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Transportation Determinant of Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915454/assessing-the-potential-contributions-of-additional-retention-processes-to-pfas-retardation-in-the-subsurface
#1
Mark L Brusseau
A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893323/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-seeking-health-care-for-sick-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-findings-from-cross-sectional-surveys-2009-and-2012
#2
Tazeen Tahsina, Nazia Binte Ali, D M Emdadul Hoque, Tanvir M Huda, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Md Altaf Hossain, Ziaul Matin, Lianne Kuppen, Sarah P Garnett, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has committed to universal health coverage, and options to decrease household out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) are being explored. Understanding the determinants of OPE is an essential step. This study aimed to estimate and identify determinants of OPE in seeking health care for sick under-five children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected by structured questionnaire in 2009 (n = 7362) and 2012 (n = 6896) from mothers of the under-five children...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891219/the-health-and-well-being-of-children-and-young-people-who-are-looked-after-findings-from-a-face-to-face-survey-in-glasgow
#3
Sharon Vincent, Michael Jopling
Evidence suggests children and young people who are looked after (LACYP) may have poorer health outcomes than children and young people in the general population, particularly in relation to mental health. This paper discusses findings from a survey of the health and well-being of LACYP in Glasgow. A structured questionnaire used in the 2010 Glasgow Schools Survey (GSS) was adapted and administered in face-to-face interviews with 130 young people aged 11-18 in 2014-2015 to investigate various aspects of health and well-being including physical activity, diet and sleep, smoking, alcohol and drugs, health feelings and worries, behaviours, attitudes and expectations...
September 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887938/measurements-of-the-neutral-particle-spectra-on-mars-by-msl-rad-from-2015-11-15-to-2016-01-15
#4
Jingnan Guo, Cary Zeitlin, Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber, Donald M Hassler, Jan Köhler, Bent Ehresmann, Stephan Böttcher, Eckart Böhm, David E Brinza
The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, has been measuring the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars since the landing of the rover in August 2012. In contrast to charged particles, neutral particles (neutrons and γ-rays) are measured indirectly: the energy deposition spectra produced by neutral particles are complex convolutions of the incident particle spectra with the detector response functions...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887543/the-oxidative-state-of-cysteine-thiol-144-regulates-the-sirt6-glucose-homeostat
#5
David Long, Hanzhi Wu, Allen W Tsang, Leslie B Poole, Barbara K Yoza, Xianfeng Wang, Vidula Vachharajani, Cristina M Furdui, Charles E McCall
Control of glucose homeostasis plays a critical role in health and lifespan and its dysregulation contributes to inflammation, cancer and aging. NAD + dependent Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a glucose homeostasis regulator in animals and humans and its regulation at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we report that a cysteine thiol redox sensor contributes to the role of SIRT6 in controlling glucose homeostasis. Sulfenylation of SIRT6 occurs in THP1 cells and primary human promonocytes during inflammation and in splenocytes from mice with sepsis...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886712/the-effect-of-alphacypermethrin-treated-mesh-protection-against-african-horse-sickness-virus-vectors-on-jet-stall-microclimate-clinical-variables-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-of-horses
#6
Patrick Page, Andre Ganswindt, Johan Schoeman, Gert Venter, Alan Guthrie
BACKGROUND: African horse sickness (AHS) is of importance to health and international trade in horses worldwide. During export from and transit through AHS endemic countries or zones, physical and chemical measures to protect horses from the vectors of AHS virus (AHSV) are recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health. Protection of containerized air transport systems for horses (jet stalls) with alphacypermethrin insecticide-treated high density polyethylene mesh is effective in reducing the Culicoides midge vector attack rate...
September 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885976/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-for-spray-irrigation-of-dairy-manure-based-on-an-empirical-fate-and-transport-model
#7
Tucker R Burch, Susan K Spencer, Joel P Stokdyk, Burney A Kieke, Rebecca A Larson, Aaron D Firnstahl, Ana M Rule, Mark A Borchardt
BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of spray-irrigated dairy manure; and b) determine which factors (e...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877749/women-s-determinant-factors-for-preferred-place-of-delivery-in-dodoma-region-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Agatha Fabian Ngowi, Switbert R Kamazima, Steven Kibusi, Ainory Gesase, Theodora Bali
BACKGROUND: Skilled birth attendance is one of the key factors in improving maternal health but less than 50% of women in sub-Saharan African countries do not have the opportunity to be attended to by skilled personnel during childbirth. The aim of the study was to assess the factors determining women's preference for a place to give birth in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional survey design using quantitative data collection and analysis methods...
