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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125250/ecological-characterization-of-aedes-aegypti-larval-habitats-diptera-culicidae-in-artificial-water-containers-in-girardot-colombia
#1
Diana C Garcia-Sánchez, Gabriel A Pinilla, Juliana Quintero
The establishment of habitats for immature Ae. aegypti is regulated by biotic and abiotic factors and interactions between these factors. This study aimed to determine the effects of physico-chemical variables and planktonic algae on immature Ae. aegypti habitats in 101 water tanks (50 of them containing Ae. aegypti pupae and/or larvae) in Girardot, Colombia. Physical data were collected from the water tanks (volume, capacity, material, detritus, and location), along with the physico-chemical variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, percentage of oxygen saturation, nitrates, nitrites, and orthophosphates)...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109703/the-temperature-dependence-of-phytoplankton-stoichiometry-investigating-the-roles-of-species-sorting-and-local-adaptation
#2
Gabriel Yvon-Durocher, Charlotte-Elisa Schaum, Mark Trimmer
The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107898/negative-effects-of-microplastic-exposure-on-growth-and-development-of-crepidula-onyx
#3
Hau Kwan Abby Lo, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Microplastics exposure could be detrimental to marine organisms especially under high concentrations. However, few studies have considered the multiphasic nature of marine invertebrates' life history and investigated the impact of experiencing microplastics during early development on post-metamorphic stages (legacy effect). Many planktonic larvae can feed selectively and it is unclear whether such selectivity could modulate the impact of algal food-sized microplastic. In this two-stage experiment, veligers of Crepidula onyx were first exposed to additions of algae-sized micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) beads at different concentrations, including ones that were comparable their algal diet...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070448/exposure-to-the-herbicide-2-4-d-produces-different-toxic-effects-in-two-different-phytoplankters-a-green-microalga-ankistrodesmus-falcatus-and-a-toxigenic-cyanobacterium-microcystis-aeruginosa
#4
Erika Berenice Martínez-Ruiz, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo
The extensive use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) in agriculture is an important source of pollution to water and soil. Toxicity of commonly used herbicides to non-target, planktonic photosynthetic organisms has not been described completely yet. Therefore, we determined the effect of subinhibitory 2,4-D concentrations on the Chlorophycean alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus and on a toxigenic strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Population growth, photosynthetic pigments, macromolecular biomarkers (carbohydrates, lipids, and protein), and antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) were quantified, and the integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049944/bioaccumulation-and-effects-of-novel-chlorinated-polyfluorinated-ether-sulfonate-in-freshwater-alga-scenedesmus-obliquus
#5
Wei Liu, Jingwen Li, Lichen Gao, Zhou Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xin He, Xin Zhang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L(-1) to mg L(-1), with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027571/ingestion-and-egestion-of-microplastics-by-the-cladoceran-daphnia-magna-effects-of-regular-and-irregular-shaped-plastic-and-sorbed-phenanthrene
#6
Camilla Krogh Frydkjær, Niels Iversen, Peter Roslev
The presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems is of increasing global concern. This study investigated ingestion, egestion and acute effects of polyethylene microplastics in Daphnia magna. Fate of regular shaped microplastic beads (10-106 µm) were compared with irregular shaped microplastic fragments (10-75 µm). Daphnia magna ingested regular and irregular microplastic with uptake between 0.7 and 50 plastic particles/animal/day when exposed to microplastic concentrations of 0.0001-10 g/L. Egestion of irregular fragments was slower than that of microplastic beads...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962989/applicability-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-on-monitoring-harmful-algae-at-varna-bay-in-the-black-sea
#7
Nina Dzhembekova, Shingo Urusizaki, Snejana Moncheva, Petya Ivanova, Satoshi Nagai
