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Kynurenin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731451/novel-blood-based-biomarkers-of-cognition-stress-and-physical-or-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-bdnf-irisin-and-the-kynurenine-pathway
#1
Olivia C Küster, Daria Laptinskaya, Patrick Fissler, Cathrin Schnack, Martina Zügel, Verena Nold, Franka Thurm, Sina Pleiner, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Björn von Einem, Patrick Weydt, Andre Liesener, Andreas Borta, Alexander Woll, Bastian Hengerer, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim
 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Furthermore, changes in serum concentrations of BDNF, irisin, and KP metabolites were investigated after physical or cognitive training...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730706/chromatographic-profiles-of-tryptophan-and-kynurenine-enantiomers-derivatized-with-s-4-3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl-7-n-n-dimethylaminosulfonyl-2-1-3-benzoxadiazole-using-lc-ms-ms-on-a-triazole-bonded-column
#2
Hideaki Iizuka, Takahiro Harashima, Shuhei Takahashi, Ryosuke Kuwabara, Yoko Naito, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Mayu Onozato, Hideaki Ichiba, Takeshi Fukushima
d- and l-Tryptophan (Trp) and d- and l-kynurenine (KYN) were derivatized with a chiral reagent, (S)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PyNCS), and were separated enantiomerically by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a triazole-bonded column (Cosmosil HILIC) using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection. Effects of column temperature, salt (HCO2 NH4 ) concentration, and pH of the mobile phase in the enantiomeric separation, followed by MS detection of (S)-DBD-PyNCS-d,l-Trp and -d,l-KYN, were investigated...
July 21, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727234/kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-that-accumulates-with-age-induces-bone-loss
#3
Mona El Refaey, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Sadanand Fulzele, Eileen J Kennedy, Wendy B Bollag, Mohammed Elsalanty, Qing Zhong, Ke-Hong Ding, Nathaniel G Bendzunas, Xing-Ming Shi, Jianrui Xu, William D Hill, Maribeth H Johnson, Monte Hunter, Jessica L Pierce, Kanglun Yu, Mark W Hamrick, Carlos M Isales
Age-dependent bone loss occurs in humans and in several animal species, including rodents. The underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, although an age-associated increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species has been frequently implicated. We previously reported that aromatic amino acids function as antioxidants and are anabolic for bone and that they may potentially play a protective role in an aging environment. We hypothesized that upon oxidation the aromatic amino acids would not only lose their anabolic effects but also potentially become a catabolic byproduct...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#4
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713871/immune-dysfunctionality-of-replicative-senescent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-is-corrected-by-ifn%C3%AE-priming
#5
Raghavan Chinnadurai, Devi Rajan, Spencer Ng, Kenneth McCullough, Dalia Arafat, Edmund K Waller, Larry J Anderson, Greg Gibson, Jacques Galipeau
Industrial-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is often used in clinical trials, and the effect of replicative senescence on MSC functionality is of mechanistic interest. Senescent MSCs exhibit cell-cycle arrest, cellular hypertrophy, and express the senescent marker β-galactosidase. Although both fit and senescent MSCs display intact lung-homing properties in vivo, senescent MSCs acquire a significant defect in inhibiting T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in vitro. IFNγ does not upregulate HLA-DR on senescent MSCs, whereas its silencing did not reverse fit MSCs' immunosuppressive properties...
April 25, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712531/the-role-of-tryptophan-metabolism-and-food-craving-in-the-relationship-between-obesity-and-bipolar-disorder
#6
N Dalkner, M Platzer, S A Bengesser, A Birner, F T Fellendorf, R Queissner, A Painold, H Mangge, D Fuchs, B Reininghaus, H P Kapfhammer, S J Holasek, E Z Reininghaus
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a significantly increased risk of obesity-related conditions. The imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure is assumed to be a major risk factor for obesity in BD. This study analyzed food craving in relation to anthropometric, metabolic, and neurobiological parameters in a well-characterized cohort of euthymic individuals with BD. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five patients completed the Food-Craving Inventory assessing four categories of food craving (fat, fast-food, sweets and carbohydrate craving)...
