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Immune suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244203/pediatric-tolerogenic-dcs-expressing-cd4-and-immunoglobulin-like-transcript-receptor-ilt-4-secrete-il-10-in-response-to-fc-and-adenosine
#1
Alessandra Franco, Jeetendra Kumar, Gene Lin, Negar Behnamfar, Li-En Hisieh, Chisato Shimizu, Adriana H Tremoulet, Jane C Burns, Joel Linden
We characterized a novel population of tolerogenic myeloid dendritic cells (tmDCs) defined as CD11c+ CD11b+ CD14+ CD4+ and immunoglobulin-like transcript receptor (ILT)-4+ that are significantly more abundant in the circulation of infants and young children than in adults. TmDCs secrete the immunosuppressive lymphokine interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with the heavy constant region of immunoglobulins (Fc) and express high levels of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R), which, when activated by adenosine, inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from most immune cells...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244050/cd52-inhibits-toll-like-receptor-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-triggers-apoptosis-to-suppress-inflammation
#2
Maryam Rashidi, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, Kate E Lawlor, Yuxia Zhang, Alana M Neale, Swarna L Vijayaraj, Robert O'Donoghue, John M Wentworth, Timothy E Adams, James E Vince, Leonard C Harrison
Soluble CD52 is a small glycoprotein that suppresses T-cell activation, but its effect on innate immune cell function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that soluble CD52 inhibits Toll-like receptor and tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling to limit activation of NF-κB and thereby suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. At higher concentrations, soluble CD52 depletes the short-lived pro-survival protein MCL-1, contributing to activation of the BH3-only proteins BAX and BAK to cause intrinsic apoptotic cell death...
December 15, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243498/-cart-intensification-by-the-hiv-1-tat-b-clade-vaccine-progress-to-phase-iii-efficacy-studies
#3
Aurelio Cafaro, Cecilia Sgadari, Orietta Picconi, Antonella Tripiciano, Sonia Moretti, Vittorio Francavilla, Maria Rosaria Pavone Cossut, Stefano Buttò, Giovanni Cozzone, Fabrizio Ensoli, Paolo Monini, Barbara Ensoli
In spite of its success at suppressing HIV replication, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) only partially reduces immune dysregulation and loss of immune functions. These cART-unmet needs appear to be due to persistent virus replication and cell-to-cell transmission in reservoirs, and are causes of increased patients' morbidity and mortality. Up to now, therapeutic interventions aimed at cART-intensification by attacking the virus reservoir have failed. Areas covered: We briefly review the rationale and clinical development of Tat therapeutic vaccine in cART-treated subjects in Italy and South Africa (SA)...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243049/high-pd-l1-expression-indicates-poor-prognosis-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Yusuke Okuma, Tsunekazu Hishima, Jumpei Kashima, Sadamu Homma
BACKGROUND: The status of antitumor immunity represented by the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and immune cell (IC) infiltration is unknown in HIV-infected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Fifteen HIV-infected patients with NSCLC were compared with 29 non-HIV-infected patients with NSCLC. Analysis of 13 propensity-score-matched patients in the two groups was also compared. The expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and tumor infiltration by CD4+, CD8+, and CD56+ immune cells were examined by immunohistochemistry; score of ≥ 2 was defined as positive...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242501/high-throughput-rna-sequencing-reveals-distinct-gene-signatures-in-active-igg4-related-disease
#5
Brandon W Higgs, Yanying Liu, Jianping Guo, Yinong Sebastian, Chris Morehouse, Wei Zhu, Limin Ren, Mengru Liu, Yan Du, Guangyan Yu, Lingli Dong, Hong Hua, Pan Wei, Yi Wang, Zhengang Wang, Yihong Yao, Zhan-Guo Li
We aimed to characterize the molecular differences and effects from prednisone treatment among IgG4-related disease with salivary gland lesions (RD-SG), without SG lesions (RD-nonSG), and IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF). RNA sequencing was conducted on blood from 25 RD-SG, 11 RD-nonSG, 3 RF and 10 control subjects. Among these, 8 RD-nonSG and 12 RD-SG patients were subjected to treatment with prednisone and/or glucocorticoid-sparing agents. Six RD patients had a longitudinal time point. The mRNA levels of IgG4 and IgE, genes specific for Th2 cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils were over-expressed in RD-SG and RD-nonSG...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242419/reduced-interleukin-6-immunoexpression-and-birefringent-collagen-formation-indicate-that-mta-plus-and-mta-fillapex-are-biocompatible
#6
Juliana Alcarás Saraiva, Tiago Silva da Fonseca, Guilherme Ferreira Silva, Estela Sasso-Cerri, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Paulo Sérgio Cerri
Considering that endodontic sealers release some components which may promote delay in the repair process, our purpose was to evaluate the tissue reaction promoted by MTA Plus and MTA Fillapex in comparison with AH Plus (standard control) and Endofill, which has a long clinical track record. One hundred rats were distributed into five groups: MTA Plus (Avalon Biom Inc., Bradenton, FL, USA), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), Endofill (Dentsply, Petrópolis, RJ, Brazil) and CG (control group, empty polyethylene tubes)...
