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Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Stephen W Eichhorn, Alexander O Subtelny, Iva Kronja, Jamie C Kwasnieski, Terry L Orr-Weaver, David P Bartel
Because maturing oocytes and early embryos lack appreciable transcription, posttranscriptional regulatory processes control their development. To better understand this control, we profiled translational efficiencies and poly(A)-tail lengths throughout Drosophila oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The correspondence between translational-efficiency changes and tail-length changes indicated that tail-length changes broadly regulate translation until gastrulation, when this coupling disappears...
2016: ELife
Ana Julia Fernández-Alvarez, Malena Lucía Pascual, Graciela Lidia Boccaccio, María Gabriela Thomas
Mammalian Smaug1/Samd4a is an mRNA regulator involved in synapse plasticity and additional non-neuronal functions. Here we analyzed the expression of Smaug1/Samd4a variants and Smaug2/Samd4b in primary hippocampal neurons and non-neuronal cell lines. We found that multiple Smaug proteins are present in several mammalian cell lines, including a canonical full length Smaug1, a Smaug1 variant that lacks the third exon, termed ΔEIII, and Smaug2, the product of a highly homologous gene. These three major isoforms are expressed differentially along neuron development and form cytosolic bodies when transfected in cell lines...
March 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Aymeric Chartier, Pierre Klein, Stéphanie Pierson, Nicolas Barbezier, Teresa Gidaro, François Casas, Steven Carberry, Paul Dowling, Laurie Maynadier, Maëlle Bellec, Martine Oloko, Claude Jardel, Bodo Moritz, George Dickson, Vincent Mouly, Kay Ohlendieck, Gillian Butler-Browne, Capucine Trollet, Martine Simonelig
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a late-onset disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of specific muscles, results from the extension of a polyalanine tract in poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). While the roles of PABPN1 in nuclear polyadenylation and regulation of alternative poly(A) site choice are established, the molecular mechanisms behind OPMD remain undetermined. Here, we show, using Drosophila and mouse models, that OPMD pathogenesis depends on affected poly(A) tail lengths of specific mRNAs...
March 2015: PLoS Genetics
Jerónimo Pimentel, Graciela L Boccaccio
The transcriptome at the synapse consists of thousands of messengers encoding several cellular functions, including a significant number of receptors and ion channels and associated proteins. The concerted translational regulation of all these molecules contributes to the dynamic control of synaptic strength. Cumulative evidence supports that dendritic RNA granules and mRNA-silencing foci play an important role in translational regulation. Several relevant RBPs - FMRP; FUS/TLS; TDP-43; Staufen; Smaug; Pumilio; CPEB; HuD; ZBP1; and DDX6 among others - form granules that contain dormant mRNAs repressed by multiple pathways...
2014: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Michael Götze, Elmar Wahle
Smaug, a protein repressing translation and inducing mRNA decay, directly controls an unexpectedly large number of maternal mRNAs driving early Drosophila development.
2014: Genome Biology
Linan Chen, Jason G Dumelie, Xiao Li, Matthew Hk Cheng, Zhiyong Yang, John D Laver, Najeeb U Siddiqui, J Timothy Westwood, Quaid Morris, Howard D Lipshitz, Craig A Smibert
BACKGROUND: Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown...
2014: Genome Biology
María Gabriela Thomas, Malena Lucía Pascual, Darío Maschi, Luciana Luchelli, Graciela Lidia Boccaccio
The production of proteins from mRNAs localized at the synapse ultimately controls the strength of synaptic transmission, thereby affecting behavior and cognitive functions. The regulated transcription, processing, and transport of mRNAs provide dynamic control of the dendritic transcriptome, which includes thousands of messengers encoding multiple cellular functions. Translation is locally modulated by synaptic activity through a complex network of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and various types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including BC-RNAs, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs, and small interference RNAs...
June 2014: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Maria de Haro, Ismael Al-Ramahi, Karlie R Jones, Jerrah K Holth, Lubov T Timchenko, Juan Botas
We report the identification and characterization of a previously unknown suppressor of myopathy caused by expansion of CUG repeats, the mutation that triggers Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1). We screened a collection of genes encoding RNA-binding proteins as candidates to modify DM1 pathogenesis using a well established Drosophila model of the disease. The screen revealed smaug as a powerful modulator of CUG-induced toxicity. Increasing smaug levels prevents muscle wasting and restores muscle function, while reducing its function exacerbates CUG-induced phenotypes...
April 2013: PLoS Genetics
Benjamin D Pinder, Craig A Smibert
Drosophila Smaug is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that can repress the translation and induce the degradation of target mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Our recent work has uncovered a new mechanism of Smaug-mediated translational repression whereby it interacts with and recruits the Argonaute 1 (Ago1) protein to an mRNA. Argonaute proteins are typically recruited to mRNAs through an associated small RNA, such as a microRNA (miRNA). Surprisingly, we found that Smaug is able to recruit Ago1 to an mRNA in a miRNA-independent manner...
July 2013: Fly
Benjamin D Pinder, Craig A Smibert
Argonaute (Ago) proteins are typically recruited to target messenger RNAs via an associated small RNA such as a microRNA (miRNA). Here, we describe a new mechanism of Ago recruitment through the Drosophila Smaug RNA-binding protein. We show that Smaug interacts with the Ago1 protein, and that Ago1 interacts with and is required for the translational repression of the Smaug target, nanos mRNA. The Ago1/nanos mRNA interaction does not require a miRNA, but it does require Smaug. Taken together, our data suggest a model whereby Smaug directly recruits Ago1 to nanos mRNA in a miRNA-independent manner, thereby repressing translation...