July 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712413/sleep-disturbance-and-kynurenine-metabolism-in-depression
#7
Hyong Jin Cho, Jonathan Savitz, Robert Dantzer, T Kent Teague, Wayne C Drevets, Michael R Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Although the interrelationships between sleep disturbance, inflammation, and depression have been found, molecular mechanisms that link these conditions are largely unknown. Kynurenine metabolism is hypothesized to be a key mechanism that links inflammation and depression. Inflammation activates the kynurenine pathway, leading to increases in 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), potentially neurotoxic metabolites, and decreases in kynurenic acid (KynA), a potentially neuroprotective compound...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711496/metabolomic-profiling-reveals-potential-biomarkers-in-esophageal-cancer-progression-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-platform
#8
Haiping Zhang, Lei Wang, Zhichao Hou, Hong Ma, Batur Mamtimin, Ayshamgul Hasim, Ilyar Sheyhidin
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignancies with poor prognosis. Metabolomics has been shown to be a powerful approach to discover the potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The goal of this study is to screen potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, 40 tissue samples and the corresponding control samples from the same esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710517/urinary-profiling-of-tryptophan-and-its-related-metabolites-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#9
Ji Sun Oh, Hong Seong Seo, Kyoung Heon Kim, Heesoo Pyo, Bong Chul Chung, Jeongae Lee
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid that plays an important role in protein synthesis and is a precursor of various substances related to diverse biological functions. An imbalance in Trp metabolites is associated with inflammatory diseases. The accurate and precise measurement of these compounds in biological specimens would provide meaningful information for understanding the biochemical states of various metabolic syndrome-related diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity...
July 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709913/upregulation-of-neuronal-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-mediates-depression-like-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#10
Geoffroy Laumet, Wenjun Zhou, Robert Dantzer, Jules D Edralin, XiaoJiao Huo, David P Budac, Jason C O'Connor, Anna W Lee, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars
Pain and depression often co-occur, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model in mice to induce both neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. We investigated whether brain IL-1 signaling and activity of kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme for metabolism of kynurenine into the neurotoxic NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid, are necessary for comorbid neuropathic pain and depression-like behavior. SNI mice showed increased expression levels of Il1b and Kmo mRNA in the contralateral side of the brain...
July 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706436/the-presence-of-kynurenine-aminotransferases-in-the-human-cornea-evidence-from-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-immunohistochemical-staining
#11
Anna Matysik-Woźniak, Anselm Jünemann, Waldemar A Turski, Artur Wnorowski, Krzysztof Jóźwiak, Roman Paduch, Etsuo Okuno, Joanna Moneta-Wielgoś, Tomasz Chorągiewicz, Ryszard Maciejewski, Robert Rejdak
PURPOSE: Kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) catalyze the synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a compound of significant biological activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and distribution of KAT immunoreactivity in the healthy human cornea. METHODS: Data on gene expression in human eye structures were extracted from public microarray experiments using Genevestigator software. Immunohistochemistry was conducted using polyclonal antibodies against KAT I, II, and III on sections of eight enucleated eyes from patients with choroidal melanoma...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705908/importance-of-kynurenine-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
Bence M Nagy, Chandran Nagaraj, Andreas Meinitzer, Neha Sharma, Rita Papp, Vasile Foris, Bahil Ghanim, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Gabor Kovacs, Walter Klepetko, Thomas R Pieber, Harald Mangge, Horst Olschewski, Andrea Oslchewski
The tryptophan metabolite kynurenine is significantly increased in pulmonary arterial hyper-tension (PAH) patients, and it is a potent vasodilator of systemic arteries. Our aim was to in-vestigate the role of kynurenine in the pulmonary circulation. Serum tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenic-acid levels were measured in 20 idiopathic PAH (IPAH) patients, 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with chronic lung disease or meta-bolic syndrome without-PH. Laser-dissected pulmonary arteries from IPAH and control lungs were tested for the expression of IDO, the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion from tryptophan to kynurenine...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694431/key-role-for-the-organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-in-the-in-vivo-handling-of-uremic-toxins-and-solutes
#13
Wei Wu, Kevin T Bush, Sanjay K Nigam
In vitro data indicates that the kidney proximal tubule (PT) transporters of uremic toxins and solutes (e.g., indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, kynurenine, creatinine, urate) include two "drug" transporters of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family: OAT1 (SLC22A6, originally NKT) and OAT3 (SLC22A8). Here, we have examined new and prior metabolomics data from the Oat1KO and Oat3KO, as well as newly obtained metabolomics data from a "chemical double" knockout (Oat3KO plus probenecid). This gives a picture of the in vivo roles of OAT1 and OAT3 in the regulation of the uremic solutes and supports the centrality of these "drug" transporters in independently and synergistically regulating uremic metabolism...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690204/depressive-anxiety-and-hypomanic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-may-be-driven-by-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-patterning-of-iga-and-igm-responses-directed-to-trycats
#14
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, George Anderson, Piotr Galecki, Michael Maes
The aim of this study was to delineate the associations between the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway and affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end we measured immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgM responses to relatively noxious TRYCATs, namely quinolinic (QA), xanthurenic (XA), picolinic (PA) acid and 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), and generally protective TRYCATs, namely anthranilic (AA) and kynurenic (KA) acid in 80 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and anxiety (HAMA), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as well as the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS) were measured...
