cu suppressed Cd accumulation (by 57%). Na and Zn levels were unaffected, but higher metal doses depleted K and Ca levels. Higher metal concentrations strongly stimulated reactive oxygen species and depleted nitric oxide (NO) formation, but differences between the action of Cd and Cu were not extensive...
September 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Junguo Ma, Xinxin Li, Mengke Cui, Weiguo Li, Xiaoyu Li
This study aimed to determine the chronic toxicity of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C8 mim]Br) on silver carp to further study the toxicological mechanism of ILs. For this purpose, 60-d chronic exposure at concentrations of 1.09 or 4.38 mg L-1 [C8 mim]Br in silver carp was conducted. The results of biochemical assays revealed that [C8 mim]Br-treatment remarkably promoted serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities, indicating that [C8 mim]Br-exposure caused fish organ damage...
September 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Bence Hegyi, Tamás Bányász, Leighton T Izu, Luiz Belardinelli, Donald M Bers, Ye Chen-Izu
Late Na+ current (INaL ) significantly contributes to shaping cardiac action potentials (AP) and increased INaL is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation and its downstream signaling via protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) pathways are known to regulate INaL . However, it remains unclear how each of these pathways regulates INaL during the AP under physiological conditions. Here we performed AP-clamp experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes to delineate the impact of each signaling pathway on INaL at different AP phases to understand the arrhythmogenic potential...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Stefânia E Santos, Fernanda P R A Ribeiro, Pedro M N Menezes, Luiz A M Duarte-Filho, Jullyana S S Quintans, Lucindo J Quintans-Junior, Fabricio S Silva, Luciano A A Ribeiro
The monoterpene alcohol (-)-borneol has many biological effects such as sedative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-nociceptive, antithrombotic and vasorelaxant effects. Our objective in this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of (-)-borneol and determine its vasorelaxant effect. (-)-Borneol was tested on isolated aortic rings contracted with PE (10-6 M). This study was performed in the absence or in the presence of endothelium, L-NAME (100 μM), indomethacin (10 μM), TEA (1 and 10 mM), 4-AP (1 mM), or glibenclamide (1 mM) to assess the participation of EDRF, nitric oxide, prostanoids and potassium channels on the relaxing effect of (-)-borneol...
September 21, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Delgerzul Baatar, Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Wan Taek Im, Nisar Ul Khaliq, Seong Gu Hwang
Ginsenoside Rh2 , a protopanaxadiol saponin from ginseng, has been reported to have strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, the concentration of ginsenoside Rh2 is very low (>0.001%) in the total ginseng extracted, which is not enough for production despite its high pharmacological effects. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rh2 -mix (GRh2 -mix) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. From the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, it was confirmed that the GRh2 -mix was mainly composed of 20(S)-Rh2 , 20(R)-Rh2 , Rk2 , and Rh3 ...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Jeremie D Oliver, Kaiser G Lim, Erin K O'Brien
Background Computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinuses is the diagnostic reference standard for chronic rhinosinusitis and related inflammatory sinus pathology. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels have been investigated as a diagnostic tool in sinus disease because it decreases with sinus obstruction. Objective The primary aim of the study was to determine the correlation of passive (baseline) and dynamic (humming) nNO to CT findings of sinus inflammation and to sinonasal symptoms measured by the modified Sinonasal Outcome Test (26 items) (SNOT-26)...
September 21, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Beyza Ayazgök, Tuba Tüylü Küçükkılınç
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor chemical, which is commonly used in everyday products. Adverse effects of its exposure are reported even at picomolar doses. Effects of picomolar and nanomolar concentrations of BPA on cytotoxicity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression and activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and caspase-8 levels were determined in SH-SY5Y cells. The current study reveals that low-dose BPA treatment induced cytotoxicity, NO, and caspase-8 levels in SH-SY5Y cells...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Yuan Li, Suming Fu, Enlai Li, Xianchao Sun, Haie Xu, Yu Meng, Xiaoqian Wang, Yue Chen, Chunfeng Xie, Shanshan Geng, Jieshu Wu, Caiyun Zhong, Ping Xu
Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is capable of inducing pulmonary oxidative injury. Autophagy maintains basal cellular homeostasis and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, is an effective antioxidant agent against particulate matter (PM)-induced injuries. The current study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol can regulate autophagy in the process of PM2.5-mediated pulmonary oxidative injury. In the mice model of PM2.5 exposure, we found that PM2...
