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Transportation Determinant of Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779481/absorptive-and-secretory-transport-of-selected-artemisinin-derivatives-across-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#1
Jaco Heyns, Clarissa Willers, Richard K Haynes, Ho N Wong, Josias H Hamman, Chrisna Gouws
Malaria continues to be a major health concern and affects more than 200 million people a year. Drugs currently used for treatment of malaria are increasingly rendered ineffectual by the ongoing emergence of parasite resistance. For any new drugs, however, knowledge of their membrane permeability is an essential pre-requisite for eventual use. Treatment failure and emergence of resistance can occur as a result of reduced availability of the drug at the desired site of action. Cell-based permeability assays such as Caco-2 cell monolayers serve as a model for predicting drug absorption and efflux, and provide an estimate of drug bioavailability...
May 18, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#2
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770076/the-use-of-technology-to-improve-health-care-to-saskatchewan-s-first-nations-communities
#3
I Khan, N Ndubuka, K Stewart, V McKinney, I Mendez
Background: Saskatchewan is a province of over one million people and over 13% are Indigenous peoples, many of whom live on reserve lands. Despite continued efforts, access to health care remains a significant challenge for these Indigenous people, especially those in the North. Objective: To address this challenge, Saskatchewan's health care providers have been incorporating the use of technology for various health services. This paper describes various ways technology has been used in First Nations communities in Saskatchewan...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770061/canadian-public-health-laboratory-network-position-statement-non-culture-based-diagnostics-for-gastroenteritis-and-implications-for-public-health-investigations
#4
B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768302/pharmacogenomics-in-papua-new-guineans-unique-profiles-and-implications-for-enhancing-drug-efficacy-while-improving-drug-safety
#5
Joseph D Tucci, Paul P Pumuye, Nuala A Helsby, Daniel T Barratt, Percy P Pokeya, Francis Hombhanje, Andrew A Somogyi
Papua New Guinea (PNG) can be roughly divided into highland, coastal and island peoples with significant mitochondrial DNA differentiation reflecting early and recent distinct migrations from Africa and East Asia, respectively. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV severely impact on the health of its peoples for which drug therapy is the major treatment and pharmacogenetics has clinical relevance for many of these drugs. Although there is generally little information about known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the population, in some instances, their frequencies have been shown to be higher than anywhere worldwide...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765365/human-activity-determines-the-presence-of-integron-associated-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-southwestern-british-columbia
#6
Miguel I Uyaguari-Díaz, Matthew A Croxen, Zhiyao Luo, Kirby I Cronin, Michael Chan, Waren N Baticados, Matthew J Nesbitt, Shaorong Li, Kristina M Miller, Damion Dooley, William Hsiao, Judith L Isaac-Renton, Patrick Tang, Natalie Prystajecky
The dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria from anthropogenic sources into the environment poses an emerging public health threat. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and gene-capturing systems such as integron-associated integrase genes ( intI ) play a key role in alterations of microbial communities and the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. In order to assess the effect of anthropogenic activities on watersheds in southwestern British Columbia, the presence of putative antibiotic resistance and integrase genes was analyzed in the microbiome of agricultural, urban influenced, and protected watersheds...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765304/chloride-homeostasis-in-neurons-with-special-emphasis-on-the-olivocerebellar-system-differential-roles-for-transporters-and-channels
#7
REVIEW
Negah Rahmati, Freek E Hoebeek, Saša Peter, Chris I De Zeeuw
The intraneuronal ionic composition is an important determinant of brain functioning. There is growing evidence that aberrant homeostasis of the intracellular concentration of Cl- ([Cl- ]i ) evokes, in addition to that of Na+ and Ca2+ , robust impairments of neuronal excitability and neurotransmission and thereby neurological conditions. More specifically, understanding the mechanisms underlying regulation of [Cl- ]i is crucial for deciphering the variability in GABAergic and glycinergic signaling of neurons, in both health and disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755572/introducing-potential-key-proteins-and-pathways-in-human-laryngeal-cancer-a-system-biology-approach
#8
Hassan Peyvandi, Ali Asghar Peyvandi, Akram Safaei, Mona Zamanian Azodi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
The most common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck region is laryngeal cancer which presents a significant international health problem. The present study aims to screen potential proteins related to laryngeal cancer by network analysis to further understanding disease pathogenesis and biomarker discovery. Differentially expressed proteins were extracted from literatures of laryngeal cancer that compare proteome profiling of patient›s tissue with healthy controls. The PPI network analyzed for up and down regulated proteins with Cytoscape Version 3...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753806/the-association-between-income-and-leisure-time-physical-activity-is-moderated-by-utilitarian-lifestyles-a-nationally-representative-us-population-nhanes-1999-2014
#9
Lisa Kakinami, Rita Wissa, Rahid Khan, Gilles Paradis, Tracie A Barnett, Lise Gauvin
The objective of this study was to determine whether the relationship between income and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) persists after accounting for a person's utilitarian PA (all non-LTPA), sociodemographic characteristics and transportation PA. Data were from eight cycles (1999-2014) of the nationally representative samples of the US adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 35,239). Whether the poverty income ratio (0-1.3, 1.3-1.86, 1.86+ [reference]) was associated with minutes of LTPA (moderate, vigorous) after stratifying for utilitarian PA (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) was assessed in multiple linear regressions adjusted for age, sex, race, education, marital status, weight status, hours worked, and minutes of transportation-related PA in the past week...
