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planktonic algae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348571/high-resolution-time-series-reveals-cohesive-but-short-lived-communities-in-coastal-plankton
#1
Antonio M Martin-Platero, Brian Cleary, Kathryn Kauffman, Sarah P Preheim, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Eric J Alm, Martin F Polz
Because microbial plankton in the ocean comprise diverse bacteria, algae, and protists that are subject to environmental forcing on multiple spatial and temporal scales, a fundamental open question is to what extent these organisms form ecologically cohesive communities. Here we show that although all taxa undergo large, near daily fluctuations in abundance, microbial plankton are organized into clearly defined communities whose turnover is rapid and sharp. We analyze a time series of 93 consecutive days of coastal plankton using a technique that allows inference of communities as modular units of interacting taxa by determining positive and negative correlations at different temporal frequencies...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337262/longitudinal-patterns-and-response-lengths-of-algae-in-riverine-ecosystems-a-model-analysis-emphasising-benthic-pelagic-interactions
#2
Christoph G Jäger, Dietrich Borchardt
In riverine ecosystems primary production is principally possible in two habitats: in the benthic layer by sessile algae and in the surface water by planktonic algae being transported downstream. The relevance of these two habitats generally changes along the rivers' continuum. However, analyses of the interaction of algae in these two habitats and their controlling factors in riverine ecosystems are, so far, very rare. We use a simplified advection-diffusion model system combined with ecological process kinetics to analyse the interaction of benthic and planktonic algae and nutrients along idealised streams and rivers at regional to large scales...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313358/two-new-tricycloalternarene-esters-from-an-alga-epiphytic-isolate-of-alternaria-alternata
#3
Zhen-Zhen Shi, Sheng-Tao Fang, Feng-Ping Miao, Nai-Yun Ji
Two new tricycloalternarene-type meroterpenes, 17-O-methyltricycloalternarene D (1) and methyl nortricycloalternarate (4), and two known congeners, TCA D (2) and TCA 1b (3), were isolated from the culture of a marine red alga-epiphytic fungal strain (k21-1) of Alternaria alternata. The planar structures and relative configurations of these two new compounds were unequivocally identified by a combination of 1D/2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectra and by comparison with literature data, and the absolute configurations were assigned by analysis of ECD spectra...
January 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306396/variable-allelopathy-among-phytoplankton-reflected-in-red-tide-metabolome
#4
Remington X Poulin, Kelsey L Poulson-Ellestad, Jessie S Roy, Julia Kubanek
Harmful algae are known to utilize allelopathy, the release of compounds that inhibit competitors, as a form of interference competition. Competitor responses to allelopathy are species-specific and allelopathic potency of producing algae is variable. In the current study, the biological variability in allelopathic potency was mapped to the underlying chemical variation in the exuded metabolomes of five genetic strains of the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
January 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304142/-pomacytosis-semi-extracellular-phagocytosis-of-cyanobacteria-by-the-smallest-marine-algae
#5
Nina A Kamennaya, Gabrielle Kennaway, Bernhard M Fuchs, Mikhail V Zubkov
The smallest algae, less than 3 μm in diameter, are the most abundant eukaryotes of the World Ocean. Their feeding on planktonic bacteria of similar size is globally important but physically enigmatic. Tiny algal cells tightly packed with the voluminous chloroplasts, nucleus, and mitochondria appear to have insufficient organelle-free space for prey internalization. Here, we present the first direct observations of how the 1.3-μm algae, which are only 1.6 times bigger in diameter than their prey, hold individual Prochlorococcus cells in their open hemispheric cytostomes...
