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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691995/phylogeography-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-indonesia
#1
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691708/generation-of-insulin-deficient-piglets-by-disrupting-ins-gene-using-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Bumrae Cho, Su Jin Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Mi Ahn, Jin Seok Lee, Dal-Young Ji, Kiho Lee, Jung-Taek Kang
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with accompanying severe complications. Various animal models, mostly rodents due to availability of genetically modified lines, have been used to investigate the pathophysiology of diabetes. Using pigs for diabetic research can be beneficial because of their similarity in size, pathogenesis pathway, physiology, and metabolism with human. However, the use of pigs for diabetes research has been hampered due to only few pig models presenting diabetes symptoms. In this study, we have successfully generated insulin-deficient pigs by generating the indels of the porcine INS gene in somatic cells using CRISPR/Cas9 system followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer...
April 24, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691705/retinal-dysfunction-in-a-presymptomatic-patient-with-huntington-s-disease
#3
Jonelle Knapp, Dean A VanNasdale, Keith Ramsey, Julie Racine
PURPOSE: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Studies have shown retinal abnormalities in patients and mouse models with HD; however, to our knowledge, no prior research papers evaluated retinal structure and function in a presymptomatic patient with HD. The aim of this report is to present a case of retinal dysfunction in a presymptomatic patient with HD...
April 24, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691668/introduction-to-working-across-species
#4
EDITORIAL
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691584/high-level-of-mn-in-brain-is-a-risk-for-alzheimer-disease
#5
Qin Yu, Yuan-Zhong Zhou
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element in the human body. It can enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Excessive accumulation of Mn in the brain may disturb the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment and cause severe neuronal damage. The most recent data suggest that excessive Mn is associated with impaired learning and memory in animal models, and may lead to irreversible and progressive mild cognitive impairment and AD...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691525/multiple-mechanisms-applied-by-lactobacillus-pentosus-at6-to-mute-the-lethal-effects-of-salmonella-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Junsheng Liu, Zhennan Gu, Wenwei Lu, Diangeng Hu, Xi Zhao, Hongxuan Huang, Hao Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Wei Chen
Probiotics are now prevalent world-wide, as functional food supplements with many benefits for humans and animals, such as protective effects against pathogenic infection. We showed that oral supplementation of Lactobacillus pentosus AT6 (AT6) decreased the mortality rate of mice with Salmonella infection. A series of experiments showed that the protective effects of AT6 on mice involved multiple mechanisms, including (1) the inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium growth by AT6 or its cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs); (2) the reduction of the bacterial loads of Salmonella Typhimurium in intestinal contents and internal organs, such as the liver and spleen; (3) the inhibition of adhesion and invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium into intestinal epithelial cells; and (4) the regulation of host immunities by modifying the production of a chain of cytokines...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691457/metabolic-and-cardiac-adaptation-to-chronic-pharmacologic-blockade-of-facilitative-glucose-transport-in-murine-dilated-cardiomyopathy-and-myocardial-ischemia
#7
Monique R Heitmeier, Maria A Payne, Carla Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Richard C Hresko, Patrick Y Jay, Paul W Hruz
GLUT transgenic and knockout mice have provided valuable insight into the role of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but compensatory physiological changes can hinder interpretation of these models. To determine whether adaptations occur in response to GLUT inhibition in the failing adult heart, we chronically treated TG9 mice, a transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, with the GLUT inhibitor ritonavir. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved with chronic treatment and correlated with decreased adipose tissue retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691440/maternal-imprinting-on-cognition-markers-of-wild-type-and-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice
#8
Marta Zamarbide, Francisco J Gil-Bea, Paul Bannenberg, Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Juan Sandoval, Rafael Franco, Alberto Pérez-Mediavilla
The risk of suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is higher in individuals from AD-affected mothers. The purpose of this investigation was to study whether maternal transmission might produce AD-related alterations in progenies of mice that do not have any genotypic alteration. We used cognitively-intact mothers harbouring in heterozygosity the transgene for overexpressing the Swedish double mutant version of the human amyloid precursor protein (hAβPPswe). The phenotype of the offspring with or without the transgene resulting from crossing young Tg2576 females with wild-type males were compared with those of the offspring resulting from crossing wild-type females with Tg2576 males...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691416/virus-encoded-mirnas-in-ebola-virus-disease