September 6, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876414/validity-of-questions-about-activities-of-daily-living-to-screen-for-dependency-in-older-adults
#9
Monica Rebouças, João Macedo Coelho-Filho, Renato Peixoto Veras, Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa, Luiz Roberto Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To determine the criterion validity of the activities of daily living present in functionality questionnaires in older adults for population surveys and to identify which activities are valid to quantify the real daily need for help of this population. METHODS: This is a population sample of older adults stratified by levels of functionality, according to self-perception of dependency in the activities of daily living. Self-perception was compared with the gold standard - direct observation of these activities in the household of older adults by a trained professional, blinded to the answers in the questionnaire...
September 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876023/finite-size-effects-of-ionic-species-sensitively-determine-load-bearing-capacities-of-lubricated-systems-under-combined-influence-of-electrokinetics-and-surface-compliance
#10
Kaustubh Girish Naik, Suman Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty
The behaviour and health of lubricated systems in various natural and artificial settings are often characterized by their load bearing capacity. This capacity stemming from the lift force associated with confined fluid flow can be significantly altered due to surface compliance and electrokinetic effects. Here, we highlight the influence of finite size of the ionic species participating in electrokinetic transport with substrate compliance in determining the electromechanical characteristics of lubricated systems...
September 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867676/a-varroa-destructor-protein-atlas-reveals-molecular-underpinnings-of-developmental-transitions-and-sexual-differentiation
#11
Alison McAfee, Queenie Chan, Jay Evans, Leonard J Foster
Varroa destructor is the most economically damaging honey bee pest, weakening colonies by simultaneously parasitizing bees and transmitting harmful viruses. Despite these impacts on honey bee health, surprisingly little is known about its fundamental molecular biology. Here we present a Varroa protein atlas crossing all major developmental stages (egg, protonymph, deutonymph and adult) for both male and female mites as a web-based interactive tool (http://foster.nce.ubc.ca/varroa/index.html). We used intensity-based label-free quantitation to find 1,433 differentially expressed proteins across developmental stages...
September 3, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866402/human-health-risks-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-urban-soils-of-nanjing-china
#12
Chunhui Wang, Shenglu Zhou, Jing Song, Shaohua Wu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major group of toxic pollutants in urban areas. We calculated the critical concentrations of PAHs in the urban soils of Nanjing, China based on a human health risk assessment. In the study area, the risk was divided into four levels and toxic equivalent values of benzo[a]pyrene (BaPeq) corresponded to <70ngg(-1), 70-700ngg(-1), 700-7000ngg(-1), and >7000ngg(-1). By this standard, most urban areas in Nanjing fall under level II (potentially low risk), while older urban districts, commercial centers, and transportation centers exceed the critical concentration (level III) at present...
August 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865401/spatial-and-temporal-determinants-of-a-weighted-and-frequency-specific-sound-levels-an-elastic-net-approach
#13
Erica D Walker, Jaime E Hart, Petros Koutrakis, Jennifer M Cavallari, Trang VoPham, Marcos Luna, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Urban sound levels are a ubiquitous environmental stressor and have been shown to be associated with a wide variety of health outcomes. While much is known about the predictors of A-weighted sound pressure levels in the urban environment, far less is known about other frequencies. OBJECTIVE: To develop a series of spatial-temporal sound models to predict A-weighted sound pressure levels, low, mid, and high frequency sound for Boston, Massachusetts. METHODS: Short-term sound levels were gathered at n = 400 sites from February 2015 - February 2016...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864004/maternal-bmi-and-gestational-diabetes-alter-placental-lipid-transporters-and-fatty-acid-composition
#14
Maria Teresa Segura, Hans Demmelmair, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Petra Nathan, Stefan Dehmel, Maria Carmen Padilla, Ricardo Rueda, Berthold Koletzko, Cristina Campoy
INTRODUCTION: Placental fatty acid (FA) uptake and metabolism depend on maternal supply which may be altered when women have a high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or develop gestational diabetes (GDM). Consequently, an impaired FA transport to the fetus may negatively affect fetal development. While placental adaptation of maternal-fetal glucose transfer in mild GDM has been described, knowledge on placental FA acid metabolism and possible adaptations in response to maternal obesity or GDM is lacking...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861522/a-serendipitous-mutation-reveals-the-severe-virulence-defect-of-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-fepb-mutant
