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Transportation Determinant of Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086893/seasonal-variation-in-geographical-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-regions-of-southern-mozambique
#1
Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Nadine Schuurman, Charfudin Sacoor, Helena Edith Boene, Faustino Vilanculo, Marianne Vidler, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe, Tabassum Firoz
BACKGROUND: Geographic proximity to health facilities is a known determinant of access to maternal care. Methods of quantifying geographical access to care have largely ignored the impact of precipitation and flooding. Further, travel has largely been imagined as unimodal where one transport mode is used for entire journeys to seek care. This study proposes a new approach for modeling potential spatio-temporal access by evaluating the impact of precipitation and floods on access to maternal health services using multiple transport modes, in southern Mozambique...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079322/-incidence-of-non-work-related-sickness-absence-in-spain-by-economic-activity-of-the-company
#2
Fernando G Benavides, Elena Zaballa, Xavier Duran, Victòria Sanchez-Niubo, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
INTRODUCTION: The management of sickness absence due to non-work-related diseases in Spain has typically focused on the control of its duration. The goal of this study was to provide estimates for the incidence of sickness absence due to nonwork-related diseases by economic activity to help shift the focus of management of sickness absence towards prevention. METHODS: Retrospective study based on 646,337 workers and 133,812 episodes of sickness absence started in 2009, from the Working Continuous Life Sample...
January 2017: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069306/nitrated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-nitro-pahs-in-the-environment-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin A Musa Bandowe, Hannah Meusel
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are derivatives of PAHs with at least one nitro-functional group (-NO2) on the aromatic ring. The toxic effects of several nitro-PAHs are more pronounced than those of PAHs. Some nitro-PAHs are classified as possible or probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Nitro-PAHs are released into the environment from combustion of carbonaceous materials (e.g. fossil fuels, biomass, waste) and post-emission transformation of PAHs...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068998/a-qualitative-study-on-african-immigrant-and-refugee-families-experiences-of-accessing-primary-health-care-services-in-manitoba-canada-it-s-not-easy
#4
Roberta Lynn Woodgate, David Shiyokha Busolo, Maryanne Crockett, Ruth Anne Dean, Miriam R Amaladas, Pierre J Plourde
BACKGROUND: Immigrant and refugee families form a growing proportion of the Canadian population and experience barriers in accessing primary health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of access to primary health care by African immigrant and refugee families. METHODS: Eighty-three families originating from 15 African countries took part in multiple open ended interviews in western Canada. Qualitative data was collected in six different languages between 2013 and 2015...
January 9, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061796/glucose-transporter-4-promotes-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis-through-the-trim24-ddx58-axis
#5
Yu-Chan Chang, Li-Hsing Chi, Wei-Ming Chang, Chia-Yi Su, Yuang-Feng Lin, Chi-Long Chen, Ming-Huang Chen, Peter Mu-Hsin Chang, Alex T H Wu, Michael Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a unique and major health concern worldwide. Significant increases in glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis have been observed in HNSCC cells. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) represent a major hub in the glycolysis pathway, with GLUT4 having the highest glucose affinity. However, GLUT4's role in HNSCC has not been fully appreciated. METHODS: An in silico analysis was performed in HNSCC cohorts to identify the most significant glucose transporter associated with HNSCC patient prognosis...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056908/an-evaluation-of-outdoor-school-environments-to-promote-physical-activity-in-delhi-india
#6
Samiksha Tarun, Monika Arora, Tina Rawal, Sara E Benjamin Neelon
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056903/development-of-the-health-literacy-on-social-determinants-of-health-questionnaire-in-japanese-adults
#7