#9
Janice Duy, Anna N Honko, Louis A Altamura, Sandra L Bixler, Suzanne Wollen-Roberts, Nadia Wauquier, Aileen O'Hearn, Eric M Mucker, Joshua C Johnson, Joshua D Shamblin, Justine Zelko, Miriam A Botto, James Bangura, Moinya Coomber, M Louise Pitt, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp, Arthur J Goff, Timothy D Minogue
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative-strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and causes an often-fatal hemorrhagic fever. EBOV, like other viruses, can reportedly encode its own microRNAs (miRNAs) to subvert host immune defenses. miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by hybridizing to multiple mRNAs, and viral miRNAs can enhance viral replication and infectivity by regulating host or viral genes. To date, only one EBOV miRNA has been examined in human infection. Here, we assayed mouse, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, and human samples infected with three EBOV variants for twelve computationally predicted viral miRNAs using RT-qPCR...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691406/feed-forward-alpha-particle-radiotherapy-ablates-androgen-receptor-addicted-prostate-cancer
#10
Michael R McDevitt, Daniel L J Thorek, Takeshi Hashimoto, Tatsuo Gondo, Darren R Veach, Sai Kiran Sharma, Teja Muralidhar Kalidindi, Diane S Abou, Philip A Watson, Bradley J Beattie, Oskar Vilhemsson Timmermand, Sven-Erik Strand, Jason S Lewis, Peter T Scardino, Howard I Scher, Hans Lilja, Steven M Larson, David Ulmert
Human kallikrein peptidase 2 (hK2) is a prostate specific enzyme whose expression is governed by the androgen receptor (AR). AR is the central oncogenic driver of prostate cancer (PCa) and is also a key regulator of DNA repair in cancer. We report an innovative therapeutic strategy that exploits the hormone-DNA repair circuit to enable molecularly-specific alpha particle irradiation of PCa. Alpha-particle irradiation of PCa is prompted by molecularly specific-targeting and internalization of the humanized monoclonal antibody hu11B6 targeting hK2 and further accelerated by inherent DNA-repair that up-regulate hK2 (KLK2) expression in vivo...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691368/a-novel-sigb-q225p-mutation-in-staphylococcus-aureus-retains-virulence-but-promotes-biofilm-formation
#11
Hui Liu, Weilong Shang, Zhen Hu, Ying Zheng, Jizhen Yuan, Qiwen Hu, Huagang Peng, Xinyu Cai, Li Tan, Shu Li, Junmin Zhu, Ming Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao, Yi Yang
Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that produces abundant virulence factors, which cause various diseases that burden human health worldwide. The stress response regulon called sigma factor B (SigB) is a well-characterized global regulator that is involved in the regulation of S. aureus virulence, pigmentation, and biofilm formation. However, the regulatory network upon SigB in S. aureus is incompletely described. Here, we identified a novel substitution mutation, SigB(Q225P), which contributed the nonpigmented phenotype of S...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691365/plasma-inflammatory-cytokines-and-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#12
A Babic, N Schnure, N P Neupane, M M Zaman, N Rifai, M W Welch, L K Brais, D A Rubinson, V Morales-Oyarvide, C Yuan, S Zhang, E M Poole, B M Wolpin, M H Kulke, D A Barbie, K Wong, C S Fuchs, K Ng
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation and inflammatory conditions have been associated with pancreatic cancer risk and progression in a number of clinical, epidemiological, and animal model studies. The goal of the present study is to identify plasma markers of inflammation associated with survival of pancreatic cancer patients, and assess their joint contribution to patient outcome. METHODS: We measured circulating levels of four established markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII), and macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1)) in 446 patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective clinic-based study...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691329/striatal-direct-and-indirect-pathway-output-structures-are-differentially-altered-in-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Joshua Barry, Garnik Akopian, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine
The present study examined synaptic communication between direct and indirect output pathway striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and their target structures, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the external globus pallidus (GPe) in two mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD). Cre-recombination, optogenetics, and whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used to determine alterations in intrinsic and synaptic properties of SNr and GPe neurons from both male and female symptomatic R6/2 (>60 days) and pre- (2 months) or symptomatic (10-12 months) YAC128 mice...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691120/neuroprotective-effect-of-nrf2-activator-dimethyl-fumarate-on-the-hippocampal-neurons-in-chemical-kindling-model-in-rat
#14
Neha Singh, Sheekha Vijayanti, Lekha Saha, Alka Bhatia, Dibyajyoti Banerjee, Amitava Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor, which activates the anti-oxidative stress response pathway. In epilepsy, oxidative stress is one of the key factors in the progression of the disease. So, the neuroprotective role of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a Nrf2 pathway activator was explored in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of epilepsy in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to different doses of DMF (15, 30, 60 mg/kg) to evaluate the effect on the PTZ induced kindling in rats...