#15
Michelle Palacios, Christopher A Broberg, Kimberly A Walker, Virginia L Miller
Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered a significant public health threat because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and the challenge associated with treating life-threatening infections. Capsule, siderophores, and adhesins have been implicated as virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae, yet we lack a clear understanding of how this pathogen causes disease. In a previous screen for virulence genes, we identified a potential new virulence locus and constructed a mutant (smr) with this locus deleted...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857087/obstructive-sleep-apnea-risk-for-driving-license-applicants-in-india-a-community-based-study
#16
Abhishek Dubey, Darshan K Bajaj, Apurva Mishra, Balendra Pratap Singh, Vinay Gupta, Surya Kant, Swati Dixit
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for male permanent driving license (DL) applicants of Lucknow, India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional community based, study body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure of each subject were determined as an anthropometric parameter along with the history of habit of smoking, tobacco chewing, alcohol consumption. STOP-Bang (Snoring, Tired or sleepy, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck, Gender) Questionnaire - a scoring risk assessment tool - was applied for assessment of OSA risk (high OSA risk defined by score ≥ 3) for 542 male DL recipients at 2 Regional Transport Office (RTO) centers in Lucknow, India...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853905/airway-mucosal-host-defense-is-key-to-genomic-regulation-of-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-severity
#17
Deepika Polineni, Hong Dang, Paul J Gallins, Lisa C Jones, Rhonda G Pace, Jaclyn R Stonebraker, Leah A Commander, Jeanne E Krenicky, Yi-Hui Zhou, Harriet Corvol, Garry R Cutting, Mitchell L Drumm, Lisa J Strug, Michael P Boyle, Peter R Durie, James F Chmiel, Fei Zou, Fred A Wright, Wanda K O'Neal, Michael R Knowles
RATIONALE: The severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease varies widely, even for Phe508del homozygotes. Heritability studies show that >50% of the variability reflects non-CFTR genetic variation; however the full extent of the pertinent genetic variation is not known. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify novel CF disease-modifying mechanisms using an integrated approach based on analyzing "in vivo" CF airway epithelial gene expression, complemented with genome-wide association study (GWAS) data...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851308/patterns-and-determinants-of-pathways-to-reach-comprehensive-emergency-obstetric-and-neonatal-care-cemonc-in-south-sudan-qualitative-diagrammatic-pathway-analysis
#18
Khalifa Elmusharaf, Elaine Byrne, Ayat AbuAgla, Amal AbdelRahim, Mary Manandhar, Egbert Sondorp, Diarmuid O'Donovan
BACKGROUND: Maternity referral systems have been under-documented, under-researched, and under-theorised. Responsive emergency referral systems and appropriate transportation are cornerstones in the continuum of care and central to the complex health system. The pathways that women follow to reach Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) once a decision has been made to seek care have received relatively little attention. The aim of this research was to identify patterns and determinants of the pathways pregnant women follow from the onset of labour or complications until they reach an appropriate health facility...
August 29, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839936/pre-surgery-evaluations-by-telephone-decrease-travel-and-cost-for-families-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
John D Robinson, John D Prochaska, David A Yngve
INTRODUCTION: Children with cerebral palsy need highly specialized care. This can be very burdensome for families, particularly in large rural states, due to the need for long-distance travel to appointments. In this study, children undergoing the selective percutaneous myofascial lengthening surgery utilized a telephone-based telemedicine evaluation to assess for surgical eligibility. The goal was to avoid a separate preoperative clinic visit weeks before the surgery. If possible, eligibility was determined by telephone, and then, the patient could be scheduled for a clinic visit and possible surgery the next day, saving the family a trip...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819309/visualization-and-detection-of-ciliary-beating-pattern-and-frequency-in-the-upper-airway-using-phase-resolved-doppler-optical-coherence-tomography
#20
Joseph C Jing, Jason J Chen, Lidek Chou, Brian J F Wong, Zhongping Chen
Ciliary motion plays a critical role in the overall respiratory health of the upper airway. These cilia beat at a native frequency and in a synchronized pattern to continuously transport foreign particulate trapped in a layer of mucous out of the upper airway. Disruption of ciliary motion can lead to severe respiratory diseases and compromised respiratory function. Currently, the study of cilia requires expensive high speed cameras and high powered microscopes which is unsuitable for in vivo imaging and diagnosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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