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planktonic algae

Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Jaroslav Vrba, Markéta Macholdová, Linda Nedbalová, Jiří Nedoma, Michal Šorf
Extracellular phosphatase activity (PA) has been used as an overall indicator of P depletion in lake phytoplankton. However, detailed insights into the mechanisms of PA regulation are still limited, especially in the case of acid phosphatases. The novel substrate ELF97 phosphate allows for tagging PA on single cells in an epifluorescence microscope. This fluorescence-labeled enzyme activity (FLEA) assay enables for autecological studies in natural phytoplankton and algal cultures. We combined the FLEA assay with image analysis to measure cell-specific acid PA in two closely related species of the genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from two acidic lakes with distinct P availability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
T A Belevich, L V Ilyash, I A Milyutina, M D Logacheva, A V Troitsky
The molecular diversity of poorly studied algae of Bolidophyceae class was first estimated by Illumina sequencing of V4 region of 18S rRNA gene in ice, under-ice water and summer water of the subarctic White Sea. We used two clustering thresholds - 93 and 97% - and revealed 31 phylotypes of Bolidophyceae. Triparma pacifica and T. strigata were identified to species level. The association of individual phylotypes to certain biotopes (ice or plankton) and stages of seasonal succession (under ice or summer plankton) has been established...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Libin Zhou, Kimberley D Lemmen, Wei Zhang, Steven A J Declerck
One of the central tenets of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer growth rate is strongly determined by food phosphorus (P) content. In planktonic organisms population growth rates of zooplankton have repeatedly been shown to be reduced when fed with P-limited algal food sources. However, P-limitation may also affect other quality-related aspects of algae, such as biochemical composition or palatability. We studied the population growth, detailed life history and body elemental composition of the herbivorous rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus , in response to three different food quality treatments: algae cultured in high phosphorus conditions (average algal molar C:P ≈ 112, 'HP'), algae cultured in low P conditions (molar C:P ≈ 631, 'LP') and low-P cultured algae spiked with P just before feeding (molar C:P ≈ 113, 'LP+P')...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ekaterina Yu Afonina, Natalya A Tashlykova
The plankton community of sixteen saline lakes located on Onon-Torey plain (Northeastern Mongolia) during the filling phase and the raising of the water level was investigated in July 2011. Thirty-five taxa of phytoplankton and thirty-one species of zooplankton were found. For phytoplankton, blue-green algae ( Merismopedia elegans , Anabaenopsis elenkinii , Arthrospora fusiformis , Spirulina major , Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp.) and green algae ( Monoraphidium minutum , Tetrastrum komarekii , Ankyra ocellata , Oocystis sp...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Annie Machordom, Ricardo García-Jiménez, César A Salinas-Zavala, Roger Villanueva
Cephalopods are primarily active predators throughout life. Flying squids (family Ommastrephidae) represents the most widely distributed and ecologically important family of cephalopods. While the diets of adult flying squids have been extensively studied, the first feeding diet of early paralarvae remains a mystery. The morphology of this ontogenetic stage notably differs from other cephalopod paralarvae, suggesting a different feeding strategy. Here, a combination of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and DNA metabarcoding of wild-collected paralarvae gut contents for eukaryotic 18S v9 and prokaryotic 16S rRNA was applied, covering almost every life domain...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clare Bird, Kate F Darling, Ann D Russell, Jennifer S Fehrenbacher, Catherine V Davis, Andrew Free, Bryne T Ngwenya
Uncovering the complexities of trophic and metabolic interactions among microorganisms is essential for the understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling and modelling climate-driven ecosystem shifts. High-throughput DNA sequencing methods provide valuable tools for examining these complex interactions, although this remains challenging, as many microorganisms are difficult to isolate, identify and culture. We use two species of planktonic foraminifera from the climatically susceptible, palaeoceanographically important genus Neogloboquadrina, as ideal test microorganisms for the application of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding...
2018: PloS One
Ewa Anna Dembowska, Tomasz Mieszczankin, Paweł Napiórkowski
Covering more than 60% of the lake surface, macrophytes determined the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton. We have found numerous indications of ecological deterioration and an increased trophic level year to year: an increased total number of taxa; a significantly increased number of species of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanoprokaryota; a decreased number of Chrysophyceae; increased Nygaard index, and high diversity and variability of phytoplankton functional groups. Within 2 years (2002 and 2003) algal biomass doubled: from 3...
