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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#1
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830096/using-murine-colitis-models-to-analyze-probiotics-host-interactions
#2
Rebeca Martín, Florian Chain, Sylvie Miquel, Jean-Paul Motta, Nathalie Vergnolle, Harry Sokol, Philippe Langella
Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. So, to consider a microorganism as a probiotic, a demonstrable beneficial effect on the health host should be shown as well as an adequate defined safety status and the capacity to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and to storage conditions. In this review, we present an overview of the murine colitis models currently employed to test the beneficial effect of the probiotic strains as well as an overview of the probiotics already tested...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830081/exposure-to-farm-animals-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-in-the-agrican-cohort
#3
Séverine Tual, Clémentine Lemarchand, Mathilde Boulanger, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Bernard Rachet, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Michel Velten, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Bénédicte Clin, Isabelle Baldi, Pierre Lebailly
Epidemiologic studies have found lower risks of lung cancer in farmers. However, little is known about the types of agricultural activities concerned. In the Agriculture and Cancer cohort, we assessed the relationship between animal farming and lung cancer by investigating the types of animals, tasks, and timing of exposure. Analyses included 170,834 participants from the Agriculture and Cancer (AGRICAN) cohort in France. Incident lung cancers were identified through linkage with cancer registries from enrollment (2005-2007) to 2011...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830069/accelerated-in-vivo-wound-healing-evaluation-of-microbial-glycolipid-containing-ointment-as-a-transdermal-substitute
#4
Sonam Gupta, Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Ritu Varshney, I M Banat, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Parul A Pruthi, Vikas Pruthi
A potent biosurfactant (BS) producing Bacillus licheniformis SV1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. KX130852) was isolated from oil contaminated soil sample. Physicochemical investigations (TLC, HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and NMR) revealed it to be glycolipid in nature. Fibroblast culture assay showed cytocompatibility and increased cell proliferation of 3T3/NIH fibroblast cells treated with this biosurfactant when checked using MTT assay and DAPI fluorescent staining. To evaluate the wound healing potential, BS ointment was formulated and checked for its spreadability and viscosity consistency...
August 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829783/usa-national-phenology-network-s-volunteer-contributed-observations-yield-predictive-models-of-phenological-transitions
#5
Theresa M Crimmins, Michael A Crimmins, Katharine L Gerst, Alyssa H Rosemartin, Jake F Weltzin
PURPOSE: In support of science and society, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) maintains a rapidly growing, continental-scale, species-rich dataset of plant and animal phenology observations that with over 10 million records is the largest such database in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the potential that exists in the broad and rich volunteer-collected dataset maintained by the USA-NPN for constructing models predicting the timing of phenological transition across species' ranges within the continental United States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829771/mitochondria-and-lipid-raft-located-fof1-atp-synthase-as-major-therapeutic-targets-in-the-antileishmanial-and-anticancer-activities-of-ether-lipid-edelfosine
#6
Janny A Villa-Pulgarín, Consuelo Gajate, Javier Botet, Alberto Jimenez, Nicole Justies, Rubén E Varela-M, Álvaro Cuesta-Marbán, Ingrid Müller, Manuel Modolell, José L Revuelta, Faustino Mollinedo
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is the world's second deadliest parasitic disease after malaria, and current treatment of the different forms of this disease is far from satisfactory. Alkylphospholipid analogs (APLs) are a family of anticancer drugs that show antileishmanial activity, including the first oral drug (miltefosine) for leishmaniasis and drugs in preclinical/clinical oncology trials, but their precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the tumor cell apoptosis-inducer edelfosine was the most effective APL, as compared to miltefosine, perifosine and erucylphosphocholine, in killing Leishmania spp...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829747/mid-term-performance-of-a-novel-restorative-pulmonary-valved-conduit-preclinical-results
#7
Osama I I Soliman, Yosuke Miyazaki, Mohammad Abdelghani, Marieke Brugmans, Maarten Witsenburg, Yoshinobu Onuma, Martijn Cox, Patrick W Serruys
AIMS: A bioabsorbable pulmonary valved-conduit (XPV), designed to guide functional restoration patients own tissue, is potentially more durable than current pulmonary bioprosthetic valves/valved-conduits. The aim of this study was to assess the hemodynamic performance of the novel XPV implanted in an ovine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: The XPV was surgically implanted in adult sheep under general anaesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass (XPV-group, n=20). Sheep that received a Hancock bioprosthetic pulmonary valved-conduit served as a control group (HPV-group, n=3)...
