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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777430/the-artificial-humic-substance-hs1500-does-not-inhibit-photosynthesis-of-the-green-alga-desmodesmus-armatus-in-vivo-but-interacts-with-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-of-isolated-spinach-thylakoids-in-vitro
#1
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679511/light-availability-impacts-structure-and-function-of-phototrophic-stream-biofilms-across-domains-and-trophic-levels
#2
Mia M Bengtsson, Karoline Wagner, Clarissa Schwab, Tim Urich, Tom J Battin
Phototrophic biofilms are ubiquitous in freshwater and marine environments where they are critical for biogeochemical cycling, food webs and in industrial applications. In streams, phototrophic biofilms dominate benthic microbial life and harbor an immense prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial biodiversity with biotic interactions across domains and trophic levels. Here, we examine how community structure and function of these biofilms respond to varying light availability, as the crucial energy source for phototrophic biofilms...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672902/organic-selenium-selenate-and-selenite-accumulation-by-lake-plankton-and-the-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-at-different-ph-and-sulfate-concentrations
#3
Dominic E Ponton, Claude Fortin, Landis Hare
Selenium (Se) concentrations measured in lake planktonic food chains (microplankton < 64 µm, copepods and Chaoborus larvae) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of dissolved organic Se. These correlations were strengthened slightly by adding the concentrations of dissolved selenate to those of organic Se. To better understand the role of Se species and the influence of water chemistry on Se uptake, we exposed the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to selenite, selenate or selenomethionine at various H+ ion and sulfate concentrations under controlled laboratory conditions...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651728/the-ecological-competition-and-grazing-reverse-the-effects-of-sulfamethoxazole-on-plankton-a-case-study-on-characterizing-community-level-effect
#4
Changyou Wang, Shengkang Liang, Yong Zhang
The toxic effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) on densities of two algae, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis, Isochrysis galbana, and of a rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, were tested by the population and community experiments. Two endpoints, the carrying capacity and the densities array of community in steady state (DACS), were used to characterize the toxic effects at a population level and a community one, respectively. The results showed that the carrying capacity of P. helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and B...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618786/toxigenic-effects-of-two-benthic-diatoms-upon-grazing-activity-of-the-sea-urchin-morphological-metabolomic-and-de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis
#5
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Valerio Zupo, Chiara Lauritano, Davide Caramiello, Adrianna Ianora, Alfredo Budillon, Giovanna Romano, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Giuliana D'Ippolito, Angelo Fontana, Maria Costantini
Diatoms are unicellular algae playing a key role as photosynthetic organisms in the world's ocean food webs. The chemical ecology of planktonic diatoms is well documented, but few studies have reported on the effects of benthic diatoms on their consumers, also due to difficulties in the collection, quantification and massive culturing of benthic species. Here for the first time we investigate the effects of feeding on two abundantly occurring benthic diatoms, Nanofrustulum shiloi and Cylindrotheca closterium, isolated from the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, on the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617379/climate-variability-and-cultural-eutrophication-at-walden-pond-massachusetts-usa-during-the-last-1800-years
#6
J Curt Stager, Brendan Wiltse, J Bradford Hubeny, Eric Yankowsky, David Nardelli, Richard Primack
Recent shifts in the ecological condition of Walden Pond, MA, are of potentially wide interest due to the lake's importance as a cultural, historical, and recreational resource in addition to its scientific value as an indicator of local and global environmental change. Algal microfossils in six sediment cores document changes in hydroclimate and trophic status of the lake during the last 1800 years and extend two previous sediment core records of shorter length. Low percentages of planktonic diatoms in the longest cores (WAL-3, WAL-15) indicate shallowing and/or greater water clarity associated with a relatively arid interval during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, ca...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608220/nanoecotoxicity-assessment-of-graphene-oxide-and-its-relationship-with-humic-acid
#7
Vera L Castro, Zaira Clemente, Claudio Jonsson, Mariana Silva, José Henrique Vallim, Aline Maria Zigiotto de Medeiros, Diego Stéfani T Martinez