January 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Antonio M Martin-Platero, Brian Cleary, Kathryn Kauffman, Sarah P Preheim, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Eric J Alm, Martin F Polz
Because microbial plankton in the ocean comprise diverse bacteria, algae, and protists that are subject to environmental forcing on multiple spatial and temporal scales, a fundamental open question is to what extent these organisms form ecologically cohesive communities. Here we show that although all taxa undergo large, near daily fluctuations in abundance, microbial plankton are organized into clearly defined communities whose turnover is rapid and sharp. We analyze a time series of 93 consecutive days of coastal plankton using a technique that allows inference of communities as modular units of interacting taxa by determining positive and negative correlations at different temporal frequencies...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Christoph G Jäger, Dietrich Borchardt
In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Zhen-Zhen Shi, Sheng-Tao Fang, Feng-Ping Miao, Nai-Yun Ji
Two new tricycloalternarene-type meroterpenes, 17-O-methyltricycloalternarene D (1) and methyl nortricycloalternarate (4), and two known congeners, TCA D (2) and TCA 1b (3), were isolated from the culture of a marine red alga-epiphytic fungal strain (k21-1) of Alternaria alternata. The planar structures and relative configurations of these two new compounds were unequivocally identified by a combination of 1D/2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectra and by comparison with literature data, and the absolute configurations were assigned by analysis of ECD spectra...
January 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
Remington X Poulin, Kelsey L Poulson-Ellestad, Jessie S Roy, Julia Kubanek
Harmful algae are known to utilize allelopathy, the release of compounds that inhibit competitors, as a form of interference competition. Competitor responses to allelopathy are species-specific and allelopathic potency of producing algae is variable. In the current study, the biological variability in allelopathic potency was mapped to the underlying chemical variation in the exuded metabolomes of five genetic strains of the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
Nina A Kamennaya, Gabrielle Kennaway, Bernhard M Fuchs, Mikhail V Zubkov
The smallest algae, less than 3 μm in diameter, are the most abundant eukaryotes of the World Ocean. Their feeding on planktonic bacteria of similar size is globally important but physically enigmatic. Tiny algal cells tightly packed with the voluminous chloroplasts, nucleus, and mitochondria appear to have insufficient organelle-free space for prey internalization. Here, we present the first direct observations of how the 1.3-μm algae, which are only 1.6 times bigger in diameter than their prey, hold individual Prochlorococcus cells in their open hemispheric cytostomes...
January 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
Aurore Trottet, Bryan Wilson, Genevieve Sew Wei Xin, Christaline George, Lemuel Casten, Claire Schmoker, Nurul Syazana Binte Modh Rawi, Moon Chew Siew, Ole Larsen, Hans S Eikaas, Karenne Tun, Guillaume Drillet
Resting strategies of planktonic organisms are important for the ecological processes of coastal waters and their impacts should be taken into consideration in management of water bodies used by multiple industries. We combined different approaches to evaluate the importance of resting stages in Singapore coastal waters. We used molecular approaches to improve the knowledge on Singapore biodiversity, we sampled and extracted cysts from sediments to evaluate the density of resting stages in Johor Strait, and we compared systematically information on Singapore planktonic biodiversity to existing published information on resting stages from these reported organisms...
February 2018: Environmental Management
West M Bishop, Robert J Richardson
Acceleration of eutrophication in freshwater resources can result in prolific growth of nuisance algae, notably cyanobacteria. In this research, we evaluated the ability of an in situ P binding technology (Phoslock®) to alter available water column and sediment P, and the subsequent impact on nutrient ratios and algal assemblage composition. Two golf course irrigation ponds with legacy nutrient loads and chronic cyanobacterial blooms were treated with Phoslock and monitored for 2 years post-treatment. Phoslock significantly (P < 0...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Diana C Garcia-Sánchez, Gabriel A Pinilla, Juliana Quintero
The establishment of habitats for immature Ae. aegypti is regulated by biotic and abiotic factors and interactions between these factors. This study aimed to determine the effects of physico-chemical variables and planktonic algae on immature Ae. aegypti habitats in 101 water tanks (50 of them containing Ae. aegypti pupae and/or larvae) in Girardot, Colombia. Physical data were collected from the water tanks (volume, capacity, material, detritus, and location), along with the physico-chemical variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, percentage of oxygen saturation, nitrates, nitrites, and orthophosphates)...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Gabriel Yvon-Durocher, Charlotte-Elisa Schaum, Mark Trimmer
The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hau Kwan Abby Lo, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Microplastics exposure could be detrimental to marine organisms especially under high concentrations. However, few studies have considered the multiphasic nature of marine invertebrates' life history and investigated the impact of experiencing microplastics during early development on post-metamorphic stages (legacy effect). Many planktonic larvae can feed selectively and it is unclear whether such selectivity could modulate the impact of algal food-sized microplastic. In this two-stage experiment, veligers of Crepidula onyx were first exposed to additions of algae-sized micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) beads at different concentrations, including ones that were comparable their algal diet...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Erika Berenice Martínez-Ruiz, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo
The extensive use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) in agriculture is an important source of pollution to water and soil. Toxicity of commonly used herbicides to non-target, planktonic photosynthetic organisms has not been described completely yet. Therefore, we determined the effect of subinhibitory 2,4-D concentrations on the Chlorophycean alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus and on a toxigenic strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Population growth, photosynthetic pigments, macromolecular biomarkers (carbohydrates, lipids, and protein), and antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) were quantified, and the integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wei Liu, Jingwen Li, Lichen Gao, Zhou Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xin He, Xin Zhang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L(-1) to mg L(-1), with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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