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Fear avoidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665736/fear-avoidance-and-clinical-outcomes-from-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Noah D Silverberg, William Panenka, Grant L Iverson
Characterizing psychological factors that contribute to persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) can inform early intervention. To determine whether fear avoidance, a known risk factor for chronic disability after musculoskeletal injury, is associated with worse clinical outcomes from MTBI, adults were recruited from four outpatient MTBI clinics and assessed at their first clinic visit (M=2.7, SD=1.5 weeks post-injury) and again 4-5 months later. Of 273 patients screened, 102 completed the initial assessment and 87 returned for the outcome assessment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664187/exercise-interventions-and-patient-beliefs-for-people-with-hip-knee-or-hip-and-knee-osteoarthritis-a-mixed-methods-review
#2
REVIEW
Michael Hurley, Kelly Dickson, Rachel Hallett, Robert Grant, Hanan Hauari, Nicola Walsh, Claire Stansfield, Sandy Oliver
BACKGROUND: Chronic peripheral joint pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is extremely prevalent and a major cause of physical dysfunction and psychosocial distress. Exercise is recommended to reduce joint pain and improve physical function, but the effect of exercise on psychosocial function (health beliefs, depression, anxiety and quality of life) in this population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of the complex inter-relationship between pain, psychosocial effects, physical function and exercise...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661965/neural-activity-in-ventral-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-modulated-more-before-approach-than-avoidance-during-reinforced-and-extinction-trial-blocks
#3
Ronny N Gentry, Matthew R Roesch
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to provide regulatory control over Pavlovian fear responses and has recently been implicated in appetitive approach behavior, but much less is known about its role in contexts where appetitive and aversive outcomes can be obtained and avoided, respectively. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in vmPFC while male rats performed our combined approach and avoidance task under reinforced and non-reinforced (extinction) conditions. Surprisingly, we found that cues predicting reward modulated cell firing in vmPFC more often and more robustly than cues preceding avoidable shock; additionally, firing of vmPFC neurons was both response (press or no-press) and outcome (reinforced or extinction) selective...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652624/emergency-telemedicine-achieving-and-maintaining-compliance-with-the-emergency-medical-treatment-and-labor-act
#4
Kimberly Lovett Rockwell, Alexis Gilroy
PURPOSE: Telemedicine is a growing and important platform for medical delivery in the emergency department. Emergency telemedicine outlays often confront and conflict with important federal healthcare regulations. Because of this, academic medical centers, critical access hospitals, and other providers interested in implementing emergency telemedicine have often delayed or forgone such services due to reasonable fears of falling out of compliance with regulatory restrictions imposed by the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act ("EMTALA")...
March 12, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651690/community-structure-analysis-of-rejection-sensitive-personality-profiles-a-common-neural-response-to-social-evaluative-threat
#5
Elise D Kortink, Wouter D Weeda, Michael J Crowley, Bregtje Gunther Moor, Melle J W van der Molen
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648960/running-out-of-time-exploring-women-s-motivations-for-social-egg-freezing
#6
Kylie Baldwin, Lorraine Culley, Nicky Hudson, Helene Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648854/potential-mechanisms-involved-in-the-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-fatigue-severity-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
Juliane Menting, Cees J Tack, Rogier Donders, Hans Knoop
OBJECTIVE: To identify mediators of the beneficial effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on fatigue severity in chronically fatigued patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHOD: We performed secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of CBT. Primary outcome was fatigue severity assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength, subscale fatigue severity. We used multiple mediation analysis to determine potential mediators of the treatment effect...
