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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548888/an-interdisciplinary-intervention-for-fear-of-falling-lessons-learned-from-two-case-studies
#1
James B Robinson, Julie Loebach Wetherell
This article describes two case studies using an interdisciplinary intervention for homebound older adults who experience fear of falling, resulting in debility and isolation. The patients discussed received separate home visits from a physical therapist (two and four visits) and psychologist (six and eight visits) and intervention components included an initial assessment of physical ability, prescription of home exercise program, exposure therapy, and cognitive restructuring. Both patients reported satisfaction with the fear of falling intervention and showed improved ability to walk, both in distance and in requiring less assistance...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548555/transforming-students-attitudes-and-anxieties-toward-death-and-loss
#2
Cara L Wallace, Harriet L Cohen, David A Jenkins
This study examines the impact of a death and dying course on 39 undergraduate students' attitudes and anxieties about death. Authors outline key aspects of the curriculum used in the course and discuss how the approach lends itself to a transformative learning experience related to death and loss, preparing students who will face clients with a variety of needs in these areas across practice settings. The majority of students ( n = 34) experienced a decrease in death avoidance, fear of death, and overall death anxiety...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545935/social-fear-learning-from-animal-models-to-human-function
#3
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson
Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders...
May 22, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545320/the-influence-of-pain-related-beliefs-on-physical-activity-and-health-attitudes-in-patients-with-claudication-a-pilot-study
#4
Sherene E Sharath, Panos Kougias, Neal R Barshes
We examined how pain beliefs are related to symptom severity, expectations of risk/benefits, and baseline physical activity among claudicants. Eligible patients at the Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center were administered questionnaires that measured: fear-avoidance beliefs (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire [FABQ]), walking impairment, baseline physical activity, claudication type, and risk/benefit attitudes. Among 20 participants, the median age was 69 years (IQR: 66-75). In our efforts to understand how fear-avoidance beliefs influenced physical activity among people with claudication, we found that 12 participants (63%) thought that the primary etiology of their pain was walking, while 18 (90%) people thought that walking would exacerbate their leg symptoms - suggesting that there was some confusion regarding the effects of walking on claudication...
May 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543320/processes-in-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-and-the-rehabilitation-of-chronic-fatigue
#5
Henrik Børsting Jacobsen, Håvard Kallestad, Nils Inge Landrø, Petter C Borchgrevink, Tore C Stiles
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has never been tested for patients with chronic fatigue. We aimed to test if a 3.5-week ACT rehabilitation program for patients with chronic fatigue improved quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and psychological flexibility. Further, to test if improvements in QoL and fatigue were associated with improvement in psychological flexibility, and if psychological flexibility explained variance above and beyond maladaptive cognitions typically targeted in CBT for fatigue. Patients (n = 140) who had been on sick leave > 8 weeks due to chronic fatigue received a 3...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541814/encounters-with-offspring-help-terminally-ill-adult-patients-cope-with-death-anxiety
#6
Erez Yaakobi
This overview of recent work drawing on the theories of Terror Management and Symbolic Immortality suggests practical ways of helping the terminally ill to cope with death anxiety and its potential effects. The literature review shows that parenthood can act as an anxiety buffer mechanism against the fear of death but that individual differences, including attachment avoidance, moderate this association. Encounters with adult patients' offspring may help minimize fear of death, improve coping, and increase quality of life and emotional well-being...
May 25, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540106/association-of-physical-performance-and-fear-avoidance-beliefs-in-adults-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#7
V P Panhale, R S Gurav, S K Nahar
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a commonest musculoskeletal disorder affecting majority of people. Activity limitations are difficulties an individual may have in executing activities resulting from person's functioning and disability. According to the fear-avoidance model of low back pain, individuals who perceive pain as a sign of potential damage are more likely to avoid behaviors that increase their anxiety and show sub-maximal performance during physical activity. AIM: Purpose of this study was to find the association between activity limitation and fear avoidance belief in patients with chronic low back pain...
November 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539681/risk-of-falls-in-the-rheumatic-patient-at-geriatric-age
#8
REVIEW
Agnieszka Prusinowska, Arkadiusz Komorowski, Teresa Sadura-Sieklucka, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska
Evaluating the risk of falling of a geriatric rheumatic patient plays an essential role not only in planning and carrying out the physiotherapeutic process. The consequences of falls may be different and, although they do not always result in serious repercussions such as fractures or injuries, it is sufficient that they generate the fear of falling and cause a significant reduction in physical activity. Assessing functional capacity to define the risk of falling is of utmost importance in the case of patients after joint arthroplasty surgeries...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537109/facial-and-prosodic-emotion-recognition-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Yu-Lien Huang, Jian-Ting Chen, Kuei-Yu Liang, Chao-Cheng Lin, Sue-Huei Chen
INTRODUCTION: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have a cognitive preference to negatively evaluate emotional information. In particular, the preferential biases in prosodic emotion recognition in SAD have been much less explored. The present study aims to investigate whether SAD patients retain negative evaluation biases across visual and auditory modalities when given sufficient response time to recognise emotions. METHODS: Thirty-one SAD patients and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy participants completed a culturally suitable non-verbal emotion recognition task and received clinical assessments for social anxiety and depressive symptoms...
May 24, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536998/life-impact-and-treatment-preferences-of-individuals-with-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-results-from-qualitative-interviews-and-focus-groups
#10
Henrik Svedsater, June Roberts, Chloe Patel, Jake Macey, Emma Hilton, Lisa Bradshaw
INTRODUCTION: The impact of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on individuals' lives may be substantial, yet clinical practice often focuses only on symptoms. We aimed to better understand the perspective of asthma or COPD patients and to identify condition-related burden, life impact, priorities, unmet needs, and treatment goals. METHODS: Individuals aged at least 18 years with asthma or COPD were identified by a recruitment panel via clinical referrals, support groups, consumer networks, and a patient database...