May 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753222/bacterial-community-structure-in-atmospheric-particulate-matters-of-different-sizes-during-the-haze-days-in-xi-an-china
#10
Rui Lu, Yanpeng Li, Wanxin Li, Zhengsheng Xie, Chunlan Fan, Pengxia Liu, Shunxi Deng
Serious air pollution events have frequently occurred in China associated with the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization in recent years. Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) of high concentration can lead to adverse effects on human health. Airborne bacteria are important constituents of microbial aerosols and contain lots of pathogens. However, variations in bacterial community structure in atmospheric PM of different sizes (PM2.5 , PM10 and TSP) have not yet been explored. In this study, PM samples of different sizes were collected during the hazy days from Jul...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750188/temperature-effect-on-phase-state-and-reactivity-controls-atmospheric-multiphase-chemistry-and-transport-of-pahs
#11
Qing Mu, Manabu Shiraiwa, Mega Octaviani, Nan Ma, Aijun Ding, Hang Su, Gerhard Lammel, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo( a )pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter pose a threat to human health because of their high carcinogenicity. In the atmosphere, BaP is mainly degraded through a multiphase reaction with ozone, but the fate and atmospheric transport of BaP are poorly characterized. Earlier modeling studies used reaction rate coefficients determined in laboratory experiments at room temperature, which may overestimate/underestimate degradation rates when applied under atmospheric conditions...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744225/inhibition-of-intestinal-cellular-glucose-uptake-by-phenolics-extracted-from-whole-wheat-grown-at-different-locations
#12
Maryam Shamloo, Peter J H Jones, Peter K Eck
Whole grain consumption is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, and the underlying mechanism might be related to the actions of polyphenols. Dietary polyphenols contribute to low glycemic indices through inhibition of intestinal glucose transport proteins. This study has two objectives: (1) to evaluate how the contents of phenolic acids in wheat vary by genetic background and growth condition and (2) to evaluate how these changes translate into physiologic relevance by investigating cellular glucose transporter inhibitions...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743219/clinician-experiences-with-screening-for-social-needs-in-primary-care
#13
Sebastian T Tong, Winston R Liaw, Paulette Lail Kashiri, James Pecsok, Julia Rozman, Andrew W Bazemore, Alex H Krist
BACKGROUND: Despite clear evidence demonstrating the influence of social determinants on health, whether and how clinicians should address these determinants remain unclear. We aimed to understand primary care clinicians' experiences of administering a social needs screening instrument. METHODS: Using a prospective, observational design, we identified patients living in communities with lower education and income seen by 17 clinicians from 12 practices in northern Virginia...
May 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743119/profiling-microbial-strains-in-urban-environments-using-metagenomic-sequencing-data
#14
Moreno Zolfo, Francesco Asnicar, Paolo Manghi, Edoardo Pasolli, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
BACKGROUND: The microbial communities populating human and natural environments have been extensively characterized with shotgun metagenomics, which provides an in-depth representation of the microbial diversity within a sample. Microbes thriving in urban environments may be crucially important for human health, but have received less attention than those of other environments. Ongoing efforts started to target urban microbiomes at a large scale, but the most recent computational methods to profile these metagenomes have never been applied in this context...