Masayoshi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Health inequities are increasing worldwide, with mounting evidence showing that the greatest cause of which are social determinants of health. To reduce inequities, a lot of citizens need to be able to access, understand, appraise, and apply information on the social determinants; that is, they need to improve health literacy on social determinants of health. However, only a limited number of scales focus on these considerations; hence, we developed the Health Literacy on Social Determinants of Health Questionnaire (HL-SDHQ) and examined its psychometric properties...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053557/birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-among-rural-women-of-reproductive-age-in-abeshige-district-guraghe-zone-snnpr-ethiopia
#8
Kebebush Zepre, Mirgissa Kaba
BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy that helps women to consider all available maternal health care services during pregnancy and prepare for potential complications. Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia has taken steps to roll out the strategy at community level. Yet, women in rural communities still do not make use of available services to avoid complications in connection to pregnancy and delivery. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the current BPCR practice and determine associated factors among rural women of reproductive age in Abeshige district, Guraghe zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046179/bill-e-kunkle-interdisciplinary-beef-symposium-impact-of-mineral-and-vitamin-status-on-beef-cattle-immune-function-and-health
#9
E B Kegley, J J Ball, P A Beck
The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043542/the-analysis-of-exosomal-micro-rnas-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-derived-macrophages-after-infection-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-by-rna-sequencing
#10
Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D Alipoor, Payam Tabarsi, Ian M Adcock, Johan Garssen, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global threat to human health, especially in low-income countries. The diagnosis of TB is challenging because of the limitations of specificity and sensitivity with the current diagnostics. Novel, selective biomarkers for TB would be of great practical value. Exosomes are bioactive vesicles with 30-100nm in diameter, which are secreted from almost all cell types and are found in virtually every human body fluid. Exosomes transport micro-RNAs (miRNAs), which are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, around the body and allow miRNAs to modulate biological pathways in target cells...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042601/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-interaction-of-escherichia-coli-within-vegetative-filter-strips-as-a-sustainable-best-management-practice-to-reduce-fecal-pathogen-loading-into-surface-waters
#11
Casianes Owino Olilo, Anastasia Wairimu Muia, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Japhet Ogalo Onyando, Ford Roegner Amber
Agro-pastoral operations have the potential to threaten public health with loading of diverse pathogens into surface waters through overland flow; increasing awareness of the limitations of fecal indicators has led to development of a number of advancements in detection, source tracking and predictive modeling of public health risk. These tools and techniques are beginning to be integrated into management strategies. The objective of this review was to determine the status of current knowledge and challenges of the fate and transport of Escherichia coli in overland flow and their interaction within vegetative filter strip (VFS) as one of these implemented best management practices and to critically evaluate its use in that setting as an indicator organism...
August 2016: Energy Ecol Environ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034792/glutathione-in-the-human-brain-review-of-its-roles-and-measurement-by-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#12
Caroline D Rae, Stephen R Williams
We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment...
December 26, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032362/prioritizing-pharmacokinetic-drug-interaction-precipitants-in-natural-products-application-to-oatp-inhibitors-in-grapefruit-juice
#13
Emily J Johnson, Christina S Won, Kathleen Köeck, Mary F Paine
Natural products, including botanical dietary supplements and exotic drinks, represent an ever-increasing share of the health care market. The parallel ever-increasing popularity of self-medicating with natural products increases the likelihood of co-consumption with conventional drugs, raising concerns for unwanted natural product-drug interactions. Assessing the drug interaction liability of natural products is challenging due to the complex and variable chemical composition inherent to these products, necessitating a streamlined preclinical testing approach to prioritize precipitant individual constituents for further investigation...
