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Animal models

Luis Schiper, Bluma Linkowski Faintuch, Roberto José da Silva Badaró, Erica Aparecida de Oliveira, Victor E Arana Chavez, Elisangela Chinen, Joel Faintuch
OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Davide Croci, Edin Nevzati, Hiroki Danura, Salome Schöpf, Javier Fandino, Serge Marbacher, Carl Muroi
BACKGROUND: In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), occurrence of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) mediated by endothelin (ET)-1 might be a result of a compartmental inflammatory response with interleukin (IL)-6 release. We aim to investigate the relationship between ET-1 and IL-6 in association of CVS. METHODS: A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits where randomly allocated into 3 groups: SAH (n=10), IL-6 (n=10), and sham (n=4). SAH was induced by a closed cranium extracranial-intracranial shunt model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Lee H Jeon, Eric W Sankey, Jennifer Lu, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Joshua A Crawford, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jiadi Xu, Ari Blitz, Daniel A Herzka, Barbara Crain, Alicia Hulbert, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, James P McAllister, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniele Rigamonti
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of adult chronic hydrocephalus is not fully understood, and the temporal relationship between development of the radiological changes and neurological deterioration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the progression of radiological-histological changes and subsequent clinical manifestations of adult chronic hydrocephalus. METHODS: Kaolin was injected bilaterally into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities in 20 adult rats...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Jochen-Frederick Hernekamp, Florian Neubrech, Tomke Cordts, Volker J Schmidt, Ulrich Kneser, Thomas Kremer
PURPOSE: The clinical course after major burns is characterized by microcirculatory changes and consecutive capillary leakage. However, current clinical monitoring does not properly assess microcirculation, whereas macrohemodynamic changes are continuously evaluated. Here, we assess if macrohemodynamic and microhemodynamic parameters after burn trauma are correlated in a rat model. METHODS: Burn plasma harvested from donor rats 4 hours after thermal injury (30% total body surface area, 100 °C water, 12 seconds) was administered intravenously to healthy animals during 2 hours of intravital microscopy (burn group [BG])...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Mariusz Papp, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Paul Willner
Ketamine is the prototype of a new generation of antidepressant drugs, which is reported in clinical studies to be effective in treatment-resistant patients, with an effect that appears within hours and lasts for a few days. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a well-established and widely used animal model of depression, in which anhedonia, anxiogenesis and cognitive dysfunction can be observed reliably. Studies using acute or brief ketamine treatment following withdrawal from CMS have replicated the clinical finding of a rapid onset of antidepressant action...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Mei Liu
AIM: To examine if rubusoside (RUB) can overcome insolubility of betulonic acid (BEA), it can be accurately evaluated for its intrinsic activity against cancer in cell culture and in tumor animal models. MATERIALS & METHODS: By processing RUB and BEA together using a solvent evaporation method, a joint nanoparticulate structure is formed, designated as BEA-NP. RESULTS: BEA-NP was found over three-times more permeable than that solubilized by DMSO in Caco-2 cell monocultures...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Ruijie D Teo, Jae Youn Hwang, John Termini, Zeev Gross, Harry B Gray
Corroles are exceptionally promising platforms for the development of agents for simultaneous cancer-targeting imaging and therapy. Depending on the element chelated by the corrole, these theranostic agents may be tuned primarily for diagnostic or therapeutic function. Versatile synthetic methodologies allow for the preparation of amphipolar derivatives, which form stable noncovalent conjugates with targeting biomolecules. These conjugates can be engineered for imaging and targeting as well as therapeutic function within one theranostic assembly...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jinge Yang, Dan Wu, Yong Tang, Huabei Jiang
Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
David Louis Borchers, Martin James Cox
Conventional distance sampling (CDS) methods assume that animals are uniformly distributed in the vicinity of lines or points. But when animals move in response to observers before detection, or when lines or points are not located randomly, this assumption may fail. By formulating distance sampling models as survival models, we show that using time to first detection in addition to perpendicular distance (line transect surveys) or radial distance (point transect surveys) allows estimation of detection probability, and hence density, when animal distribution in the vicinity of lines or points is not uniform and is unknown...
October 17, 2016: Biometrics
Ricarda A L Menke, Federica Agosta, Julian Grosskreutz, Massimo Filippi, Martin R Turner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Christopher W Mangieri, Jason C McCartt, Matthew A Strode, John E Lowry, Prasad M Balakrishna
BACKGROUND: As hepatic surgery has become safer and more commonly performed, the extent of hepatic resections has increased. When there is not enough expected hepatic reserve to facilitate primary resection of hepatic tumors, a clinical adjunct to facilitating primary resection is portal vein embolization (PVE). PVE allows the hepatic remnant to increase to an appropriate size prior to resection via hepatocyte regeneration; however, PVE is not always successful in facilitating adequate regeneration...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Jie Dai, Jun Zhou, Hongmei Liu, Kaixun Huang
Selenite and ebselen supplementation has been shown to possess anti-cataract potential in some experimental animal models of cataract, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-cataract effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite and ebselen supplementation on galactose induced cataract in rats, a common animal model of sugar cataract. Transmission electron microscopy images of lens fiber cells (LFC) and lens epithelial cells (LEC) were observed in D-galactose-induced experimental cataractous rats treated with or without selenite and ebselen, also redox homeostasis and expression of proteins such as selenoprotein R (SELR), 15kD selenoprotein (SEP15), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), β-crystallin protein, aldose reductase (AR) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) were estimated in the lenses...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Ioannis Manolaras, Elaine E Irvine, Michael Dieringer, Antonio Trabalza, Nicholas D Mazarakis
OBJECTIVE: We have previously described the generation of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (α CAR)-targeted vector, and shown that intramuscular delivery in mouse leg muscles resulted in specific retrograde transduction of lumbar-motor neurons (MNs). Here, we utilized the α CAR-targeted vector to investigate the in vivo neuroprotective effects of lentivirally expressed IGF-1 for inducing neuronal survival and ameliorating the neuropathology and behavioral phenotypes of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Su Jin Kang, Ji Yeon Seo, Kye Man Cho, Chang Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwan Kim, Jong-Sang Kim
A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Keith E Pearson, Virginia G Wadley, Leslie A McClure, James M Shikany, Fred W Unverzagt, Suzanne E Judd
Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem
Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Z H Wang, W Zhang, Y Q Zhang, C Y Pang, Y F Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of CD40 siRNA on expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4 and anti-dsDNA antibody of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) animal model MRL/Lpr mice and to discuss its therapy on MRL/Lpr mice. METHODS: In the study, 16 female MRL/Lpr mice were randomly divided into control group (n=4), empty vector group (n=4), CD40-siRNA1 group (n=4) and CD40-siRNA2 group (n=4). The vectors expressing siRNA against CD40 were injected by tail veil into MRL/Lpr mice, while MRL/Lpr mice in control group and empty vector group were injected with the same dose of PBS and pGFP-V-RS vector respectively...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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