May 23, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536948/definitive-childlessness-in-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multicenter-study
#11
Diana Ferraro, Anna Maria Simone, Giorgia Adani, Francesca Vitetta, Claudia Mauri, Silvia Strumia, Caterina Senesi, Erica Curti, Eleonora Baldi, Mario Santangelo, Sara Montepietra, Paolo Immovilli, Angelica Guareschi, Walter Neri, Franco Granella, Luisa Caniatti, Maria Rosaria Tola, Luisa Motti, Ilaria Pesci, Enrico Montanari, Patrizia Sola
The frequency of definitive childlessness in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be higher than in the general population. MS may also affect decisions on the delivery procedure and on breast-feeding issues. Aim of the study was to assess the frequency of childlessness and its possible causes, the proportion of cesarean deliveries (CD), and the frequency of breast-feeding in patients and controls who have reached the end of their reproductive period. Female MS patients (>43 years) and controls (>45 years) filled out a questionnaire...
May 24, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531872/the-relative-effectiveness-of-extinction-and-counter-conditioning-in-diminishing-children-s-fear
#12
Carol Newall, Tiffany Watson, Kerry-Ann Grant, Rick Richardson
Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7-12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then randomly assigned to one of three conditions: counter-conditioning (animal paired with a happy face), extinction (animal without scared face), or control (no fear reduction procedure)...
May 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531194/prognostic-psychosocial-factors-for-disabling-low-back-pain-in-japanese-hospital-workers
#13
Takahiko Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki Oka, Junji Katsuhira, Tomoko Fujii, Katsuhiko Masuda, Sakae Tanaka, Ko Matsudaira
BACKGROUND: Although the occupational health field has identified psychosocial factors as risk factors for low back pain that causes disability, the association between disabling low back pain and psychosocial factors has not been examined adequately in Japanese hospital workers. Therefore, this study examined the association between low back pain, which interfered with work, and psychosocial factors in Japanese hospital workers. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a hospital in Japan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527423/task-related-and-person-related-variables-influence-the-effect-of-low-back-pain-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments
#14
Jesse V Jacobs, Courtney A Lyman, Juvena R Hitt, Sharon M Henry
BACKGROUND: People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions...
May 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517967/cruel-to-be-kind-factors-underlying-altruistic-efforts-to-worsen-another-person-s-mood
#15
Belén López-Pérez, Laura Howells, Michaela Gummerum
When aiming to improve another person's long-term well-being, people may choose to induce a negative emotion in that person in the short term. We labeled this form of agent-target interpersonal emotion regulation altruistic affect worsening and hypothesized that it may happen when three conditions are met: (a) The agent experiences empathic concern for the target of the affect-worsening process, (b) the negative emotion to be induced helps the target achieve a goal (e.g., anger for confrontation or fear for avoidance), and (c) there is no benefit for the agent...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516188/management-of-bilateral-wilms-tumours
#16
REVIEW
Alastair J W Millar, Sharon Cox, Alan Davidson
Wilms tumour is named after Max Wilms. It is an embryonal tumour derived from the metanephros. It is the commonest childhood renal tumour and the third commonest paediatric malignancy. Synchronous bilateral Wilms tumours (BWT) represent 4-7% of all Wilms tumours (WT) and present at a younger age than unilateral Wilms tumours. At least 10% of synchronous BWTs have unfavourable histology, and up to 22% are associated with genitourinary abnormalities, aniridia, WAGR syndrome, Denys-Drash syndrome, hemihypertrophy, or one of the other overgrowth syndromes...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513787/does-the-trait-anxiety-affect-the-dental-fear
#17
Yusuf Cetin Doganer, Umit Aydogan, Hande Ucler Yesil, James Edwin Rohrer, Mark Douglas Williams, David Charles Agerter
The aims of the present study were to evaluate possible associations between trait anxiety, dental fear and the predictors of these interactions including demographic characteristics and dental history of patients applied to the dental care center in Ankara, Turkey. A sample of 607 participants (mean age: 21.02 ± 2.32) responded to a Turkish version of the Modified Dental Fear Survey (MDFS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and a questionnaire regarding previous negative dental experience. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between dental fear and the independent variables including trait anxiety, age groups, education level, dental visit frequency, experience and the source of dental knowledge...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509515/understanding-avoidance-and-non-attendance-among-adolescents-in-dental-care-an-integrative-review
#18
A Fägerstad, J Windahl, K Arnrup
OBJECTIVE: To review articles exploring manifestations of avoidance of or non-attendance to dental care, to identify background and concomitant factors specifically associated with dental avoidance among adolescents. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO were searched using MeSH terms and keywords covering dental avoidance, non-attendance and non-utilization. Searches were limited to peer-reviewed studies in English, published in 1994-2014. Twenty-one research articles were included...
September 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508360/genome-to-phenome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-ptsd-using-an-animal-model
#19
Nabarun Chakraborty, James Meyerhoff, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508296/modeling-the-fear-effect-in-predator-prey-interactions-with-adaptive-avoidance-of-predators
#20
Xiaoying Wang, Xingfu Zou
Recent field experiments on vertebrates showed that the mere presence of a predator would cause a dramatic change of prey demography. Fear of predators increases the survival probability of prey, but leads to a cost of prey reproduction. Based on the experimental findings, we propose a predator-prey model with the cost of fear and adaptive avoidance of predators. Mathematical analyses show that the fear effect can interplay with maturation delay between juvenile prey and adult prey in determining the long-term population dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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