In this study the plankton diversity in 13 environmental samples from Varna Bay (in the western Black Sea) was analyzed using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the potential of this technology for future implementation in monitoring programs in the Black Sea. Amplicon sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (V4-5 regions) were obtained using the Illumina MiSeq 250PE platform. A total of 1137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained among which 242 OTUs with >0...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962978/identification-of-unique-microbiomes-associated-with-harmful-algal-blooms-caused-by-alexandrium-fundyense-and-dinophysis-acuminata
#8
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Christopher J Gobler
Biotic interactions dominate plankton communities, yet the microbial consortia associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs) have not been well-described. Here, high-throughput amplicon sequencing of ribosomal genes was used to quantify the dynamics of bacterial (16S) and phytoplankton assemblages (18S) associated with blooms and cultures of two harmful algae, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata. Experiments were performed to assess changes in natural bacterial and phytoplankton communities in response to the filtrate from cultures of these two harmful algae...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935906/resilience-of-the-larval-slipper-limpet-crepidula-onyx-to-direct-and-indirect-diet-effects-of-ocean-acidification
#9
Elizaldy A Maboloc, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Ocean acidification (OA) is known to directly impact larval physiology and development of many marine organisms. OA also affects the nutritional quality and palatability of algae, which are principal food sources for many types of planktonic larvae. This potential indirect effect of OA via trophic interactions, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, veligers of Crepidula onyx were exposed to different pH levels representing the ambient (as control) and low pH values (pH 7.7 and pH 7.3) for 14 days, and were fed with Isochrysis galbana cultured at these three respective pHs...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922804/hunting-for-agile-prey-trophic-specialisation-in-leptophryid-amoebae-vampyrellida-rhizaria-revealed-by-two-novel-predators-of-planktonic-algae
#10
Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellid amoebae (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems and consume a wide range of eukaryotes, e.g. algae, fungi and micrometazoa. Environmental sequences indicate that only a small fraction of their genetic diversity is phenotypically characterised, emphasising the need to further explore unknown vampyrellids and their interactions with prey organisms. This study tests the prey range specificity of three vampyrellid amoebae with 49 strains of three common groups of freshwater algae (Zygnematophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Volvocales), and documents specific interactions by time-lapse microscopy...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856804/strain-specific-consumption-and-transformation-of-alga-derived-dissolved-organic-matter-by-members-of-the-limnohabitans-c-and-polynucleobacter-b-clusters-of-betaproteobacteria
#11
Karel Horňák, Vojtěch Kasalický, Karel Šimek, Hans-Peter Grossart
We investigated changes in quality and quantity of extracellular and biomass-derived organic matter (OM) from three axenic algae (genera Rhodomonas, Chlamydomonas, Coelastrum) during growth of Limnohabitans parvus, Limnohabitans planktonicus and Polynucleobacter acidiphobus representing important clusters of freshwater planktonic Betaproteobacteria. Total extracellular and biomass-derived OM concentrations from each alga were approximately 20 and 1 mg l(-1) , respectively, from which up to 9% could be identified as free carbohydrates, polyamines, or free and combined amino acids...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836786/sesteralterin-and-tricycloalterfurenes-a-d-terpenes-with-rarely-occurring-frameworks-from-the-marine-alga-epiphytic-fungus-alternaria-alternata-k21-1
#12
Zhen-Zhen Shi, Feng-Ping Miao, Sheng-Tao Fang, Xiang-Hong Liu, Xiu-Li Yin, Nai-Yun Ji
A new sesterterpene, sesteralterin (1), four new meroterpenes, tricycloalterfurenes A-D (2-5), and a known meroterpene, TCA-F (6), were obtained from the culture extract of an Alternaria alternata strain (k21-1) isolated from the surface of the marine red alga Lomentaria hakodatensis. The structures and relative/absolute configurations of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses, mainly including 1D/2D NMR, ECD, and mass spectra and quantum chemical calculations. Compound 1 represents the first nitidasane sesterterpene naturally produced by fungi, and 2-5 feature a tetrahydrofuran unit rarely occurring in tricycloalternarenes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813409/the-rise-of-algae-in-cryogenian-oceans-and-the-emergence-of-animals
#13
Jochen J Brocks, Amber J M Jarrett, Eva Sirantoine, Christian Hallmann, Yosuke Hoshino, Tharika Liyanage
The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth's history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago)...