December 29, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028485/culturable-bioaerosols-along-an-urban-waterfront-are-primarily-associated-with-coarse-particles
#14
Angel Montero, M Elias Dueker, Gregory D O'Mullan
The source, characteristics and transport of viable microbial aerosols in urban centers are topics of significant environmental and public health concern. Recent studies have identified adjacent waterways, and especially polluted waterways, as an important source of microbial aerosols to urban air. The size of these aerosols influences how far they travel, their resistance to environmental stress, and their inhalation potential. In this study, we utilize a cascade impactor and aerosol particle monitor to characterize the size distribution of particles and culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols along the waterfront of a New York City embayment...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005131/strain-dependent-glucose-partitioning-in-meniscus-fibrocartilage
#15
Kelsey L Kleinhans, Alicia Jackson
A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993762/smartphone-apps-for-measuring-human-health-and-climate-change-co-benefits-a-comparison-and-quality-rating-of-available-apps
#16
Rachel K Sullivan, Samantha Marsh, Jakob Halvarsson, Michelle Holdsworth, Wilma Waterlander, Maartje P Poelman, Jennifer Ann Salmond, Hayley Christian, Lenny Sc Koh, Janet E Cade, John C Spence, Alistair Woodward, Ralph Maddison
BACKGROUND: Climate change and the burden of noncommunicable diseases are major global challenges. Opportunities exist to investigate health and climate change co-benefits through a shift from motorized to active transport (walking and cycling) and a shift in dietary patterns away from a globalized diet to reduced consumption of meat and energy dense foods. Given the ubiquitous use and proliferation of smartphone apps, an opportunity exists to use this technology to capture individual travel and dietary behavior and the associated impact on the environment and health...
December 19, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993398/review-placental-transport-and-metabolism-of-energy-substrates-in-maternal-obesity-and-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
L A Gallo, H L Barrett, M Dekker Nitert
Maternal obesity is growing in prevalence and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for both mother and child. Women who are obese during pregnancy have a greater risk of metabolic complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. Children of obese and/or GDM mothers have an increased susceptibility to congenital abnormalities and a range of cardio-metabolic disorders. The placenta is at the interface of the maternal and fetal environments and, its function per se, plays a major role in dictating the impact of maternal health on fetal development...
December 7, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992099/home-based-telerehabilitation-via-real-time-videoconferencing-improves-endurance-exercise-capacity-in-patients-with-copd-the-randomized-controlled-teler-study
#18
Ling Ling Y Tsai, Renae J McNamara, Chloe Moddel, Jennifer A Alison, David K McKenzie, Zoe J McKeough
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Telerehabilitation has the potential to increase access to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for patients with COPD who have difficulty accessing centre-based PR due to poor mobility, lack of transport and cost of travel. We aimed to determine the effect of supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation on exercise capacity, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity in patients with COPD compared with usual care without exercise training...
December 19, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989701/inhibition-of-slc-drug-transporter-activities-by-environmental-bisphenols
#19
Arnaud Bruyere, Céline Hubert, Marc Le Vee, Lisa Chedik, Katia Sayyed, Bruno Stieger, Claire Denizot, Yannick Parmentier, Olivier Fardel
The plastic component bisphenol A (BPA) is suspected to exert deleterious effects towards human health and targets various cellular and molecular pathways, including activity of ATP-binding cassette drug transporters. The present study was designed to determine whether BPA and some derivatives, like its substitutes bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) and the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), may additionally interact with solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters. Activities of the various following SLC transporters were inhibited in a major way (by >60%) by 100μM bisphenols: OCT1 and MATE1 (by BPA and TBBPA), OATP1B1 (by BPA, BPF and TBBPA), OATP1B3 and NTCP (by TBBPA) and OAT3 (by BPA, BPF, BPS and TBBPA); by contrast, activities of other transporters were not impacted (MATE2-K) or were stimulated (notably OCT1 by BPS and OCT2 by BPF)...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986322/physiochemical-characteristics-of-aerosol-particles-in-the-typical-microenvironment-of-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#20
Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Qingqing Hu, Chunlin Li, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Abdel Wahid Mellouki
Health risk of populations dwelling in the hospital has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. PM2.5 and PM1 samples were collected in two indoor locations (outpatient department and inpatient department) and one outdoor location (courtyard) of the hospital in Shanghai. The concentrations of size-fractionated trace metals and the morphology of single particles were determined to accurately assess the health risk for populations in the hospital. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of PM2...
December 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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