The risk assessment of nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for regulatory purposes and for sustainable nanotechnological development. Although the application of the graphene oxide (GO) has been widely exploited, its environmental risk is not well understood since several environmental conditions can affect the behavior and toxicity of it. In the present work, the GO effect from aquatic ecosystems was assessed considering the interaction with humic acid (HA) on nine organisms: Raphidocelis subcapitata (green algae), Lemna minor (aquatic plant), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Daphnia magna (planktonic microcrustacea), Artemia salina (brine shrimp), Chironomus sancticaroli (chironomidae), Hydra attenuata (freshwater polyp), and Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrolaimus sp (nematodes)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607022/habitat-orientation-alters-the-outcome-of-interspecific-competition-a-microcosm-study-with-zooplankton-grazers
#8
Ying Pan, Yunshu Zhang, Shucun Sun
Habitat orientation has recently been demonstrated to affect the foraging behavior, growth, and production of plankton grazers. Because the orientation effect may vary with species, we hypothesize that habitat orientation may alter interspecific interactions between animal species. We experimentally investigated how habitat orientation (placing cuboid chambers in three orientations with long, medium, and small side as the chamber height) affected the interaction between two common cladoceran species, Daphnia magna and Moina micrura , which competitively exploited green algae of Chlorella pyrenoidosa at two volume scales (64 and 512 ml)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570741/time-and-depth-wise-trophic-niche-shifts-in-antarctic-benthos
#9
Edoardo Calizza, Giulio Careddu, Simona Sporta Caputi, Loreto Rossi, Maria Letizia Costantini
Climate change is expected to affect resource-consumer interactions underlying stability in polar food webs. Polar benthic organisms have adapted to the marked seasonality characterising their habitats by concentrating foraging and reproductive activity in summer months, when inputs from sympagic and pelagic producers increase. While this enables the persistence of biodiverse food webs, the mechanisms underlying changes in resource use and nutrient transfer are poorly understood. Thus, our understanding of how temporal and spatial variations in the supply of resources may affect food web structure and functioning is limited...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518738/generation-and-characterization-of-dom-in-wastewater-treatment-processes
#10
REVIEW
Meng Wang, Yinguang Chen
Wastewater reuse for resolving water shortage is increasingly emphasized. The presence of DOM in wastewater is a main consideration for wastewater reuse. Therefore, systematic understanding of characteristic changes of DOM in different wastewater treatment processes is needed. As biotechnology together with disinfection operation has been used widely by WWTPs to treat wastewater, this review aims to introduce the recent advances in the effects of wastewater biological treatment and disinfection on the characteristics of DOM...
June 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515551/an-experimental-insight-into-extracellular-phosphatases-differential-induction-of-cell-specific-activity-in-green-algae-cultured-under-various-phosphorus-conditions
#11
Jaroslav Vrba, Markéta Macholdová, Linda Nedbalová, Jiří Nedoma, Michal Šorf
Extracellular phosphatase activity (PA) has been used as an overall indicator of P depletion in lake phytoplankton. However, detailed insights into the mechanisms of PA regulation are still limited, especially in the case of acid phosphatases. The novel substrate ELF97 phosphate allows for tagging PA on single cells in an epifluorescence microscope. This fluorescence-labeled enzyme activity (FLEA) assay enables for autecological studies in natural phytoplankton and algal cultures. We combined the FLEA assay with image analysis to measure cell-specific acid PA in two closely related species of the genus Coccomyxa (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from two acidic lakes with distinct P availability...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486704/metagenomics-of-bolidophyceae-in-plankton-and-ice-of-the-white-sea
#12
T A Belevich, L V Ilyash, I A Milyutina, M D Logacheva, A V Troitsky
The molecular diversity of poorly studied algae of Bolidophyceae class was first estimated by Illumina sequencing of V4 region of 18S rRNA gene in ice, under-ice water and summer water of the subarctic White Sea. We used two clustering thresholds - 93 and 97% - and revealed 31 phylotypes of Bolidophyceae. Triparma pacifica and T. strigata were identified to species level. The association of individual phylotypes to certain biotopes (ice or plankton) and stages of seasonal succession (under ice or summer plankton) has been established...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479344/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-resource-p-limitation-differentially-impact-population-growth-life-history-and-body-elemental-composition-of-a-zooplankton-consumer
#13
Libin Zhou, Kimberley D Lemmen, Wei Zhang, Steven A J Declerck
One of the central tenets of ecological stoichiometry is that consumer growth rate is strongly determined by food phosphorus (P) content. In planktonic organisms population growth rates of zooplankton have repeatedly been shown to be reduced when fed with P-limited algal food sources. However, P-limitation may also affect other quality-related aspects of algae, such as biochemical composition or palatability. We studied the population growth, detailed life history and body elemental composition of the herbivorous rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus , in response to three different food quality treatments: algae cultured in high phosphorus conditions (average algal molar C:P ≈ 112, 'HP'), algae cultured in low P conditions (molar C:P ≈ 631, 'LP') and low-P cultured algae spiked with P just before feeding (molar C:P ≈ 113, 'LP+P')...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472798/plankton-community-and-the-relationship-with-the-environment-in-saline-lakes-of-onon-torey-plain-northeastern-mongolia