January 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204675/resting-stage-of-plankton%C3%A2-diversity-from-singapore%C3%A2-coastal-water-implications-for-harmful-algae-blooms-and-coastal-management
#6
Aurore Trottet, Bryan Wilson, Genevieve Sew Wei Xin, Christaline George, Lemuel Casten, Claire Schmoker, Nurul Syazana Binte Modh Rawi, Moon Chew Siew, Ole Larsen, Hans S Eikaas, Karenne Tun, Guillaume Drillet
Resting strategies of planktonic organisms are important for the ecological processes of coastal waters and their impacts should be taken into consideration in management of water bodies used by multiple industries. We combined different approaches to evaluate the importance of resting stages in Singapore coastal waters. We used molecular approaches to improve the knowledge on Singapore biodiversity, we sampled and extracted cysts from sediments to evaluate the density of resting stages in Johor Strait, and we compared systematically information on Singapore planktonic biodiversity to existing published information on resting stages from these reported organisms...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188598/influence-of-phoslock%C3%A2-on-legacy-phosphorus-nutrient-ratios-and-algal-assemblage-composition-in-hypereutrophic-water-resources
#7
West M Bishop, Robert J Richardson
Acceleration of eutrophication in freshwater resources can result in prolific growth of nuisance algae, notably cyanobacteria. In this research, we evaluated the ability of an in situ P binding technology (Phoslock®) to alter available water column and sediment P, and the subsequent impact on nutrient ratios and algal assemblage composition. Two golf course irrigation ponds with legacy nutrient loads and chronic cyanobacterial blooms were treated with Phoslock and monitored for 2 years post-treatment. Phoslock significantly (P < 0...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125250/ecological-characterization-of-aedes-aegypti-larval-habitats-diptera-culicidae-in-artificial-water-containers-in-girardot-colombia
#8
Diana C Garcia-Sánchez, Gabriel A Pinilla, Juliana Quintero
The establishment of habitats for immature Ae. aegypti is regulated by biotic and abiotic factors and interactions between these factors. This study aimed to determine the effects of physico-chemical variables and planktonic algae on immature Ae. aegypti habitats in 101 water tanks (50 of them containing Ae. aegypti pupae and/or larvae) in Girardot, Colombia. Physical data were collected from the water tanks (volume, capacity, material, detritus, and location), along with the physico-chemical variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, percentage of oxygen saturation, nitrates, nitrites, and orthophosphates)...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109703/the-temperature-dependence-of-phytoplankton-stoichiometry-investigating-the-roles-of-species-sorting-and-local-adaptation
#9
Gabriel Yvon-Durocher, Charlotte-Elisa Schaum, Mark Trimmer
The elemental composition of phytoplankton (C:N:P stoichiometry) is a critical factor regulating nutrient cycling, primary production and energy transfer through planktonic food webs. Our understanding of the multiple direct and indirect mechanisms through which temperature controls phytoplankton stoichiometry is however incomplete, increasing uncertainty in the impacts of global warming on the biogeochemical functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we use a decade-long warming experiment in outdoor freshwater ponds to investigate how temperature-driven turnover in species composition and shifts in stoichiometric traits within species through local thermal adaptation contribute to the effects of warming on seston stoichiometry...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107898/negative-effects-of-microplastic-exposure-on-growth-and-development-of-crepidula-onyx
#10
Hau Kwan Abby Lo, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Microplastics exposure could be detrimental to marine organisms especially under high concentrations. However, few studies have considered the multiphasic nature of marine invertebrates' life history and investigated the impact of experiencing microplastics during early development on post-metamorphic stages (legacy effect). Many planktonic larvae can feed selectively and it is unclear whether such selectivity could modulate the impact of algal food-sized microplastic. In this two-stage experiment, veligers of Crepidula onyx were first exposed to additions of algae-sized micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) beads at different concentrations, including ones that were comparable their algal diet...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070448/exposure-to-the-herbicide-2-4-d-produces-different-toxic-effects-in-two-different-phytoplankters-a-green-microalga-ankistrodesmus-falcatus-and-a-toxigenic-cyanobacterium-microcystis-aeruginosa
#11
Erika Berenice Martínez-Ruiz, Fernando Martínez-Jerónimo
The extensive use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) in agriculture is an important source of pollution to water and soil. Toxicity of commonly used herbicides to non-target, planktonic photosynthetic organisms has not been described completely yet. Therefore, we determined the effect of subinhibitory 2,4-D concentrations on the Chlorophycean alga Ankistrodesmus falcatus and on a toxigenic strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Population growth, photosynthetic pigments, macromolecular biomarkers (carbohydrates, lipids, and protein), and antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) were quantified, and the integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049944/bioaccumulation-and-effects-of-novel-chlorinated-polyfluorinated-ether-sulfonate-in-freshwater-alga-scenedesmus-obliquus
#12
Wei Liu, Jingwen Li, Lichen Gao, Zhou Zhang, Jing Zhao, Xin He, Xin Zhang
Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (Cl-PFESA) is a novel alternative compound for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), with its environmental risk not well known. The bioaccumulation and toxic effects of Cl-PFESA in the freshwater alga is crucial for the understanding of its potential hazards to the aquatic environment. Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Cl-PFESA at ng L(-1) to mg L(-1), with the exposure regime beginning at the environmentally relevant level. The total log BAF of Cl-PFESA in S. obliquus was 4...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027571/ingestion-and-egestion-of-microplastics-by-the-cladoceran-daphnia-magna-effects-of-regular-and-irregular-shaped-plastic-and-sorbed-phenanthrene
#13
Camilla Krogh Frydkjær, Niels Iversen, Peter Roslev
The presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems is of increasing global concern. This study investigated ingestion, egestion and acute effects of polyethylene microplastics in Daphnia magna. Fate of regular shaped microplastic beads (10-106 µm) were compared with irregular shaped microplastic fragments (10-75 µm). Daphnia magna ingested regular and irregular microplastic with uptake between 0.7 and 50 plastic particles/animal/day when exposed to microplastic concentrations of 0.0001-10 g/L. Egestion of irregular fragments was slower than that of microplastic beads...