January 2013: EMBO Reports
Laura M Rendl, Melissa A Bieman, Heli K Vari, Craig A Smibert
Sequence-specific RNA binding proteins can induce the degradation of mRNAs through their ability to recruit proteins that trigger transcript destabilization. For example, Vts1p, the S. cerevisiae member of the Smaug family of RNA binding proteins, is thought to induce transcript decay by recruiting the Ccr4p-Pop2p-Not deadenylase complex to target mRNAs. The resulting deadenylation triggers transcript decapping followed by 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic decay. Here we show that the eIF4E-binding protein, Eap1p, is required for efficient degradation of Vts1p target transcripts and that this role involves the ability of Eap1p to interact with eIF4E...
2012: PloS One
Malena Lucia Pascual, Luciana Luchelli, Martin Habif, Graciela L Boccaccio
The regulated synthesis of specific proteins at the synapse is important for neuron plasticity, and several localized mRNAs are translated upon specific stimulus. Repression of mRNA translation is linked to the formation of mRNA-silencing foci, including Processing Bodies (PBs) and Stress Granules (SGs), which are macromolecular aggregates that harbor silenced messengers and associated proteins. In a recent work, we identified a kind of mRNA-silencing foci unique to neurons, termed S-foci, that contain the post-transcriptional regulator Smaug1/SAMD4...
July 1, 2012: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Trevor McIntyre, Martin J Whiting
Environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activity such as mining can have profound health effects on the animals living in adjacent areas. We investigated whether inorganic contaminants associated with gold-mining waste discharges were accumulated by a threatened species of lizard, Smaug giganteus, in South Africa. Lizards were sampled from two mining sites and two control sites. Blood samples from the most contaminated mining site had significantly greater concentrations of lithium, sodium, aluminum, sulfur, silicon, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, tungsten, and bismuth than the remaining sites...
November 2012: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shane Andrews, Danielle R Snowflack, Ira E Clark, Elizabeth R Gavis
Translational control of gene expression is essential for development in organisms that rely on maternal mRNAs. In Drosophila, translation of maternal nanos (nos) mRNA must be restricted to the posterior of the early embryo for proper patterning of the anterior-posterior axis. Spatial control of nos translation is coordinated through the localization of a small subset of nos mRNA to the posterior pole late in oogenesis, activation of this localized mRNA, and repression of the remaining unlocalized nos mRNA throughout the bulk cytoplasm...
May 2011: RNA
Mandy Jeske, Bodo Moritz, Alexander Anders, Elmar Wahle
The nanos (nos) mRNA encodes the posterior determinant of the Drosophila embryo. Translation of the RNA is repressed throughout most of the embryo by the protein Smaug binding to Smaug recognition elements (SREs) in the 3' UTR. Translation is locally activated at the posterior pole by Oskar. This paper reports that the SREs govern the time- and ATP-dependent assembly of an exceedingly stable repressed ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) in embryo extract. Repression can be virtually complete. Smaug and its co-repressor Cup as well as Trailer hitch and the DEAD box protein Me31B are part of the repressed RNP...
January 5, 2011: EMBO Journal
Christel Rouget, Catherine Papin, Anthony Boureux, Anne-Cécile Meunier, Bénédicte Franco, Nicolas Robine, Eric C Lai, Alain Pelisson, Martine Simonelig
Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs), a specific class of 24- to 30-nucleotide-long RNAs produced by the Piwi-type of Argonaute proteins, have a specific germline function in repressing transposable elements. This repression is thought to involve heterochromatin formation and transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing. The piRNA pathway has other essential functions in germline stem cell maintenance and in maintaining germline DNA integrity. Here we uncover an unexpected function of the piRNA pathway in the decay of maternal messenger RNAs and in translational repression in the early embryo...
October 28, 2010: Nature
Sapna Ravindranathan, Florian C Oberstrass, Frédéric H-T Allain
The sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain of VTS1p, a posttranscriptional gene regulator, belongs to a family of SAM domains conserved from yeast to humans. Even though SAM domains were originally classified as protein-protein interaction domains, recently, it was shown that the yeast VTS1p-SAM and the SAM domain of its Drosophila homolog Smaug can specifically recognize RNA hairpins termed Smaug recognition element (SRE). Structural studies of the SRE-RNA complex of VTS1p-SAM revealed that the SAM domain primarily recognizes the shape of the RNA fold induced by the Watson-Crick base-pairing in the RNA pentaloop...
February 26, 2010: Journal of Molecular Biology
Barrett C Foat, Gary D Stormo
Gene expression is regulated at each step from chromatin remodeling through translation and degradation. Several known RNA-binding regulatory proteins interact with specific RNA secondary structures in addition to specific nucleotides. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the regulation of gene expression, we developed an integrative computational approach that leverages functional genomics data and nucleotide sequences to discover RNA secondary structure-defined cis-regulatory elements (SCREs)...
2009: Molecular Systems Biology
Beatrice Benoit, Chun Hua He, Fan Zhang, Sarah M Votruba, Wael Tadros, J Timothy Westwood, Craig A Smibert, Howard D Lipshitz, William E Theurkauf
Genetic control of embryogenesis switches from the maternal to the zygotic genome during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), when maternal mRNAs are destroyed, high-level zygotic transcription is initiated, the replication checkpoint is activated and the cell cycle slows. The midblastula transition (MBT) is the first morphological event that requires zygotic gene expression. The Drosophila MBT is marked by blastoderm cellularization and follows 13 cleavage-stage divisions. The RNA-binding protein Smaug is required for cleavage-independent maternal transcript destruction during the Drosophila MZT...
March 2009: Development
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