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Transportation Determinant of Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352012/public-transport-policy-social-engagement-and-mental-health-in-older-age-a-quasi-experimental-evaluation-of-free-bus-passes-in-england
#1
Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Frank J van Lenthe, Mauricio Avendano
BACKGROUND: Social engagement and social isolation are key determinants of mental health in older age, yet there is limited evidence on how public policies may contribute to reducing isolation, promoting social engagement and improving mental health among older people. This study examines the impact of the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes, on the mental health of older people in England. METHODS: We use an instrumental variable (IV) approach that exploits eligibility criteria for free bus passes to estimate the impact of increased public transportation use on depressive symptoms, loneliness, social isolation and social engagement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351781/mindmap-establishing-an-integrated-database-infrastructure-for-research-in-ageing-mental-well-being-and-the-urban-environment
#2
Mariëlle A Beenackers, Dany Doiron, Isabel Fortier, J Mark Noordzij, Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Martin Bobak, Basile Chaix, Giuseppe Costa, Ulrike Dapp, Ana V Diez Roux, Martijn Huisman, Emily M Grundy, Steinar Krokstad, Pekka Martikainen, Parminder Raina, Mauricio Avendano, Frank J van Lenthe
BACKGROUND: Urbanization and ageing have important implications for public mental health and well-being. Cities pose major challenges for older citizens, but also offer opportunities to develop, test, and implement policies, services, infrastructure, and interventions that promote mental well-being. The MINDMAP project aims to identify the opportunities and challenges posed by urban environmental characteristics for the promotion and management of mental well-being and cognitive function of older individuals...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351520/beyond-clinical-complexity-non-medical-barriers-to-nursing-home-care-for-rural-residents
#3
Carrie Henning-Smith, Katy B Kozhimannil, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
We conducted a qualitative content analysis of barriers to nursing home admission for rural residents. Data came from semi-structured interviews with 23 rural hospital discharge planners across five states (Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin). From those, we identified four themes around non-medical barriers to rural nursing home placement with particular salience in rural areas: financial issues; transportation; nursing home availability and infrastructure; and timeliness. We also identified policy and programmatic interventions across four themes: loosen bureaucratic requirements; improve communication between facilities; increase rural long-term care capacity; and address underlying social determinants of health...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350216/the-nitrogen-footprint-tool-network-a-multi-institution-program-to-reduce-nitrogen-pollution
#4
Elizabeth A Castner, Allison M Leach, Neil Leary, Jill Baron, Jana E Compton, James N Galloway, Meredith G Hastings, Jacob Kimiecik, Jonathan Lantz-Trissel, Elizabeth de la Reguera, Rebecca Ryals
Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This article uses the Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346312/sidewalk-landscape-structure-and-thermal-conditions-for-child-and-adult-pedestrians
#5
Young-Jae Kim, Chanam Lee, Jun-Hyun Kim
Walking is being promoted for health and transportation purposes across all climatic regions in the US and beyond. Despite this, an uncomfortable microclimate condition along sidewalks is one of the major deterrents of walking, and more empirical research is needed to determine the risks of heat exposure to pedestrians while walking. This study examined the effect of street trees and grass along sidewalks on air temperatures. A series of thermal images were taken at the average heights of adults and children in the US to objectively measure the air temperatures of 10 sidewalk segments in College Station, TX, USA...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#6
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341859/an-indoor-air-quality-evaluation-in-a-residential-retrofit-project-using-spray-polyurethane-foam
#7
Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340271/transit-use-and-physical-activity-findings-from-the-houston-travel-related-activity-in-neighborhoods-train-study
#8
Gregory Knell, Casey P Durand, Kerem Shuval, Harold W Kohl Iii, Deborah Salvo, Ipek Sener, Kelley Pettee Gabriel
Transportation-related physical activity can significantly increase daily total physical activity through active transportation or walking/biking to transit stops. The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between transit-use and self-reported and monitor-based physical activity levels in a predominantly minority population from the Houston Travel-Related Activity in Neighborhoods (TRAIN) Study. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 865 adults living in Houston, Texas between 2013 and 2015. The exposure variable was transit-use (non-users, occasional users, and primary users)...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339341/health-status-alterations-in-ruditapes-philippinarum-after-continuous-secondary-effluent-exposure-before-and-after-additional-tertiary-treatment-application
