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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232567/mapping-network-connectivity-among-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-in-people-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Alexandre Heeren, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depressive symptoms often covary. Yet, uncertainty still abounds vis-à-vis the individual symptom-to-symptom associations between these two disorders. Inspired by the network approach to psychopathology that conceptualizes comorbidity as a natural consequence arising from bridge symptoms that can transmit activation from one disorder to the other, we applied network analytic methods to characterize the associations among core symptoms of SAD-i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232352/case-report-of-a-5-year-old-with-epiglottitis-an-atypical-presentation-of-an-uncommon-disease
#2
Amanda J Kasem
Epiglottitis is a rarely encountered infection in pediatrics since the advent of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine first introduced in the United States in 1985. However, the disease remains a much feared infection in pediatrics. The literature reiterates the importance of early recognition, avoidance of agitating the patient, and the need for securing the airway in the operating room as key and essential features to a good outcome. However, with only 1 case per 200,000 children reported in the United States in 2006, most practitioners have never encountered this infection...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228510/left-behind-and-left-out-the-impact-of-the-school-environment-on-young-people-with-continence-problems
#3
Katie Whale, Helen Cramer, Carol Joinson
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. METHODS: We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226958/masking-exposure-to-phobic-stimuli-reduces-fear-without-inducing-electrodermal-activity
#4
Paul Siegel, Richard Warren, Gabriella Jacobson, Edward Merritt
A series of experiments has shown that limiting awareness of exposure to feared stimuli through visual masking-or very brief exposure (VBE)-reduces avoidance of a live tarantula by spider-phobic participants. We investigated this process of fear reduction by directly relating the effects of VBE on electrodermal activity to its ensuing effects on phobic behavior. Sixty spider-phobic participants, identified by approaching a live tarantula and a questionnaire, were administered either VBE to masked spiders or control exposure to masked flowers...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226044/neuroanatomy-and-neuropsychology-of-pain
#5
REVIEW
Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225944/biopsychosocial-factors-associated-with-chronic-low-back-pain-disability-in-rural-nigeria-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#6
Chinonso Nwamaka Igwesi-Chidobe, Bolaji Coker, Chika N Onwasigwe, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
Introduction: Many people in Nigeria are living with disability due to chronic low back pain (CLBP), with the greatest burden accounted for by people living in rural Nigeria. However, factors associated with disability in rural Nigeria have not yet been established. We investigated the biomechanical and psychosocial predictors of CLBP disability in a rural Nigerian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults with non-specific CLBP recruited from rural communities in Enugu State, South-eastern Nigeria...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215749/building-evidence-for-the-use-of-descriptive-subtypes-in-youth-with-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#8
Mark L Norris, Wendy Spettigue, Nicole G Hammond, Debra K Katzman, Nancy Zucker, Katie Yelle, Alexandre Santos, Madeline Gray, Nicole Obeid
OBJECTIVE: To examine characteristics of patients with Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in an effort to identify and describe subtypes of the disorder. METHOD: A retrospective chart review was completed for patients aged 8-17 years assessed over a 17-year period. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were included in the study, the majority of whom were female (n = 56, 73%). The average age of patients was 13.7 years (SD = 2...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211745/the-back-belief-questionnaire-is-efficient-to-assess-false-beliefs-and-related-fear-in-low-back-pain-populations-a-transcultural-adaptation-and-validation-study
#9
Arnaud Dupeyron, Charlotte Lanhers, Sophie Bastide, Sandrine Alonso, Matthias Toulotte, Claire Jourdan, Emmanuel Coudeyre
BACKGROUND: According to the fear avoidance model, beliefs and thoughts can modify the outcome of patient with low back pain. The Back Belief Questionnaire (BBQ)-a 14 items scale-assesses these consequences of low back pain. OBJECTIVE: To test the psychometric properties of the French version of the BBQ. METHODS: The BBQ was translated using the forward-backward translation process. Throughout three repeated evaluation time points (D1, D7 and D30), various aspects of validity were analysed: acceptability, quality of items, unidimentionality, internal consistency, temporal stability (between D1 and D7), responsiveness (between D7 and D30), and construct validity comparing it to other validated scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208483/initial-validation-of-the-nine-item-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-screen-nias-a-measure-of-three-restrictive-eating-patterns
#10
Hana F Zickgraf, Jordan M Ellis
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors...
December 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207885/the-effectiveness-of-walking-versus-exercise-on-pain-and-function-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#11
Carla Vanti, Simone Andreatta, Silvia Borghi, Andrew Anthony Guccione, Paolo Pillastrini, Lucia Bertozzi
OBJECTIVE: Walking is commonly recommended to relieve pain and improve function in chronic low back pain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials concerning the effectiveness of walking interventions compared to other physical exercise on pain, disability, quality of life and fear-avoidance, in chronic low back pain. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of walking alone compared to exercise and to exercise with added walking on adults with chronic low back pain were identified using the MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsychINFO, and SPORT DiscusTM databases...
