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Transportation Determinant of Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339731/obesity-associated-cardiac-pathogenesis-in-broiler-breeder-hens-development-of-metabolic-cardiomyopathy2-3
#1
C Y Chen, Y F Huang, Y J Ko, Y J Liu, Y H Chen, R L Walzem, S E Chen
Feed intake is typically restricted (R) in broiler hens to avoid obesity and improve egg production and livability. To determine whether improved heart health contributes to improved livability, fully adult 45-week-old R hens were allowed to consume feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) up to 10 wk (70 d). Mortality, contractile functions, and morphology at 70 d, and measurements of cardiac hypertrophic remodeling at 7 d and 21 d were made and compared between R and AL hens. Outcomes for cardiac electrophysiology and mortality, reported separately, found increased mortality in AL hens in association with cardiac pathological hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338413/human-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-myobundles-to-measure-oxygen-uptake-and-assess-mitochondrial-toxicity
#2
Brittany N J Davis, Jeffrey W Santoso, Michaela J Walker, Cindy S Cheng, Timothy R Koves, William E Kraus, George A Truskey
Mitochondrial dysfunction is responsible for the toxicity of a number of drugs. Current isolated mitochondria or cellular monoculture mitochondrial respiration measurement systems lack physiological relevance. Using a tissue engineering rather than cell- or mitochondria-based approach enables a more physiologically relevant detection of drug-induced mitochondrial impairment. To probe oxygen consumption and mitochondrial health, we assayed the bioenergetic profile of engineered three-dimensional human skeletal muscle myobundles derived from primary myoblasts...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333383/calcium-transport-and-signaling-in-mitochondria
#3
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Valentina Parra, Camila López-Crisosto, Paula Díaz, Andrew F G Quest, Sergio Lavandero
Calcium (Ca2+) is a key player in the regulation of many cell functions. Just like Ca2+, mitochondria are ubiquitous, versatile, and dynamic players in determining both cell survival and death decisions. Given their ubiquitous nature, the regulation of both is deeply intertwined, whereby Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial functions, while mitochondria shape Ca2+ dynamics. Deregulation of either Ca2+ or mitochondrial signaling leads to abnormal function, cell damage or even cell death, thereby contributing to muscle dysfunction or cardiac pathologies...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333155/network-analysis-a-novel-method-for-mapping-neonatal-acute-transport-patterns-in-california
#4
S N Kunz, J A F Zupancic, J Rigdon, C S Phibbs, H C Lee, J B Gould, J Leskovec, J Profit
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to use network analysis to describe the pattern of neonatal transfers in California, to compare empirical sub-networks with established referral regions and to determine factors associated with transport outside the originating sub-network. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional database study included 6546 infants <28 days old transported within California in 2012. After generating a graph representing acute transfers between hospitals (n=6696), we used community detection techniques to identify more tightly connected sub-networks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331360/clear-differences-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-between-women-with-chronic-widespread-pain-and-healthy-women-a-multivariate-explorative-cross-sectional-study
#5
Patrik Olausson, Bijar Ghafouri, Emmanuel Bäckryd, Björn Gerdle
INTRODUCTION: Frequent chronic local pain can develop into chronic widespread pain (CWP). The spread of pain is correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, and depression, conditions that ultimately lead to a poor quality of life. Knowledge is incomplete about CWP's etiology, although it has been suggested that both central hyperexcitability and/or a combination with peripheral factors may be involved. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could act as a mirror for the central nervous system as proteins are signal substances that activate the formation of algesics and control nociceptive processes...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331348/molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-jigjiga-town-ethiopia
#6
Mussie Brhane, Ameha Kebede, Yohannes Petros
BACKGROUND: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331047/ascension-island-a-survey-to-assess-the-presence-of-zika-virus-vectors
#7
G Bullivant, A F Martinou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island. METHODS: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316862/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-pattern-of-e-coli-o157-h7-isolated-from-traditionally-marketed-raw-cow-milk-in-and-around-asosa-town-western-ethiopia
#8
Nigatu Disassa, Berhanu Sibhat, Shimelis Mengistu, Yimer Muktar, Dinaol Belina
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E...
2017: Veterinary Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300784/the-molecular-basis-of-toxins-interactions-with-intracellular-signaling-via-discrete-portals
#9
REVIEW
Adi Lahiani, Ephraim Yavin, Philip Lazarovici
An understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which microbial, plant or animal-secreted toxins exert their action provides the most important element for assessment of human health risks and opens new insights into therapies addressing a plethora of pathologies, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer, using toxinomimetic agents. Recently, molecular and cellular biology dissecting tools have provided a wealth of information on the action of these diverse toxins, yet, an integrated framework to explain their selective toxicity is still lacking...
March 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300527/the-development-of-an-evacuation-protocol-for-patients-with-ventricular-assist-devices-during-a-disaster
#10
Katherine J Davis, Joseph Suyama, Jennifer Lingler, Michael Beach
Introduction Health care providers are on the forefront of delivering care and allocating resources during a disaster; however, very few are adequately trained to respond in these situations. Furthermore, there is a void in the literature regarding the specific care needs of patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs) in a disaster setting. This project aimed to develop an evidenced-based protocol to aid health care providers during the evacuation of patients with VADs during a disaster. METHODS: This is a qualitative study that used expert review, tabletop discussion, and a survey of health care professionals to develop and evaluate an evacuation protocol...