August 22, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829744/safety-and-feasibility-of-selective-intracoronary-hypothermia-in-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Luuk C Otterspoor, Marcel van 't Veer, Lokien X van Nunen, Guus R G Brueren, Pim A L Tonino, Inge F Wijnbergen, Harold Helmes, Frederik M Zimmermann, Eduard Van Hagen, Nils P Johnson, Nico H J Pijls
AIMS: Hypothermia reduces reperfusion injury and infarct size in animal models of acute myocardial infarction if started before reperfusion. Human studies have not confirmed benefit, probably due to insufficient myocardial cooling and adverse systemic effects. This study assessed safety and feasibility of a novel method for selective, sensor- monitored intracoronary hypothermia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were included...
August 22, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829738/case-report-severe-and-complicated-cynomolgi-malaria-in-a-rhesus-macaque-resulted-in-similar-histopathological-changes-as-those-seen-in-human-malaria
#9
Chester J Joyner, The MaHPIC Consortium, Jennifer S Wood, Alberto Moreno, Anapatricia Garcia, Mary R Galinski
Histopathological data collected from patients with severe malaria have been instrumental for studying malaria pathogenesis. Animal models of malaria are critical to complement such studies. Here, the histopathological changes observed in a rhesus macaque with severe and complicated Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria are reported. The animal presented with thrombocytopenia, severe anemia, and hyperparasitemia during the acute infection. The macaque was given subcurative antimalarial treatment, fluid support, and a blood transfusion to treat the clinical complications, but at the time of transfusion, kidney function was compromised...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829432/rat-model-of-the-associating-liver-partition-and-portal-vein-ligation-for-staged-hepatectomy-alpps-procedure
#10
Erik Schadde, Martin Hertl, Stefan Breitenstein, Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, Martin Schläpfer
Recent clinical data support an aggressive surgical approach to both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For some indications, like colorectal liver metastases, the amount of liver tissue left behind after liver resection has become the main limiting factor of resectability of large or multiple liver tumors. A minimal amount of functional tissue is required to avoid the severe complication of post-hepatectomy liver failure, which has high morbidity and mortality. Inducing liver growth of the prospective remnant prior to resection has become more established in liver surgery, either in the form of portal vein embolization by interventional radiologists or in the form of portal vein ligation several weeks prior to resection...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829425/real-time-in-vivo-recording-of-arabidopsis-calcium-signals-during-insect-feeding-using-a-fluorescent-biosensor
#11
Thomas R Vincent, James Canham, Masatsugu Toyota, Marieta Avramova, Sam T Mugford, Simon Gilroy, Anthony J Miller, Saskia Hogenhout, Dale Sanders
Calcium ions are predicted to be key signaling entities during biotic interactions, with calcium signaling forming an established part of the plant defense response to microbial elicitors and to wounding caused by chewing insects, eliciting systemic calcium signals in plants. However, the role of calcium in vivo during biotic stress is still unclear. This protocol describes the use of a genetically-encoded calcium sensor to detect calcium signals in plants during feeding by a hemipteran pest. Hemipterans such as aphids pierce a small number of cells with specialized, elongated sucking mouthparts, making them the ideal tool to study calcium dynamics when a plant is faced with a biotic stress, which is distinct from a wounding response...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829423/multi-photon-time-lapse-imaging-to-visualize-development-in-real-time-visualization-of-migrating-neural-crest-cells-in-zebrafish-embryos
#12
Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Congenital eye and craniofacial anomalies reflect disruptions in the neural crest, a transient population of migratory stem cells that give rise to numerous cell types throughout the body. Understanding the biology of the neural crest has been limited, reflecting a lack of genetically tractable models that can be studied in vivo and in real-time. Zebrafish is a particularly important developmental model for studying migratory cell populations, such as the neural crest. To examine neural crest migration into the developing eye, a combination of the advanced optical techniques of laser scanning microscopy with long wavelength multi-photon fluorescence excitation was implemented to capture high-resolution, three-dimensional, real-time videos of the developing eye in transgenic zebrafish embryos, namely Tg(sox10:EGFP) and Tg(foxd3:GFP), as sox10 and foxd3 have been shown in numerous animal models to regulate early neural crest differentiation and likely represent markers for neural crest cells...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829422/development-of-a-refined-protocol-for-trans-scleral-subretinal-transplantation-of-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-into-rat-eyes
#13
Cuiping Zhao, Nathan C Boles, Justine D Miller, Suzanne Kawola, Sally Temple, Richard J Davis, Jeffrey H Stern
Degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide. AMD is characterized by the degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are a monolayer of cells functionally supporting and anatomically wrapping around the neural retina. Current pharmacological treatments for the non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) only slow down the disease progression but cannot restore vision, necessitating studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic strategies...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829421/electroconvulsive-seizures-in-rats-and-fractionation-of-their-hippocampi-to-examine-seizure-induced-changes-in-postsynaptic-density-proteins
#14
Sung-Soo Jang, Han Gil Jeong, Hee Jung Chung
Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) is an experimental animal model of electroconvulsive therapy, the most effective treatment for severe depression. ECS induces generalized tonic-clonic seizures with low mortality and neuronal death and is a widely-used model to screen anti-epileptic drugs. Here, we describe an ECS induction method in which a brief 55-mA current is delivered for 0.5 s to male rats 200 - 250 g in weight via ear-clip electrodes. Such bilateral stimulation produced stage 4 - 5 clonic seizures that lasted about 10 s...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829409/surgical-angiogenesis-in-porcine-tibial-allotransplantation-a-new-large-animal-bone-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-model
#15
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Caroline A Hundepool, Joost I Willems, Patricia Friedrich, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop
Segmental bone loss resulting from trauma, infection malignancy and congenital anomaly remains a major reconstructive challenge. Current therapeutic options have significant risk of failure and substantial morbidity. Use of bone vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) would offer both a close match of resected bone size and shape and the healing and remodeling potential of living bone. At present, life-long drug immunosuppression (IS) is required. Organ toxicity, opportunistic infection and neoplasm risks are of concern to treat such non-lethal indications...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829398/prevention-and-therapy-of-type-2-diabetes-what-is-the-potential-of-daily-water-intake-and-its-mineral-nutrients
#16
REVIEW
Johannes Naumann, Diana Biehler, Tania Lüty, Catharina Sadaghiani
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion...
August 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829253/o-nyong-nyong-fever-a-neglected-mosquito-borne-viral-disease
#17
Giovanni Rezza, Rubing Chen, Scott C Weaver
O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former...
August 22, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829233/hydroethanolic-extract-of-psidium-guajava-leaf-for-induced-osteoarthritis-using-a-guinea-pig-model
#18
N Tanideh, Z Zare, A Jamshidzadeh, M Lotfi, Negar Azarpira, M Sepehrimanesh, O Koohi-Hosseinabadi
We investigated the therapeutic effects of an extract of Psidium guajava (guava) leaf on experimentally induced osteoarthritis in guinea pig. The left knee of 30 male guinea pigs was anesthetized and the cranial cruciate ligament was severed. The animals were followed for 8 weeks until osteoarthritis was confirmed by radiography and histopathology. Animals were divided randomly into five groups; group 1, the ligament was severed and untreated; group 2, the ligament was severed and treated with piascledine, an extract of soybean and avocado; group 3, the ligament was severed and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; group 4, the ligament was severed and treated with 400 mg/kg hydroethanolic extract of guava; and group 5, control animals without surgery or extracts...
August 22, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828678/novel-drug-delivery-of-dual-acting-prodrugs-of-hydroxychloroquine-with-aryl-acetic-acid-nsaids-design-kinetics-and-pharmacological-study
#19
Joshi Poorvashree, Dhaneshwar Suneela
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by restricted movements of joints of hand, feet, elbow, knees and neck but principally the synovial joints. Though etiopathology is not exactly known, treatment paradigms are evolving to provide a tighter control over symptoms and disease progression. Current trend is introduction of disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs) at early stages. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two mechanistically different categories widely used in the management of RA where the first arrests the disease progression while the latter offers symptomatic relief...
August 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828676/therapeutic-applications-of-extracellular-vesicles-perspectives-from-newborn-medicine
#20
Gareth R Willis, Stella Kourembanas, S Alex Mitsialis
With the advancements in antenatal steroid therapies and surfactant replacement, current clinical practices in neonatal intensive care units allow the survival of infants at very low gestational age. Despite these advances, there continues to be significant morbidity associated with extreme preterm birth that includes both short-term and long-term cardiorespiratory impairment. With no effective single therapy in preventing or treating developmental lung injuries, the need for new tools to treat and reduce risk of complications associated with extreme preterm birth is urgent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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