April 21, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691119/ex-situ-liver-perfusion-organ-preservation-into-the-future
#15
REVIEW
Mariusz Bral, Boris Gala-Lopez, David L Bigam, Darren H Freed, A M James Shapiro
In recent years, remarkable progress has occurred in the development of technologies to support ex situ liver perfusion. Building upon extensive preclinical studies in large animal models, pilot and randomized clinical trials have been initiated, and preliminary outcomes suggest more optimal protection of both standard and extended criteria liver grafts. There currently exists an incredible opportunity and need to further refine this technology, determine appropriate viability measures to predict usable liver grafts, and to explore potent protective additive strategies to further optimize the quality of extended criteria organs...
April 5, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690955/analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-buprenorphine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#16
Lana Fox, Christoph Mans
Buprenorphine is routinely used in chinchillas at reported doses of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg IM or SC. However, these dose recommendations are based on anecdotal reports or extrapolation from studies in other species. Therefore, the purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of subcutaneously administered buprenorphine in chinchillas. Using arandomized, blind, controlled, complete crossover design, we evaluated buprenorphine at a single dose of 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg SC (experiment A) and 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690919/lack-of-human-like-extracellular-sortilin-neuropathology-in-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-and-macaques
#17
Feng-Qin Zhou, Juan Jiang, Chelsea M Griffith, Peter R Patrylo, Huaibin Cai, Yaping Chu, Xiao-Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder bearing multiple pathological hallmarks suggestive of complex cellular/molecular interplay during pathogenesis. Transgenic mice and nonhuman primates are used as disease models for mechanistic and translational research into AD; the extent to which these animal models recapitulate AD-type neuropathology is an issue of importance. Putative C-terminal fragments from sortilin, a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family, have recently been shown to deposit in the neuritic β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the human brain...
April 24, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690918/modelling-steroidogenesis-a-framework-model-to-support-hypothesis-generation-and-testing-across-endocrine-studies
#18
Laura O'Hara, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Tom C Freeman, Lee B Smith
OBJECTIVE: Steroid hormones are responsible for the control of a wide range of physiological processes such as development, growth, reproduction, metabolism, and aging. Because of the variety of enzymes, substrates and products that take part in steroidogenesis and the compartmentalisation of its constituent reactions, it is a complex process to visualise and document. One of the goals of systems biology is to quantitatively describe the behaviour of complex biological systems that involve the interaction of many components...
April 24, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690905/resolution-of-bleomycin-induced-murine-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-a-splenic-lymphocyte-subpopulation
#19
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Kuniko Matsuda, Jiro Usuki, Minoru Inomata, Akemi Morinaga, Takeru Kashiwada, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Hiroki Hayashi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with high mortality, and the pathogenesis of the disease is still incompletely understood. Although lymphocytes, especially CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), have been implicated in the development of IPF, contradictory results have been reported regarding the contribution of Tregs to fibrosis both in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a specific T cell subset has therapeutic potential in inhibiting bleomycin (BLM)-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis...
April 24, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690884/capsaicin-enriched-diet-ameliorates-autoimmune-neuritis-in-rats
#20
Jeremias Motte, Björn Ambrosius, Thomas Grüter, Hussein Bachir, Melissa Sgodzai, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Ralf Gold
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune neuropathies are common PNS disorders and effective treatment is challenging. Environmental influence and dietary components are known to affect the course of autoimmune diseases. Capsaicin as pungent component of chili-peppers is common in human nutrition. An influence of capsaicin on autoimmune diseases has been postulated. METHODS: We tested capsaicin in the animal model of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) in Lewis rat. Rats were immunized with P2-peptide and were treated with capsaicin in different preventive settings...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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