May 9, 2018: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739394/towards-a-framework-for-analyzing-determinants-of-performance-of-community-health-workers-in-malaria-prevention-and-control-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Helen Mwiinga Chipukuma, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Choolwe Jacobs, Gershom Chongwe, Mumbi Chola, Hikabasa Halwiindi, Jessy Zgambo, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in improving coverage of and success to interventions aimed at reducing malaria incidence. Evidence suggests that the performance of CHWs in malaria programs varies in different contexts. However, comprehensive frameworks, based on systematic reviews, to guide the analysis of determinants of performance of CHWs in malaria prevention and control programs are lacking. METHODS: We systematically searched Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed including reference lists that had English language publications...
May 8, 2018: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732892/absorption-and-metabolism-of-peptide-wdhhapqlr-derived-from-rapeseed-protein-and-inhibition-of-huvecs-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#16
Feiran Xu, Jing Zhang, Zhigao Wang, Yijun Yao, Griffiths G Atungulu, Xingrong Ju, Lifeng Wang
WDHHAPQLR (RAP), an anti-oxidative peptide derived from rapeseed protein. Although the health benefits from RAP due to their antioxidant activities have been determined by chemical methods, a systematic assessment regarding the absorption, metabolism and antioxidation process of RAP is still lacking attention. Hence, Caco-2 cell monolayers model and animal experiment were used to evaluate the absorption and bioavailability of RAP. As expected, RAP could be absorbed by intestinal epithelial cell, and the Papp was (0...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731441/out-of-pocket-oop-cost-of-treating-hypertension-in-karachi-pakistan
#17
Nousheen Aslam, Muhammad Harris Shoaib, Rabia Bushra, Faraz Ahmed Farooqi, Farya Zafar, Huma Ali, Saima Saleem
Pakistan is categorized to below to middle income countries where two third of the national annual health expenditure is in the form of out of pocket (OOP) cost. A prevalence based study was conducted to determine the OOP cost treatment of hypertension in Karachi by interviewing 350 hypertensive patients aged >30 years through a validated questionnaire. Hypertension (HTN) was classified into stage 1 and stage 2 and was found to be common in females (53.42%) than males (46.57%). The total costs of stage 1and stage 2 HTN were calculated to be 217869...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728975/benzo-a-pyrene-parallel-measurements-in-pm-1-and-pm-2-5-in-the-coastal-zone-of-the-gulf-of-gdansk-baltic-sea-in-the-heating-and-non-heating-seasons
#18
Anita Urszula Lewandowska, Marta Staniszewska, Agnieszka Witkowska, Magdalena Machuta, Lucyna Falkowska
Parallel measurements of PM1 and PM2.5 aerosols were conducted in the urbanized coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. The main aim of the research was to assess and determine annual, seasonal (heating and non-heating), and daily concentration variability of benzo(a)pyrene in aerosols, these being the most dangerous constituents to human health. The average annual concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was equal to 2.6 ng·m-3 in PM1 and 4.6 ng·m-3 in PM2.5 , and both values were several times higher than the level of 1 ng·m-3 which was set out in the CAFE Directive...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724199/is-there-an-association-between-spatial-accessibility-of-outpatient-care-and-utilization-analysis-of-gynecological-and-general-care
#19
Ulrike Stentzel, Jeanette Bahr, Daniel Fredrich, Jens Piegsa, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Neeltje van den Berg
BACKGROUND: In rural regions with a low population density, distances to health care providers as well as insufficient public transport may be barriers for the accessibility of health care. In this analysis it was examined whether the accessibility of gynecologists and GPs, measured as travel time both by car and public transport has an influence on the utilization of health care in the rural region of Western Pomerania in Northern Germany. METHODS: Utilization data was obtained from the population based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)...
May 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723253/why-some-women-fail-to-give-birth-at-health-facilities-a-comparative-study-between-ethiopia-and-nigeria
#20
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Olalekan A Uthman, Agbessi Amouzou
BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications and maternal deaths can be prevented through safe delivery process. Facility based delivery significantly reduces maternal mortality by increasing women's access to skilled personnel attendance. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, most deliveries take place without skilled attendants and outside health facilities. Utilization of facility-based delivery is affected by socio-cultural norms and several other factors including cost, long distance, accessibility and availability of quality services...
2018: PloS One
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