October 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962989/applicability-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-on-monitoring-harmful-algae-at-varna-bay-in-the-black-sea
#14
Nina Dzhembekova, Shingo Urusizaki, Snejana Moncheva, Petya Ivanova, Satoshi Nagai
In this study the plankton diversity in 13 environmental samples from Varna Bay (in the western Black Sea) was analyzed using massively parallel sequencing (MPS). This preliminary study was undertaken to assess the potential of this technology for future implementation in monitoring programs in the Black Sea. Amplicon sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (V4-5 regions) were obtained using the Illumina MiSeq 250PE platform. A total of 1137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained among which 242 OTUs with >0...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962978/identification-of-unique-microbiomes-associated-with-harmful-algal-blooms-caused-by-alexandrium-fundyense-and-dinophysis-acuminata
#15
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Christopher J Gobler
Biotic interactions dominate plankton communities, yet the microbial consortia associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs) have not been well-described. Here, high-throughput amplicon sequencing of ribosomal genes was used to quantify the dynamics of bacterial (16S) and phytoplankton assemblages (18S) associated with blooms and cultures of two harmful algae, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata. Experiments were performed to assess changes in natural bacterial and phytoplankton communities in response to the filtrate from cultures of these two harmful algae...
September 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935906/resilience-of-the-larval-slipper-limpet-crepidula-onyx-to-direct-and-indirect-diet-effects-of-ocean-acidification
#16
Elizaldy A Maboloc, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Ocean acidification (OA) is known to directly impact larval physiology and development of many marine organisms. OA also affects the nutritional quality and palatability of algae, which are principal food sources for many types of planktonic larvae. This potential indirect effect of OA via trophic interactions, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, veligers of Crepidula onyx were exposed to different pH levels representing the ambient (as control) and low pH values (pH 7.7 and pH 7.3) for 14 days, and were fed with Isochrysis galbana cultured at these three respective pHs...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922804/hunting-for-agile-prey-trophic-specialisation-in-leptophryid-amoebae-vampyrellida-rhizaria-revealed-by-two-novel-predators-of-planktonic-algae
#17
Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellid amoebae (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems and consume a wide range of eukaryotes, e.g. algae, fungi and micrometazoa. Environmental sequences indicate that only a small fraction of their genetic diversity is phenotypically characterised, emphasising the need to further explore unknown vampyrellids and their interactions with prey organisms. This study tests the prey range specificity of three vampyrellid amoebae with 49 strains of three common groups of freshwater algae (Zygnematophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Volvocales), and documents specific interactions by time-lapse microscopy...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856804/strain-specific-consumption-and-transformation-of-alga-derived-dissolved-organic-matter-by-members-of-the-limnohabitans-c-and-polynucleobacter-b-clusters-of-betaproteobacteria
#18
Karel Horňák, Vojtěch Kasalický, Karel Šimek, Hans-Peter Grossart
We investigated changes in quality and quantity of extracellular and biomass-derived organic matter (OM) from three axenic algae (genera Rhodomonas, Chlamydomonas, Coelastrum) during growth of Limnohabitans parvus, Limnohabitans planktonicus and Polynucleobacter acidiphobus representing important clusters of freshwater planktonic Betaproteobacteria. Total extracellular and biomass-derived OM concentrations from each alga were approximately 20 mg l(-1) and 1 mg l(-1) respectively, from which up to 9% could be identified as free carbohydrates, polyamines, or free and combined amino acids...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836786/sesteralterin-and-tricycloalterfurenes-a-d-terpenes-with-rarely-occurring-frameworks-from-the-marine-alga-epiphytic-fungus-alternaria-alternata-k21-1
#19
Zhen-Zhen Shi, Feng-Ping Miao, Sheng-Tao Fang, Xiang-Hong Liu, Xiu-Li Yin, Nai-Yun Ji
A new sesterterpene, sesteralterin (1), four new meroterpenes, tricycloalterfurenes A-D (2-5), and a known meroterpene, TCA-F (6), were obtained from the culture extract of an Alternaria alternata strain (k21-1) isolated from the surface of the marine red alga Lomentaria hakodatensis. The structures and relative/absolute configurations of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses, mainly including 1D/2D NMR, ECD, and mass spectra and quantum chemical calculations. Compound 1 represents the first nitidasane sesterterpene naturally produced by fungi, and 2-5 feature a tetrahydrofuran unit rarely occurring in tricycloalternarenes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813409/the-rise-of-algae-in-cryogenian-oceans-and-the-emergence-of-animals
#20
Jochen J Brocks, Amber J M Jarrett, Eva Sirantoine, Christian Hallmann, Yosuke Hoshino, Tharika Liyanage
The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth's history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago)...
August 31, 2017: Nature
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