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Nutrient timing

Carrie J Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Rita H Mumm, Kent Rausch, Gurshagan Kandhola, Nicole Yana, Mary Happ, Alexandra Ostezan, Matthew Wasmund, Martin O Bohn
The notion that many nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals in maize are lost due to food product processing is common, but this has not been studied in detail for the phenolic acids. Information regarding changes in phenolic acid content throughout processing is highly valuable because some phenolic acids are chemopreventive agents of aging-related diseases. It is unknown when and why these changes in phenolic acid content might occur during processing, whether some maize genotypes might be more resistant to processing induced changes in phenolic acid content than other genotypes, or if processing affects the bioavailability of phenolic acids in maize-based food products...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Angela Contreras, Magdalena Ribbeck, Guillermo D Gutiérrez, Pablo M Cañon, Sebastián N Mendoza, Eduardo Agosin
The effect of ethanol on the metabolism of Oenococcus oeni , the bacterium responsible for the malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wine, is still scarcely understood. Here, we characterized the global metabolic response in O. oeni PSU-1 to increasing ethanol contents, ranging from 0 to 12% (v/v). We first optimized a wine-like, defined culture medium, MaxOeno, to allow sufficient bacterial growth to be able to quantitate different metabolites in batch cultures of O. oeni . Then, taking advantage of the recently reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model iSM454 for O...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eloi Parladé, Andrea Hom-Diaz, Paqui Blánquez, Maira Martínez-Alonso, Teresa Vicent, Nuria Gaju
The use of microalgal consortia for urban wastewater treatment is an increasing trend, as it allows simultaneous nutrient removal and biomass production. Emerging contaminants proposed for the list of priority substances such as the hormone 17β-estradiol are commonly found in urban wastewater, and their removal using algal monocultures has been accomplished. Due to the inherent potential of algae-based systems, this study aimed to assess the capability of native photobioreactor biomass to remove 17β-estradiol under indoor and outdoor conditions...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jenifer E Clapp, Sarah A Niederman, Elizabeth Leonard, Christine J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. METHODS: We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Thomas D Whitney, Michael I Sitvarin, Edward A Roualdes, Simon J Bonner, James D Harwood
Generalist predators are capable of selective foraging, but are predicted to feed in close proportion to prey availability to maximize energetic intake especially when overall prey availability is low. By extension, they are also expected to feed in a more frequency-dependent manner during winter compared to the more favorable foraging conditions during spring, summer and fall seasons. For 18 months, we observed the foraging patterns of forest-dwelling wolf spiders from the genus Schizocosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using PCR-based gut-content analysis and simultaneously monitored the activity-densities of two common prey: springtails (Collembola) and flies (Diptera)...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Tessa Camenzind, Edith C Hammer, Johannes Lehmann, Dawit Solomon, Sebastian Horn, Matthias C Rillig, Stefan Hempel
The socio-economic values of fertile and carbon-rich Dark Earth soils are well described from the Amazon region. Very recently, Dark Earth soils were also identified in tropical West Africa, with comparable beneficial soil properties and plant growth-promoting effects. The impact of this management technique on soil microbial communities, however, is less well understood, especially with respect to the ecologically relevant group of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that (1) improved soil quality in African Dark Earth (AfDE) will increase soil microbial biomass and shift community composition and (2) concurrently increased nutrient availability will negatively affect AM fungal communities...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
J K Pinnegar
The damselfish Chromis chromis is typically the most abundant fish species in the rocky littoral environment of the Mediterranean Sea, where it feeds in huge shoals on incoming zooplankton and rests near the seabed each night. Research has shown that large populations of C. chromis play a fundamental role by transferring carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus directly from the pelagic system to the littoral in the form of solid and liquid wastes and therefore that this species acts as a vital conduit for nutrients...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Youssef Rouphael, Giampaolo Raimondi, Luigi Lucini, Petronia Carillo, Marios C Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Valerio Cirillo, Antonio Pannico, Christophe El-Nakhel, Stefania De Pascale
Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
John T Van Stan, Dennis A Gordon
Stemflow, a precipitation and solute supply to soils near tree stems, can play a wide array of roles in ecosystem functioning. However, stemflow's ecohydrological functions have been primarily studied in forests with voluminous stemflow because resource subsidy is currently considered stemflow's only impact on near-stem soils. This common assumption ignores controls that stemflow generation may exert via resource limitation (when stemflow < open rainfall and near-stem throughfall is negligible). We reviewed selected literature across numerous forests to evaluate the predominance of stemflow as a potential resource limitation to near-stem soils and characterized the concentrated, but meager, solute flux from low stemflow generators...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Benshui Shu, Jingjing Zhang, Gaofeng Cui, Ranran Sun, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