#9
B Díaz-Garduño, J A Perales, C Garrido-Pérez, M L Martín-Díaz
A mobile pilot plant was set up in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southwest Spain to address potential adverse effects of effluents as a whole contaminant, which are discharging into marine environments. Ruditapes philippinarum specimens were exposed to different effluent concentrations (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.15%) during seven days. After effluent exposure, lysosomal membrane stability alterations (LMS), changes in the energy status storage (total lipids content (TLP) and in the mitochondrial electron transport (MET), inhibition of inflammatory mechanisms (cyclooxygenase activity (COX)), and neurotoxic effects (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were determined in exposed organisms...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329276/the-safety-of-the-neighborhood-environment-and-physical-activity-in-czech-and-polish-adolescents
#10
Josef Mitáš, Krzysztof Sas-Nowosielski, Dorota Groffik, Karel Frömel
(1) Background: An increase in or at least the sustainment of walking activities across a wide section of the population is a crucial health-related task for Central and East European countries. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between adolescents' walking activities and various levels of perceived safety of the built environment in differing socio-demographic backgrounds of Poland and the Czech Republic. Furthermore, we aimed to determine major moderators affecting the walking habits of adolescents in areas with different levels of walkability...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323833/wheels-for-all-addressing-social-determinants-of-health-one-bicycle-at-a-time
#11
Lucas Zellmer, Nathan Fleming
BACKGROUND: Wheels For All provides bicycles to individuals in La Crosse, Wisconsin to address the transportation barrier that often inhibits low-income individuals' ability to access community resources. METHODS: Recipients are referred by social service, health care, or other community agencies based on their need for transportation or exercise. Donated bicycles are matched to a recipient, repaired, and delivered personally by volunteers. RESULTS: Through collaboration with social service agencies, health care systems, and the community at-large, Wheels For All received referrals from 21 different sources and provided 101 recipients with bicycles from April 2015 to July 2017...
August 2017: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318613/a-facility-based-study-of-factors-associated-with-perinatal-mortality-in-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#12
Gelila K Goba, Hailesilassie Tsegay, Gebremedhin Berhe, Mengistu Mitiku, Kimberly A Kim, Mussie Alemayehu
OBJECTIVE: To identify perinatal mortality risk factors in the Southern Zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: The present unmatched case-control study included data from 20 health facilities; stillbirths and neonatal deaths were included as a case group and patients with neonates who survived until discharge or day 7 postpartum were included as a control group. Perinatal mortality risk factors were investigated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315557/community-member-and-policy-maker-priorities-in-improving-maternal-health-in-rural-tanzania
#13
Gail Webber, Bwire Chirangi, Nyamusi Magatti
OBJECTIVE: To determine community member and policy maker priorities in improving maternal health in rural Tanzania. METHODS: The present participatory action research project was conducted in Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, between November 20 and 25, 2015. A convenience sample of four community and one policy maker discussion groups were held to identify factors impacting on maternal health. The inclusion criterion for community members was a recent personal or partner experience with childbirth, or experience as a village leader...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313267/impact-of-canagliflozin-treatment-on-health-related-quality-of-life-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pooled-analysis-of-patient-reported-outcomes-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Jennifer Cai, Linda M Delahanty, Sydney Akapame, April Slee, Shana Traina
BACKGROUND: Evidence from patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials may explain health-related behaviors observed in the real world. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the effect of treatment with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, compared with placebo or sitagliptin on health-related quality-of-life outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the clinical development program. METHODS: Patient-reported outcomes data from four randomized controlled trials of canagliflozin (n = 2536) were pooled and analyzed to evaluate participants' interest in continuing study medication; satisfaction with weight; and physical, mental, and emotional health after 26-52 weeks of treatment with canagliflozin vs...