December 5, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206152/connecting-the-mind-body-split-understanding-the-relationship-between-symptoms-and-emotional-well-being-in-chronic-pain-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Line Caes, Alex Orchard, Deborah Christie
Paediatric chronic conditions, e.g., chronic pain and functional gastrointestinal disorders, are commonly diagnosed, with fatigue, pain and abdominal discomfort the most frequently reported symptoms across conditions. Regardless of whether symptoms are connected to an underlying medical diagnosis or not, they are often associated with an increased experience of psychological distress by both the ill child and their parents. While pain and embarrassing symptoms can induce increased distress, evidence is also accumulating in support of a reciprocal relationship between pain and distress...
December 5, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200603/domestic-violence-shapes-colombian-women-s-partner-choices
#13
Martha Lucia Borras-Guevara, Carlota Batres, David I Perrett
Abstract: Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199072/maternal-brain-tnf-%C3%AE-programs-innate-fear-in-the-offspring
#14
Bojana Zupan, Bingfang Liu, Faten Taki, Judit Gal Toth, Miklos Toth
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that not only coordinates local and systemic immune responses [1, 2] but also regulates neuronal functions. Most prominently, glia-derived TNF-α has been shown to regulate homeostatic synaptic scaling [3-6], but TNF-α-null mice exhibited no apparent cognitive or emotional abnormalities. Instead, we found a TNF-α-dependent intergenerational effect, as mothers with a deficit in TNF-α programmed their offspring to exhibit low innate fear. Cross-fostering and conditional knockout experiments indicated that a TNF-α deficit in the maternal brain, rather than in the hematopoietic system, and during gestation was responsible for the low-fear offspring phenotype...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198477/the-assessment-of-psychological-factors-on-upper-extremity-disability-a-scoping-review
#15
Joy C MacDermid, Kristin Valdes, Mike Szerekes, Nancy Naughton, Lori Algar
INTRODUCTION: The primary purpose of this scoping review was to describe the nature and extent of the published research that assesses the relationship between psychological features and patient-reported outcome following surgery or rehabilitation of upper extremity disease or injury. METHODS: Twenty-two included studies were examined for quantitative study design, outcome measure, inclusion/exclusion criteria, follow-up and recruitment strategy. Patient population and psychological assessment tools were examined for validity...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188403/maternal-acceptance-moderates-fear-ratings-and-avoidance-behavior-in-children
#16
Yaara Shimshoni, Wendy K Silverman, Simon P Byrne, Eli R Lebowitz
Avoidance is a hallmark feature of anxiety disorders, and avoidance-related impairment is often key to meeting diagnostic criteria. In children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, levels of avoidance vary considerably. Using a novel motion-tracking measure of avoidance behavior, we examined whether maternal acceptance, characterized by warm and accepting responses to child feelings and behaviors, moderates the association between fear of spiders and behavioral avoidance of spider stimuli in 103 clinically anxious children...
November 29, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184524/a-qualitative-approach-on-motives-and-aspects-of-risks-in-freeriding
#17
Anika Frühauf, Will A S Hardy, Daniel Pfoestl, Franz-Georg Hoellen, Martin Kopp
Recent research has shown that there are multiple motives for participation in high-risk sport; however these results have come from studies that consider a number of different sports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to better understand the motives and risk-related aspects of freeriding, using a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 professional and semi-professional freeride skiers and snowboarders. All freeriders were highly experienced, of different age (19-44 years; 27...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184274/the-relationship-between-physical-capacity-and-fear-avoidance-beliefs-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#18
Juhwan Lee, Shinjun Park
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical capacity and fear avoidance beliefs in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] This cross sectional study included 131 male university students with chronic low back pain. All the patients completed a fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire. Each participant performed a physical capacity test, which included hand grip force, leg strength, abdominal muscle endurance, flexibility, and cardiopulmonary endurance testing...
October 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183700/attachment-and-eating-a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-relevance-of-attachment-for-unhealthy-and-healthy-eating-behaviors-in-the-general-population
#19
REVIEW
Aida Faber, Laurette Dubé, Bärbel Knäuper
Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity-failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others-systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population...
November 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182944/learning-to-feel-tired-a-learning-trajectory-towards-chronic-fatigue
#20
Bert Lenaert, Yannick Boddez, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Caroline M van Heugten
Chronic fatigue complaints are frequently reported in the general population and fatigue ranks among the most commonly reported symptoms in chronic disease. In contrast to its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, relatively little is understood about the etiology of chronic fatigue. We present a cognitive-behavioral framework, the 'ALT+F' model, that conceptualizes fatigue from an associative learning perspective, and we will evaluate the current evidence for this position. Central to this framework is the notion that interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli can become associated with the fatigue experience...
November 22, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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