July 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689792/functional-role-of-kynurenine-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-axis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#15
Heng Wang, Danh C Do, Jinxin Liu, Baofeng Wang, Jingjing Qu, Xia Ke, Xiaoyan Luo, Ho Man Tang, Ho Lam Tang, Chengping Hu, Mark E Anderson, Zheng Liu, Peisong Gao
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with mast cell-mediated inflammation and heightened oxidant stress. Kynurenine (KYN), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, can promote allergen-induced mast cell activation through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). OBJECTIVES: Determine the role of the KYN/AhR axis and oxidant stress in mast cell activation and the development of CRSwNP. METHODS: We measured expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO2), KYN, and oxidized calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) in nasal polyps and controls...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688912/inhibition-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-protects-against-reactive-microglial-associated-reductions-in-the-complexity-of-primary-cortical-neurons
#16
Katherine O'Farrell, Eimear Fagan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687801/altered-kyn-trp-gln-glu-and-met-methionine-sulfoxide-ratios-in-the-blood-plasma-of-medication-free-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Hidehiro Umehara, Shusuke Numata, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Yutaka Hatakeyama, Makoto Kinoshita, Yukiko Tomioka, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Takeshi Nikawa, Tetsuro Ohmori
Capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) is a comprehensive, quantitative, and high throughput tool used to analyze metabolite profiles. In the present study, we used CE-TOFMS to profile metabolites found in the blood plasma of 33 medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 33 non-psychiatric control subjects. We then investigated changes which occurred in the metabolite levels during an 8-week treatment period. The medication-free MDD patients and control subjects showed significant differences in their mean levels of 33 metabolites, including kynurenine (KYN), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), methionine sulfoxide, and methionine (Met)...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680298/high-fat-diet-and-voluntary-chronic-aerobic-exercise-recover-altered-levels-of-aging-related-tryptophan-metabolites-along-the-kynurenine-pathway
#18
Keon-Joo Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Joo-Youn Cho, Soon-Tae Lee, Hwa Suk Kim, Jun Hwa Shim, Sang Kun Lee, Manho Kim, Kon Chu
Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673995/inhibition-of-acute-lethal-pulmonary-inflammation-by-the-ido-ahr-pathway
#19
Soung-Min Lee, Ha Young Park, Young-Sill Suh, Eun Hye Yoon, Juyang Kim, Won Hee Jang, Won-Sik Lee, Sae-Gwang Park, Il-Whan Choi, Inhak Choi, Sun-Woo Kang, Hwayoung Yun, Takanori Teshima, Byungsuk Kwon, Su-Kil Seo
The lung is a prototypic organ that was evolved to reduce immunopathology during the immune response to potentially hazardous endogenous and exogenous antigens. In this study, we show that donor CD4(+) T cells transiently induced expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in lung parenchyma in an IFN-γ-dependent manner early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Abrogation of host IDO expression by deletion of the IDO gene or the IFN-γ gene in donor T cells or by FK506 treatment resulted in acute lethal pulmonary inflammation known as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS)...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669666/a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-efficacy-of-resistant-dextrin-as-functional-food-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes-targeting-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-immune-system
#20
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ahmad Zare Javid, Bahareh Sarmadi, Poran Karimi, Parvin Dehghan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to determine the efficacy of a resistant dextrin on immune-mediated inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Females (n = 55) with T2DM were randomly allocated into intervention group (n = 30) and control group (n = 25), in which they received 10 g/d of Nutriose(®)06 (a resistant dextrin) or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure immune system related parameters like white blood cell count, CD4, CD8, interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukins (IL12, IL4, IL10), cortisol, tryptophan (TRP), ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), Kynurenine (KYN) and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at the beginning and end of trial...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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