April 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643581/hypervigilance-to-pain-affects-activities-of-daily-living-an-examination-using-the-japanese-version-of-the-pain-vigilance-awareness-questionnaire
#8
Hayato Shigetoh
[Purpose] Hypervigilance to pain is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may be associated with disability more than other psychological factors examined. The aim of the study was to investigate how hypervigilance to pain influences disability compared with other psychological factors examined. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 50 elderly patients with chronic pain (7 men and 43 women, 80.3 ± 7.8 years). To assess the pain level, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was used...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627508/the-cerebellum-in-fear-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Josep Moreno-Rius
Fear and anxiety-related disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric conditions characterized by avoidant and fearful reactions towards specific stimuli or situations, which are disproportionate given the real threat such stimuli entail. These conditions comprise the most common mental disorder group. There are a high proportion of patients who fail to achieve remission and the presence of high relapse rates indicate the therapeutic options available are far from being fully efficient. Despite an increased understanding the neural circuits underlying fear and anxiety-related behaviors in the last decades, a factor that could be partially contributing to the lack of adequate therapies may be an insufficient understanding of the core features of the disorders and their associated neurobiology...
April 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626831/neuroticism-and-anxious-attachment-as-potential-vulnerability-factors-of-repeat-suicide-attempts
#10
Lucie Pennel, Jean-Louis Quesada, Maurice Dematteis
The recurrence risk of suicide attempts can reach 50% in the first year, each attempt increasing suicide-risk by 32%. No screening tool efficiently identifies potential repeat suicide attempters who are too often regarded as borderline personality. Our aim was to identify individual and interpersonal psychopathological dimensions that could represent a vulnerability to repeat suicide attempts. Sixty first-time and repeat suicide attempters consecutively admitted in emergency rooms were compared for fundamental dimensions of personality, patterns of attachment, personality and mental disorders using standardized questionnaires...
March 27, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624929/barriers-to-antenatal-care-in-an-urban-community-in-the-gambia-an-in-depth-qualitative-interview-study
#11
Susan P Laing, Smruti V Sinmyee, Khizar Rafique, Helen E Smith, Max J Cooper
This qualitative study investigated the barriers to obtaining access to antenatal care in a small, urban government-supported health centre in the Gambia. It thus addresses an important issue related to maternal health and the prevention of maternal deaths. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 pregnant women, 13 healthcare workers and 9 male partners. Three areas were identified for study: recognition and acknowledgment of pregnancy, recognition of the need for care and practical barriers to attendance...
September 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614375/a-1-adenosine-receptors-in-the-striatum-play-a-role-in-the-impairment-caused-by-sleep-deprivation-through-downregulation-of-the-pka-pathway
#12
S L B Oliveira, M G M Oliveira, D C Hipolide
Sleep deprivation is known to affect memory formation, but how it interacts with different memory systems is not completely understood. Adenosine, a homeostatic regulator of sleep that has an increased extracellular concentration during sleep deprivation, is one of the neuromodulators that may be involved in this interaction. The A1 adenosine receptor is involved in both sleep regulation and memory formation. Among other pathways, the A1 receptor decreases cAMP levels in the cytosol and thus also regulates protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) activity...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610990/psychometric-validation-of-the-cross-culturally-adapted-traditional-chinese-version-of-the-back-beliefs-questionnaire-bbq-and-fear-avoidance-beliefs-questionnaire-fabq
#13
Prudence Wing Hang Cheung, Carlos King Ho Wong, Jason Pui Yin Cheung
PURPOSE: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) into traditional Chinese for their use in patients experiencing low back pain (LBP). METHODS: This was a prospective questionnaire translation and psychometric validation of the BBQ and FABQ in Chinese patients with back pain. Patients also completed the Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong) versions of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) questionnaires and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for LBP...
April 2, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608953/training-memory-without-aversion-appetitive-hole-board-spatial-learning-increases-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#14
Patricia Sampedro-Piquero, Román D Moreno-Fernández, M Carmen Mañas-Padilla, Sara Gil-Rodríguez, Ana Luisa Gavito, Francisco J Pavón, Carmen Pedraza, María García-Fernández, David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, Luis J Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega
Learning experiences are potent modulators of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). However, the vast majority of findings on the learning-induced regulation of AHN derive from aversively-motivated tasks, mainly the water maze paradigm, in which stress is a confounding factor that affects the AHN outcome. Currently, little is known regarding the effect of appetitively-motivated training on AHN. Hence we studied how spatial learning to find food rewards in a hole-board maze modulates AHN (cell proliferation and immature neurons) and AHN-related hippocampal neuroplasticity markers (BDNF, IGF-II and CREB phosphorylation) in mice...
