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Fear avoidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920735/lower-sensitivity-to-happy-and-angry-facial-emotions-in-young-adults-with-psychiatric-problems
#1
Charlotte Vrijen, Catharina A Hartman, Gerine M A Lodder, Maaike Verhagen, Peter de Jonge, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Many psychiatric problem domains have been associated with emotion-specific biases or general deficiencies in facial emotion identification. However, both within and between psychiatric problem domains, large variability exists in the types of emotion identification problems that were reported. Moreover, since the domain-specificity of the findings was often not addressed, it remains unclear whether patterns found for specific problem domains can be better explained by co-occurrence of other psychiatric problems or by more generic characteristics of psychopathology, for example, problem severity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918321/the-role-of-relocation-patterns-and-psychosocial-stressors-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-among-earthquake-survivors
#2
Ebru Salcioglu, Sahin Ozden, Furkan Ari
The psychological impact of relocation within and outside of a disaster region was examined in 541 survivors of the 2011 Van earthquake in Turkey at 16.5 months postdisaster. Relocation out of the region was determined by disaster-related property/financial losses and fear during the earthquake. Anticipatory fear of future earthquakes and less sense of control over life were the strongest predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Relocation within the disaster region predicted PTSD but not depression...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907138/barriers-to-modern-contraceptive-use-in-kinshasa-drc
#3
Mbadu Muanda, Parfait Gahungu Ndongo, Leah D Taub, Jane T Bertrand
Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900169/neuromuscular-exercise-and-back-counselling-for-female-nursing-personnel-with-recurrent-non-specific-low-back-pain-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-nurse-rct
#4
Jaana H Suni, Marjo Rinne, Markku Kankaanpää, Annika Taulaniemi, Sirpa Lusa, Harri Lindholm, Jari Parkkari
INTRODUCTION: Nursing personnel have high risk for incidence of low back pain (LBP) followed by development of chronic pain and disability. Multiple risk factors such as patient handling, night shift work and lack of supporting work culture have been identified. In subacute LBP, high-fear avoidance is prognostic for more pain, disability and not returning to work. Lack of leisure-time physical activity predicts long-term sickness absence. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of 6-month neuromuscular exercise and counselling in treating back pain in female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific LBP pain compared with either (exercise or counselling) alone and a non-treatment control group...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895442/translation-of-the-medical-fear-survey-to-serbian-psychometric-properties
#5
J Djokovic, B Milovanovic, J R Milovanovic, O Milovanovic, I Stojic, S Mrvic, M Kostic, S Stefanovic, S M Jankovic
BACKGROUND: Medical Fear Survey (MFS) is an instrument designed for measuring fear of medical and related treatments. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was MFS translation into Serbian, measurement of its psychometric properties and MFS validation using other Blood-injury-injections and related stimuli instruments that have been translated from English into Serbian. METHOD: After obtaining permission from the author of the original MFS, double forward translation from English to Serbian and backward translation to English were conducted in ten steps, according to International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894380/an-attention-and-interpretation-bias-for-illness-specific-information-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#6
A M Hughes, T Chalder, C R Hirsch, R Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that specific cognitions and behaviours play a role in maintaining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, little research has investigated illness-specific cognitive processing in CFS. This study investigated whether CFS participants had an attentional bias for CFS-related stimuli and a tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a somatic way. It also determined whether cognitive processing biases were associated with co-morbidity, attentional control or self-reported unhelpful cognitions and behaviours...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890937/seasonal-changes-in-neophobia-and-its-consistency-in-rooks-the-effect-of-novelty-type-and-dominance-position
#7
Alison L Greggor, Jolle W Jolles, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Neophobia, or the fear of novelty, may offer benefits to animals by limiting their exposure to unknown danger, but can also impose costs by preventing the exploration of potential resources. The costs and benefits of neophobia may vary throughout the year if predation pressure, resource distribution or conspecific competition changes seasonally. Despite such variation, neophobia levels are often assumed to be temporally and individually stable. Whether or not neophobia expression changes seasonally and fluctuates equally for all individuals is crucial to understanding the drivers, consequences and plasticity of novelty avoidance...
November 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887600/individual-household-and-community-level-factors-associated-with-keeping-tuberculosis-status-secret-in-ghana
#8
Joshua Amo-Adjei
BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families' a secret. METHODS: The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886574/the-differential-relationship-between-mental-contamination-and-the-core-dimensions-of-contact-contamination-fear
#9
Gabriele Melli, Francesco Bulli, Claudia Carraresi, Federica Tarantino, Simona Gelli, Andrea Poli
Two types of contamination fear are recognized: contact and mental contamination. Contact contamination appears to be motivated both by harm avoidance and disgust avoidance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between disgust propensity, mental contamination and contact contamination while differentiating between harm avoidance and disgust avoidance in contact contamination. 169 OCD patients completed a set of questionnaires assessing mental contamination, contact contamination, disgust propensity, OCD, anxiety and depression...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884798/neural-markers-of-loss-aversion-in-resting-state-brain-activity
#10
Nicola Canessa, Chiara Crespi, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Giulia Antonellis, Stefano F Cappa
Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity...
November 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879686/goal-pursuit-in-youth-with-chronic-pain
#11
REVIEW
Emma Fisher, Tonya M Palermo
Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children's activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit...