#14
Ekaterina Yu Afonina, Natalya A Tashlykova
The plankton community of sixteen saline lakes located on Onon-Torey plain (Northeastern Mongolia) during the filling phase and the raising of the water level was investigated in July 2011. Thirty-five taxa of phytoplankton and thirty-one species of zooplankton were found. For phytoplankton, blue-green algae ( Merismopedia elegans , Anabaenopsis elenkinii , Arthrospora fusiformis , Spirulina major , Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp.) and green algae ( Monoraphidium minutum , Tetrastrum komarekii , Ankyra ocellata , Oocystis sp...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467371/predatory-flying-squids-are-detritivores-during-their-early-planktonic-life
#15
Fernando Á Fernández-Álvarez, Annie Machordom, Ricardo García-Jiménez, César A Salinas-Zavala, Roger Villanueva
Cephalopods are primarily active predators throughout life. Flying squids (family Ommastrephidae) represents the most widely distributed and ecologically important family of cephalopods. While the diets of adult flying squids have been extensively studied, the first feeding diet of early paralarvae remains a mystery. The morphology of this ontogenetic stage notably differs from other cephalopod paralarvae, suggesting a different feeding strategy. Here, a combination of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and DNA metabarcoding of wild-collected paralarvae gut contents for eukaryotic 18S v9 and prokaryotic 16S rRNA was applied, covering almost every life domain...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377905/16s-rrna-gene-metabarcoding-and-tem-reveals-different-ecological-strategies-within-the-genus-neogloboquadrina-planktonic-foraminifer
#16
Clare Bird, Kate F Darling, Ann D Russell, Jennifer S Fehrenbacher, Catherine V Davis, Andrew Free, Bryne T Ngwenya
Uncovering the complexities of trophic and metabolic interactions among microorganisms is essential for the understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling and modelling climate-driven ecosystem shifts. High-throughput DNA sequencing methods provide valuable tools for examining these complex interactions, although this remains challenging, as many microorganisms are difficult to isolate, identify and culture. We use two species of planktonic foraminifera from the climatically susceptible, palaeoceanographically important genus Neogloboquadrina, as ideal test microorganisms for the application of 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372414/changes-of-the-phytoplankton-community-as-symptoms-of-deterioration-of-water-quality-in-a-shallow-lake
#17
Ewa Anna Dembowska, Tomasz Mieszczankin, Paweł Napiórkowski
Covering more than 60% of the lake surface, macrophytes determined the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton. We have found numerous indications of ecological deterioration and an increased trophic level year to year: an increased total number of taxa; a significantly increased number of species of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanoprokaryota; a decreased number of Chrysophyceae; increased Nygaard index, and high diversity and variability of phytoplankton functional groups. Within 2 years (2002 and 2003) algal biomass doubled: from 3...
January 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348571/high-resolution-time-series-reveals-cohesive-but-short-lived-communities-in-coastal-plankton
#18
Antonio M Martin-Platero, Brian Cleary, Kathryn Kauffman, Sarah P Preheim, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Eric J Alm, Martin F Polz
Because microbial plankton in the ocean comprise diverse bacteria, algae, and protists that are subject to environmental forcing on multiple spatial and temporal scales, a fundamental open question is to what extent these organisms form ecologically cohesive communities. Here we show that although all taxa undergo large, near daily fluctuations in abundance, microbial plankton are organized into clearly defined communities whose turnover is rapid and sharp. We analyze a time series of 93 consecutive days of coastal plankton using a technique that allows inference of communities as modular units of interacting taxa by determining positive and negative correlations at different temporal frequencies...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337262/longitudinal-patterns-and-response-lengths-of-algae-in-riverine-ecosystems-a-model-analysis-emphasising-benthic-pelagic-interactions
#19
Christoph G Jäger, Dietrich Borchardt
In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313358/two-new-tricycloalternarene-esters-from-an-alga-epiphytic-isolate-of-alternaria-alternata
#20
Zhen-Zhen Shi, Sheng-Tao Fang, Feng-Ping Miao, Nai-Yun Ji
Two new tricycloalternarene-type meroterpenes, 17-O-methyltricycloalternarene D (1) and methyl nortricycloalternarate (4), and two known congeners, TCA D (2) and TCA 1b (3), were isolated from the culture of a marine red alga-epiphytic fungal strain (k21-1) of Alternaria alternata. The planar structures and relative configurations of these two new compounds were unequivocally identified by a combination of 1D/2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectra and by comparison with literature data, and the absolute configurations were assigned by analysis of ECD spectra...
January 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
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