March 16, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300011/neonatal-fatty-acid-profiles-are-correlated-with-infant-growth-measures-at-6-months
#11
P F O'Tierney-Ginn, D Davina, M Gillingham, D J P Barker, C Morris, K L Thornburg
Rapid weight gain in infancy and low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) at birth are associated with increased adiposity later in life. The association between placental LCPUFA delivery and weight gain in infancy is poorly understood. We sought to determine the relationships between maternal phenotype, placental fatty acid transporter expression and offspring growth patterns over the first 6 months. Placental tissue and cord blood were collected at term delivery from women with uncomplicated pregnancies...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298198/maternal-and-neonatal-service-usage-and-determinants-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-situations-a-systematic-review-of-asia-and-the-middle-east
#12
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293154/coverage-and-predictors-of-routine-immunization-among-12-23-months-old-children-in-disaster-affected-communities-in-pakistan
#13
Shafiq Ur Rehman, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Jamil Ahmed, Zafar Fatmi, Sayed Masoom Shah, Aisha Rahman, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai
OBJECTIVES: We aimed this study to determine the relationship of various factors related to poor immunization in children in an earthquake affected community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study during 2007-2008 in Muzaffarabad district of Pakistani side of Kashmir. We selected 43 villages as clusters and in the second, 860 children between 12 and 24 months were selected from households through systematic sampling. Mothers of the eligible children were interviewed with a questionnaire...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283029/legal-immigrants-invasion-of-alien-microbial-communities-during-winter-occurring-desert-dust-storms
#14
Tobias Weil, Carlotta De Filippo, Davide Albanese, Claudio Donati, Massimo Pindo, Lorenzo Pavarini, Federico Carotenuto, Massimiliano Pasqui, Luisa Poto, Jacopo Gabrieli, Carlo Barbante, Birgit Sattler, Duccio Cavalieri, Franco Miglietta
BACKGROUND: A critical aspect regarding the global dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with atmospheric movement of soil particles. Especially, desert dust storms can transport alien microorganisms over continental scales and can deposit them in sensitive sink habitats. In winter 2014, the largest ever recorded Saharan dust event in Italy was efficiently deposited on the Dolomite Alps and was sealed between dust-free snow. This provided us the unique opportunity to overcome difficulties in separating dust associated from "domestic" microbes and thus, to determine with high precision microorganisms transported exclusively by desert dust...
March 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283013/-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-granulosus-isolates-obtained-from-different-hosts
#15
Emrah Erdoğan, Bora Özkan, Fatih Mutlu, Serkan Karaca, İzzet Şahin
Echinococcus granulosus is a parasite that can be seen throughout the world. So far, five species of genus Echinococcus have been identified as parasite in people: E.granulosus, E.multilocularis, E.vogeli, E.oligarthrus, E.shiquicus. Larval (metacestod) form of parasite settles in internal organs of hoofed animals (cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, etc.) and human; the adult form is found in small intestine of final host, canine. Disease caused by parasite called as "Cystic echinococcosis" (CE) is an important health problem and causes economic losses in many countries including our country that livestock is common...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277016/the-correlates-of-physical-activity-among-adult-m%C3%A3-tis
#16
Christopher J Ryan, Martin Cooke, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Scott T Leatherdale, Piotr Wilk
OBJECTIVES: Métis, with a population of close to 390,000 people, are a culturally distinct and constitutionally recognized Aboriginal group in Canada that suffers from poorer overall health than non-Aboriginal Canadians. One important predictor of good health is physical activity. Guided by frameworks based on social and Aboriginal-specific determinants, we investigated the correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and active transportation (walking) among adult Métis, with a particular focus on how culturally specific variables were associated with these two types of activity...
February 28, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273545/prevalence-of-drugs-in-oral-fluid-from-truck-drivers-in-brazilian-highways
#17
Henrique Silva Bombana, Hallvard Gjerde, Marcelo Filonzi Dos Santos, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem Jamt, Mauricio Yonamine, Waldo José Caram Rohlfs, Daniel Romero Muñoz, Vilma Leyton
Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation...
March 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273330/interventions-for-hereditary-haemochromatosis-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Elena Buzzetti, Maria Kalafateli, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hereditary haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder related to proteins involved in iron transport, resulting in iron load and deposition of iron in various tissues of the body. This iron overload leads to complications including liver cirrhosis (and related complications such as liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma), cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, impotence, diabetes, arthritis, and skin pigmentation. Phlebotomy (venesection or 'blood letting') is the currently recommended treatment for hereditary haemochromatosis...
March 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270502/can-environmental-improvement-change-the-population-distribution-of-walking
#19
Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the impact of environmental change on walking using controlled comparisons. Even fewer have examined whose behaviour changes and how. In a natural experimental study of new walking and cycling infrastructure, we explored changes in walking, identified groups who changed in similar ways and assessed whether exposure to the infrastructure was associated with trajectories of walking. METHODS: 1257 adults completed annual surveys assessing walking, sociodemographic and health characteristics and use of the infrastructure (2010-2012)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263461/current-concepts-in-methadone-metabolism-and-transport
#20
Evan D Kharasch
Methadone is a cornerstone therapy for opioid addiction and a public health strategy for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C reduction. Methadone is also used for acute and chronic pain. As use for chronic pain has grown, so too have adverse events. Constitutive and acquired (drug interactions) inter- and intraindividual variability in methadone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics confounds reliable clinical use. Identification of enzymes and transporters responsible for methadone disposition has been a long-sought ideal...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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