September 20, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Denan Wang, Lena V Ivanova, Maxim Ivanov, Saber Mirzaei, Qadir Timerghazin, Scott Reid, Rajendra Rathore
Calixarenes have found widespread application as building blocks for the design and synthesis of functional materials in host-guest chemistry. The ongoing desire to develop a detailed understanding of the nature of NO bonding to multichromophoric π-stacked assemblies led us to develop an electron-rich methoxy derivative of calix[4]arene, which we show exists as a single conformer in solution at ambient temperature. Here we examine the redox properties of this derivative, generate its cation radical using robust chemical oxidants, and determine the relative efficacy of its NO binding in comparison with model calixarenes...
September 21, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sara Trevisan, Anna Rita Trentin, Rossella Ghisi, Antonio Masi, Silvia Quaggiotti
Nitrogen (N) is an indispensable nutrient for crops but its availability in agricultural soils is subject to considerable fluctuation. Plants have developed plastic responses to external N fluctuations in order to optimise their development. The coordinated action of nitric oxide and auxin seems to allow the cells of the transition zone (TZ) of the root apex of N-deprived maize to rapidly sense nitrate. Preliminary results support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling might also have a role in this pathway, probably through a putative maize orthologue of UPBEAT1 (UPB1)...
September 21, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Xiao Sun, Zhonghua Dong, Nan Li, Xiuli Feng, Yan Liu, Ang Li, Xiaosong Zhu, Chunyan Li, Zhongxi Zhao
Background: Ophiocordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) extracts have been found to have a therapeutic effect on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory mediators and correlates with lung function and COPD exacerbations. The objective of this work was to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and preliminary pathways of nucleosides from cultured C. sinensis on RAW264.7 macrophages and COPD mice...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Longmei He, Yiming Ma, Weiwei Li, Wenxiao Han, Xinhua Zhao, Hongying Wang
Hippo signaling plays critical roles in intestinal regeneration. However, the mechanisms which regulate its activity in vivo are largely unknown. We hypothesize that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling, which could be activated by trypsin, might affect YAP activity in the setting of tissue damage and regeneration. It is found that knockout of PAR2 severely aggravates the mucosal damage induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in mouse, which correlated with notable repression of YAP protein in colonic epithelial cells...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Pragya Sharma, Yu Dong, Virend K Somers, Timothy E Peterson, Yuebo Zhang, Shihan Wang, Guangxi Li, Prachi Singh
Vascular dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR) are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is characterized by frequent episodes of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH). While it is recognized that the balance between vasoconstrictive (endothelin-1) and vasodilatory molecules (nitric oxide, NO) determine vascular profile, molecular mechanisms contributing to vascular dysfunction and IR in OSA are not completely understood. Caveolin-1 is a membrane protein which regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity which is responsible for NO generation and cellular insulin-signaling...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun Tanihata, Tetsuya Nagata, Naoki Ito, Takashi Saito, Akinori Nakamura, Susumu Minamisawa, Yoshitsugu Aoki, Urs T Ruegg, Shin'ichi Takeda
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are due to mutations in the DMD gene. Previous reports show that in-frame deletion of exons 45-55 produces an internally shorted, but functional, dystrophin protein resulting in a very mild BMD phenotype. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism leading to this phenotype, we generated exon 45-55 deleted dystrophin transgenic/mdx (Tg/mdx) mice. Muscular function of Tg/mdx mice was restored close to that of wild type (WT) mice but the localization of the neuronal type of nitric oxide synthase was changed from the sarcolemma to the cytosol...
September 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiaoling Chen, Yafei Guo, Gang Jia, Guangmang Liu, Hua Zhao, Zhiqing Huang
This study investigated the effect of arginine on skeletal muscle fiber type transformation in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. Our data showed that dietary supplementation of arginine in mice significantly up-regulated the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC), troponin I-SS, sirtuin1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expressions, as well as significantly down-regulated the fast MyHC protein expression. In C2C12 myotubes, arginine significantly increased the protein level of slow MyHC and the number of slow MyHC-positive cells, as well as significantly decreased the protein level of fast MyHC and the number of fast MyHC-positive cells...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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