Azadirachtin, the environmentally friendly botanical pesticide, has been used as an antifeedant and pest growth regulator in integrated pest management for decades. It has shown strong biological activity against Spodoptera litura , but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. The present study showed that azadirachtin inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae, which was resulted by structure destroy and size inhibition of the midgut. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of midgut suggested that azadirachtin regulated the transcriptional level of multiple unigenes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and calcium apoptotic signaling pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ralph J M Temmink, Sarah F Harpenslager, Alfons J P Smolders, Gijs van Dijk, Roy C J H Peters, Leon P M Lamers, Monique M L van Kempen
Azolla spp., a water fern often used for phytoremediation, is a strong phosphorus (P) accumulator due to its high growth rate and N2 fixing symbionts (diazotrophs). It is known that plant growth is stimulated by P, but the nature of the interactive response of both symbionts along a P gradient, and related changes in growth-limiting factors, are unclear. We determined growth, and N and P sequestration rates of Azolla filiculoides in N-free water at different P concentrations. The growth response appeared to be biphasic and highest at levels ≥10 P µmol l-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aleksandra Małachowska, Paweł Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional control of gene expression is a widely utilized regulatory mechanism in synthetic biology, biotechnology and recombinant protein production. It is achieved by utilization of naturally occurring promoters responding to nutrients or chemicals. Despite their regulatory properties, these promoters often possess features which diminish their utility for biotechnology. High basal expression level and low induction ratio can be removed using genetic engineering techniques, although this process is often laborious and time-consuming...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Adriana Hernández, Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Jeffrey Lansdale, María Belén Salazar
Sweeteners are found in all types of foods, and their high consumption is associated with chronic degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, among others. A characterization was carried out of food products with sweeteners from the three biggest supermarkets at a national level; they were identified by the list of ingredients and classified according to caloric or non-caloric intake, and pursuant to their country of origin. A statistical interpretation of results was made using descriptive measures such as the number of times the sweeteners were found in the formulation of the products and how many of them were found in a product at the same time...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
Hannah Crocker Cunningham, Kristi M Cammack, Kristin E Hales, Harvey C Freetly, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry
Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. During the production year the cow uses nutrients to support conceptus growth, milk production, work (grazing and locomotion), and maintenance requirements. The majority of the nutrients are used to support maintenance. Substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward energy expenditure associated with maintenance in mature cows. The objective of this study was to determine whether beef cows that differ in the efficiency of weight gain differ in the relative abundance of transcripts for metabolic regulation in adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
Thais Roque, Laurent Risser, Veerle Kersemans, Sean Smart, Danny Allen, Paul Kinchesh, Stuart Gilchrist, Ana L Gomes, Julia A Schnabel, Michael A Chappell
Predicting tumor growth and its response to therapy remains a major challenge in cancer research and strongly relies on tumor growth models. In this paper, we introduce, calibrate, and verify a novel image-driven reaction-diffusion model of avascular tumor growth. The model allows for proliferation, death and spread of tumor cells, and accounts for nutrient distribution and hypoxia. It is constrained by longitudinal time series of dynamic contrast-enhancement-MRI images. Tumor specific parameters are estimated from two early time points and used to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of the tumor volume and cell densities at later time points...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Tingting Fu, Nicolas Elie, Alain Brunelle
Wood extractives in the xylem of European larch Larix decidua were mapped by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging, which allows the radial distribution of both mineral and lipophilic extractives in the xylem to be scrutinized with high spatial resolution for the first time. Results show that all the components are inhomogeneously distributed across the annual ring. Mineral nutrients including Na+ , K+ , Ca+ , and Cl- ions exhibit no preferential localization between earlywood and latewood, whereas PO3 - ion is exclusively present in the ray cells, indicating it may be related to acid phosphatase...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mayada R Farag, Swati Sachan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama
Antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry have been used for long time for improving feed efficiency and performance. Due to their various side-effects such as antibiotic resistance, destruction of beneficial bacteria in the gut, and dysbiosis, it is required to think about some alternatives. Probiotics are one of the options in this regard for improving poultry production. Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host." They are available in various forms for use as feed additives...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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