January 8, 2018: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305921/distribution-of-therapeutic-proteins-into-thoracic-lymph-after-intravenous-administration-is-protein-size-dependent-and-primarily-occurs-within-the-liver-and-mesentery
#15
Preeti Yadav, Victoria M McLeod, Cameron J Nowell, Laura I Selby, Angus P R Johnston, Lisa M Kaminskas, Natalie L Trevaskis
Therapeutic proteins can facilitate the targeting and treatment of lymphatic diseases (such as cancer metastases, infections and inflammatory diseases) since they are cleared via the lymphatics following interstitial (SC or IM) administration. However, therapeutic proteins are often administered intravenously (IV). Recently therapeutic proteins have been found to access the thoracic lymph in surprisingly high quantities after IV administration. The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the major sites of thoracic lymph access of therapeutic proteins, and the protein properties that enhance lymph access, after IV administration...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298670/factors-influencing-deliveries-at-health-facilities-in-a-rural-maasai-community-in-magadi-sub-county-kenya
#16
Sarah Karanja, Richard Gichuki, Patrick Igunza, Samuel Muhula, Peter Ofware, Josephine Lesiamon, Lepantas Leshore, Lenny Bazira Kyomuhangi-Igbodipe, Josephat Nyagero, Nancy Binkin, David Ojakaa
BACKGROUND: In response to poor maternal, newborn, and child health indicators in Magadi sub-county, the "Boma" model was launched to promote health facility delivery by establishing community health units and training community health volunteers (CHVs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as safe motherhood promoters. As a result, health facility delivery increased from 14% to 24%, still considerably below the national average (61%). We therefore conducted this study to determine factors influencing health facility delivery and describe barriers and motivators to the same...
January 3, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298131/a-systematic-review-of-p53-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Kaitlyn Beyfuss, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
January 3, 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297743/toxicity-of-engineered-nanomaterials-mediated-by-nano-bio-eco-interactions
#18
Xiaojia He, Peter Fu, Winfred G Aker, Huey-Min Hwang
Engineered nanomaterials may adversely impact human health and environmental safety by nano-bio-eco interactions not fully understood. Their interaction with biotic and abiotic environments are varied and complicated, ranging from individual species to entire ecosystems. Their behavior, transport, fate, and toxicological profiles in these interactions, addressed in a pioneering study, are subsequently seldom reported. Biological, chemical, and physical dimension properties, the so-called multidimensional characterization, determine interactions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297394/appropriateness-and-timeliness-of-care-seeking-for-complications-of-pregnancy-and-childbirth-in-rural-ethiopia-a-case-study-of-the-maternal-and-newborn-health-in-ethiopia-partnership
#19
Lynn M Sibley, Yared Amare, Solomon Tesfaye Abebe, Mulusew Lijalem Belew, Kemeredin Shiffra, Danika Barry
BACKGROUND: In 2014, USAID and University Research Co., LLC, initiated a new project under the broader Translating Research into Action portfolio of projects. This new project was entitled Systematic Documentation of Illness Recognition and Appropriate Care Seeking for Maternal and Newborn Complications. This project used a common protocol involving descriptive mixed-methods case studies of community projects in six low- and middle-income countries, including Ethiopia. In this paper, we present the Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) case study...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288073/fish-viruses-stored-in-rnalater-can-remain-infectious-and-even-be-temporarily-protected-from-inactivation-by-heat-or-by-tissue-homogenates
#20
Phuc H Pham, Bibi S H Sokeechand, Kyle A Garver, Ginny Jones, John S Lumsden, Niels C Bols
RNAlater is a commonly used transport and storage solution for samples collected for fish health investigations, particularly those potentially involving viruses. However, the infectivity of fish viruses after storage in RNAlater have not been determined. Nevertheless, knowledge of pathogen infectivity of preserved samples is crucial for ensuring safe transport and storage protocols. Therefore, the infectivity of three fish RNA viruses in RNAlater was examined at four temperatures: -80 °C, 4 °C, room temperature (RT, approximately 22 °C) and 37 °C...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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