August 31, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792654/euchlorocystis-gen-nov-and-densicystis-gen-nov-two-new-genera-of-oocystaceae-algae-from-high-altitude-semi-saline-habitat-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta
#14
Xudong Liu, Huan Zhu, Huiyin Song, Qinghua Wang, Xiong Xiong, Chenxi Wu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
The Oocystaceae family is generally considered to contain common freshwater eukaryotic microalgae, and few are reported living in semi-saline habitats. Our latest ecological survey in Qinghai Lake and Angzicuo Lake, both large, closed, high-altitude, semi-saline lakes located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, revealed Oocystaceae species as a dominant group among plankton. Since limited knowledge exists about semi-saline species in the Oocystaceae family, a taxonomical study was carried out using morphological and phylogenetic methods...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623024/functional-diversity-of-aquatic-ciliates
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Weisse
This paper first reviews the concept of functional diversity in general terms and then applies it to free-living aquatic ciliates. Ciliates are extremely versatile organisms and display an enormous functional diversity as key elements of pelagic food webs, acting as predators of bacteria, algae, other protists and even some metazoans. Planktonic ciliates are important food for zooplankton, and mixotrophic and functionally autotrophic species may significantly contribute to primary production in the ocean and in lakes...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564627/assessing-the-influence-of-confounding-biological-factors-when-estimating-bioaccumulation-of-pcbs-with-passive-samplers-in-aquatic-ecosystems
#16
Kaisa Figueiredo, Kimmo Mäenpää, Merja Lyytikäinen, Jouni Taskinen, Matti T Leppänen
Passive samplers are promising surrogates for organisms, mimicking bioaccumulation. However, several biological characteristics disturb the passive partitioning process in organisms by accelerating or restraining bioaccumulation, resulting in species-specific body residues of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). In addition to site-specific characteristics and HOC concentrations, age, sex, diet, biotransformation capability and habitat-specific characteristics may affect body residues. Two passive sampler types, polyethylene (PE) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were deployed in a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake water and sediment, respectively, to assess their bioaccumulation prediction capacity...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542872/classification-of-planctonema-like-algae-including-a-new-genus-planctonemopsis-gen-nov-a-new-species-planctonema-gelatinosum-sp-nov-and-a-reinstated-genus-psephonema-trebouxiophyceae-chlorophyta
#17
Xudong Liu, Huan Zhu, Benwen Liu, Guoxiang Liu, Zhengyu Hu
Planctonema-like species consist of planktonic green algae and are found throughout the world. Their characteristic morphology, which includes short and slender filaments consisting of side-by-side or distant cylindrical cells enclosed in a fine and hyaline sheath, makes them easily distinguishable. To date, Planctonema lauterbornii was the only taxon accepted for this group. However, descriptions from different materials have revealed notable morphological differences, including the presence/absence of a pyrenoid, a mucilage sheath and an apical thickening of the cell wall...
August 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539649/interspecies-interactions-reverse-the-hazard-of-antibiotics-exposure-a-plankton-community-study-on-responses-to-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#18
Changyou Wang, Ziyang Wang, Yong Zhang, Rongguo Su
The ecotoxicological effects of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) were tested on population densities of plankton assemblages consisting of two algae (Isochrysis galbana and Platymonas subcordiformis) and a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis). The I. galbana showed a significant decrease in densities when concentrations of CIP were above 2.0 mg L(-1) in single-species tests, while P. subcordiformis and B. plicatilis were stable in densities when CIP were less than10.0 mg L(-1). The equilibrium densities of I...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451768/invasive-planktivores-as-mediators-of-organic-matter-exchanges-within-and-across-ecosystems
#19
Scott F Collins, David H Wahl
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are an invasive planktivore that can greatly deplete planktonic resources. Due to the inefficient conversion of food into fish tissue, large portions of consumed materials are egested and shunted to benthic habitats. We explored how bighead carp alter pools of organic matter between planktonic and benthic habitats, and across ecosystem boundaries. Here, we report evidence from a manipulative experiment demonstrating that bighead carp greatly reapportion pools of organic matter from planktonic to benthic habitats to such a degree that additional effects propagated across ecological boundaries into terrestrial ecosystems...
June 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295286/predicting-coastal-algal-blooms-in-southern-california
#20
John A McGowan, Ethan R Deyle, Hao Ye, Melissa L Carter, Charles T Perretti, Kerri D Seger, Alain de Verneil, George Sugihara
The irregular appearance of planktonic algae blooms off the coast of southern California has been a source of wonder for over a century. Although large algal blooms can have significant negative impacts on ecosystems and human health, a predictive understanding of these events has eluded science, and many have come to regard them as ultimately random phenomena. However, the highly nonlinear nature of ecological dynamics can give the appearance of randomness and stress traditional methods-such as model fitting or analysis of variance-to the point of breaking...
March 10, 2017: Ecology
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