November 22, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879564/structural-brain-imaging-in-people-with-low-back-pain
#12
Zaid M Mansour, Rebcca J Lepping, Robyn A Honea, William M Brooks, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jeffrey M Burns, Neena K Sharma
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether low back pain (subacute and chronic) is related to differences in brain volume. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Inconsistent findings have been reported about the effect of chronic low back pain on brain volume, and the effect of subacute low back pain on brain volume has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: 130 participants were included (23 subacute and 68 chronic low back pain; 39 healthy controls)...
November 22, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873557/face-processing-in-adolescents-with-positive-and-negative-threat-bias
#13
C M Sylvester, S E Petersen, J L Luby, D M Barch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit a 'vigilance-avoidance' pattern of attention to threatening stimuli when threatening and neutral stimuli are presented simultaneously, a phenomenon referred to as 'threat bias'. Modifying threat bias through cognitive retraining during adolescence reduces symptoms of anxiety, and so elucidating neural mechanisms of threat bias during adolescence is of high importance. We explored neural mechanisms by testing whether threat bias in adolescents is associated with generalized or threat-specific differences in the neural processing of faces...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869458/smith-and-lilienfeld-s-meta-analysis-of-the-response-modulation-hypothesis-important-theoretical-and-quantitative-clarifications
#14
Joseph P Newman, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, applied across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples...
December 2016: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866777/fear-avoidance-beliefs-increase-perception-of-pain-and-disability-in-mexicans-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#15
Tania Inés Nava-Bringas, Salvador Israel Macías-Hernández, Jorge Rodrigo Vásquez-Ríos, Roberto Coronado-Zarco, Antonio Miranda-Duarte, Eva Cruz-Medina, Aurelia Arellano-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Fear-avoidance beliefs are related to the prognosis of chronicity in low back pain in subacute stages, however in chronic pain, is no clear the influence of these factors; it has been suggested that the study population can determine the magnitude of influence on disability and pain of those suffering from back pain. Currently, information does not exist in the Mexican population. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs with pain and disability in Mexicans with chronic low back pain; analyze potentials differences between subgroups according to the time of evolution...
October 28, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862894/appraisal-of-transplant-related-stressors-coping-strategies-and-psychosocial-adjustment-following-kidney-transplantation
#16
Renato Pisanti, Caterina Lombardo, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Luca Poli, Linda Bennardi, Luca Giordanengo, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Cristiano Violani
This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation...
November 9, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859920/emotion-and-personal-space-neural-correlates-of-approach-avoidance-tendencies-to-different-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-coldhearted-psychopathic-traits
#17
Joana B Vieira, Tamara P Tavares, Abigail A Marsh, Derek G V Mitchell
In social interactions, humans are expected to regulate interpersonal distance in response to the emotion displayed by others. Yet, the neural mechanisms implicated in approach-avoidance tendencies to distinct emotional expressions have not been fully described. Here, we investigated the neural systems implicated in regulating the distance to different emotions, and how they vary as a function of empathy. Twenty-three healthy participants assessed for psychopathic traits underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed approaching and withdrawing angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral faces...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858690/the-effects-of-a-standardized-belly-dance-program-on-perceived-pain-disability-and-function-in-women-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#18
Tabitha Castrillon, William J Hanney, Carey E Rothschild, Morey J Kolber, Xinliang Liu, Michael Masaracchio
BACKGROUND: An alternative approach to facilitate movement and control through the trunk and pelvis is belly dancing. Investigations of belly dancing mechanics indicate similar muscular activation patterns of those known to influence chronic low back pain (cLBP). However, no documented studies have examined its effectiveness as a treatment for cLBP. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a standardized belly dance program in women with cLBP...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858268/misreporting-of-product-adherence-in-the-mtn-003-voice-trial-for-hiv-prevention-in-africa-participants-explanations-for-dishonesty
#19
Elizabeth T Montgomery, B Mensch, P Musara, M Hartmann, K Woeber, J Etima, A van der Straten
Consistent over-reporting of product use limits researchers' ability to accurately measure adherence and estimate product efficacy in HIV prevention trials. While lying is a universal characteristic of the human condition, growing evidence of a stark discrepancy between self-reported product use and biologic or pharmacokinetic evidence demands examination of the reasons research participants frequently misrepresent product use in order to mitigate this challenge in future research. This study (VOICE-D) was an ancillary post-trial study of the vaginal and oral interventions to control the epidemic (VOICE) phase IIb trial (MTN 003)...
November 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858220/-is-the-relationship-between-fear-avoidance-cognitions-and-quality-of-life-mediated-by-depressive-symptoms
#20
S Roch, J Föllmer, P Hampel
BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain is often accompanied by fear-avoidance cognitions, increased depressive symptoms and decreased quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Is the relationship between fear-avoidance cognitions and quality of life mediated by depressive symptoms? METHODS: Mediation analyses were conducted to predict the long-term quality of life with depressive symptoms as mediator using longitudinal data from 131 patients. RESULTS: Fear-avoidance cognitions prior to rehabilitation predicted the physical quality of life 24 months after rehabilitation, which was mediated by the degree of depressive symptoms 6 months after rehabilitation...
November 17, 2016: Der Schmerz
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