March 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606511/modifiable-individual-and-work-related-factors-associated-with-neck-pain-in-740-office-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Xiaoqi Chen, Shaun O'Leary, Venerina Johnston
BACKGROUND: Office workers have the highest incidence of neck pain of all occupations. However, the relationship between symptoms and the risk factors is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between self-reported neck pain with a comprehensive range of individual and work-related risk factors. METHODS: This study utilised a cross-sectional study design. Office workers with and without neck pain (n=763) were recruited. Participants completed a survey which included a Pain Numerical Rating Scale (dependent variable), and measures of independent variables including demographic, individual, work-related factors, neck/shoulder muscle strength, endurance, and range of motion (ROM)...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605464/childhood-emotional-maltreatment-anxiety-attachment-and-mindfulness-associations-with-facial-emotion-recognition
#16
Lianne H English, Melanie Wisener, Heidi N Bailey
The current study investigated factors thought to contribute to facial emotion processing. Female university students (N = 126) completed self-report measures of childhood emotional maltreatment, anxiety symptoms, attachment anxiety and avoidance, and trait mindfulness before completing a facial emotion recognition task, where they viewed sequences of faces that incorporated progressively more emotional content until they were able to correctly identify the emotion. They completed the task under low and high cognitive load conditions to distinguish between relatively effortful versus automatic processing abilities...
March 29, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602324/the-relationship-between-attachment-orientations-and-the-course-of-depression-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-spirr-cad-trial
#17
Wolfgang Söllner, Markus M Müller, Christian Albus, Rüdiger Behnisch, Manfred E Beutel, Martina de Zwaan, Kurt Fritzsche, Anita Habermeier, Martin Hellmich, Jochen Jordan, Jana Jünger, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Matthias Michal, Katja Petrowski, Joram Ronel, Barbara Stein, Cora Weber, Rainer Weber, Christoph Herrmann-Lingen
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between attachment orientations and the recovery from depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without a psychotherapeutic intervention was examined in this study. METHODS: In a multicenter trial of 570 depressed CAD patients (SPIRR-CAD), assigned to usual care plus either a stepwise psychotherapy intervention or one information session, 522 patients provided attachment data at baseline. Attachment was measured with the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), yielding four attachment orientations...
May 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602318/predicting-the-course-of-persistent-physical-symptoms-development-and-internal-validation-of-prediction-models-for-symptom-severity-and-functional-status-during-2-years-of-follow-up
#18
Nikki Claassen-van Dessel, Johannes C van der Wouden, Johannes W R Twisk, Joost Dekker, Henriëtte E van der Horst
OBJECTIVE: Increased knowledge about predictors of the course of persistent physical symptoms (PPS) is needed to identify patients at risk for long-term PPS in clinical settings. Therefore, we developed prediction models for the course of PPS in terms of symptom-severity and related functional status during a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: We used data of the PROSPECTS cohort study, consisting of 325 PPS patients from several health care settings. Symptom severity (PHQ-15), physical functioning (RAND 36 PCS) and mental functioning (RAND 36 MCS) were assessed at baseline and 6, 12 and 24 months afterwards...
May 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580906/post-traumatic-psychiatric-disorders-ptsd-is-not-the-only-diagnosis
#19
Yann Auxéméry
Traumatic events and their consequences are often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the post-traumatic stress disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc.). Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains the most widely known disorder, chronic post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are many and varied. After a trauma, the practitioner has to check for the different clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological consequences: PTSD is not the only diagnosis...
March 23, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576731/aggressiveness-violence-homicidality-homicide-and-lyme-disease
#20
Robert C Bransfield
Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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