December 15, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242228/bmscs-ameliorate-septic-coagulopathy-through-suppressing-inflammation-in-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-sepsis
#7
Shunyao Xu, Zhen Zhou, Hao Li, Ziying Liu, Xiaojun Pan, Fen Wang, Yueyue Huang, Xiaogang Li, Yunbei Xiao, Jingye Pan, Cong Wang, Dequan Li
Sepsis is an aggressive and life-threatening systemic inflammatory response with a high mortality. Inflammation and coagulation play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of sepsis in a mutually promoting manner. Unlike other single-target molecular therapies that have no obvious effects on clinical sepsis, the bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) therapy offers a broader spectrum of activities ranging from immune and inflammation suppression to tissue regeneration. In this report, we demonstrated that BMSC injection attenuated the septic coagulopathy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242191/the-inducible-microrna-203-in-fish-represses-the-inflammatory-responses-to-gram-negative%C3%A2-bacteria-by-targeting-il-1-receptor-associated-kinase-4
#8
Tianjun Xu, Qing Chu, Junxia Cui, Xueyan Zhao
Innate immune responses are the first defense against pathogenic invaders. Activation and termination of these immune responses are regulated by several mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in the regulation of a spectrum of both physiological and pathological conditions, including immune responses. Although immune regulatory miRNAs networks in higher vertebrates have been well described, regulation of these responses in fish species is poorly understood in fish species...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241548/diverging-mrna-and-protein-networks-in-activated-microglia-reveal-srsf3-suppresses-translation-of-highly-upregulated-innate-immune-transcripts
#9
Hejer Boutej, Reza Rahimian, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Louis-Charles Béland, Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert, Jasna Kriz
Uncontrolled microglial activation may lead to the development of inflammation-induced brain damage. Here, we uncover a ribosome-based mechanism/checkpoint involved in control of the innate immune response and microglial activation. Using an in vivo model system for analysis of the dynamic translational state of microglial ribosomes, with mRNAs as input and newly synthesized peptides as an output, we find a marked dissociation of microglia mRNA and protein networks following innate immune challenge. Highly upregulated and ribosome-associated mRNAs were not translated, resulting in two distinct microglial molecular signatures, a highly specialized pro-inflammatory mRNA signature and an immunomodulatory/homeostatic protein signature...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241547/car-t-cells-releasing-il-18-convert-to-t-bethigh-foxo1low-effectors-that-exhibit-augmented-activity-against-advanced-solid-tumors
#10
Markus Chmielewski, Hinrich Abken
Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T cells has achieved remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. However, eradicating large solid tumors in advanced stages of the disease remains challenging. We explored augmentation of the anti-tumor immune reaction by establishing an acute inflammatory reaction. Systematic screening indicates that IL-18 polarizes CAR T cells toward T-bethigh FoxO1low effectors with an acute inflammatory response. CAR T cells engineered with inducible IL-18 release exhibited superior activity against large pancreatic and lung tumors that were refractory to CAR T cells without cytokines...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241186/strengthening-gastric-cancer-therapy-by-trastuzumab-conjugated-nanoparticles-with-simultaneous-encapsulation-of-anti-mir-21-and-5-fluorouridine
#11
Nan Hu, Jun Feng Yin, Ze Ji, Yidong Hong, Puyuan Wu, Baoxiang Bian, Ziyan Song, Rutian Li, Qin Liu, Fenglei Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-21 is an oncogenic miR (oncomiR) frequently elevated in gastric cancer (GC). Overexpression of miR-21 decreases the sensitivity of GC cells to 5-fluorouridine (5-Fu) and trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Receptor-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in the delivery of biotherapeutics including anti-miRNA oligonucleotides (AMOs). This study is a continuation of earlier findings involving poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles (PEG-PCL NPs), which were coated with trastuzumab to target GC with HER2 receptor over-expression using anti-miRNA-21 (AMO-21) and 5-Fu...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241179/rs739837-polymorphism-in-mir-885-3p-binding-site-within-3-untranslated-region-of-vitamin-d-receptor-is-associated-with-a-decreased-risk-of-pressure-ulcers
#12
Xia Ji, Jinbao Mao, Shuang Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulative evidence has shown that miR-885-3p plays a crucial role in human carcinogenesis. From miRNA database, we also found that rs739837 polymorphism in miR-885-3p binding site within 3'-untranslated region of Vitamin D receptor (VDR), compromising the suppressive effect of miR-885-3p on VDR. Moreover, Vitamin D is involved in controlling the cell immune response and may play a role in pressure ulcers development. However, whether this polymorphism is actually linked with pressure ulcers remains unclear...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241042/the-adenovirus-e1a-c-terminus-suppresses-a-delayed-antiviral-response-and-modulates-ras-signaling
#13
Nathan R Zemke, Arnold J Berk
The N-terminal half of adenovirus e1a assembles multimeric complexes with host proteins that repress innate immune responses and force host cells into S-phase. In contrast, the functions of e1a's C-terminal interactions with FOXK, DCAF7, and CtBP are unknown. We found that these interactions modulate RAS signaling, and that a single e1a molecule must bind all three of these host proteins to suppress activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These ISGs were otherwise induced in primary respiratory epithelial cells at 12 hr p...
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240711/nad1-controls-defense-like-responses-in-medicago-truncatula-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-nodules-following-rhizobial-colonization-in-a-baca-independent-manner
#14
Ágota Domonkos, Szilárd Kovács, Anikó Gombár, Ernő Kiss, Beatrix Horváth, Gyöngyi Z Kováts, Attila Farkas, Mónika T Tóth, Ferhan Ayaydin, Károly Bóka, Lili Fodor, Pascal Ratet, Attila Kereszt, Gabriella Endre, Péter Kaló
Legumes form endosymbiotic interaction with host compatible rhizobia, resulting in the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Within symbiotic nodules, rhizobia are intracellularly accommodated in plant-derived membrane compartments, termed symbiosomes. In mature nodule, the massively colonized cells tolerate the existence of rhizobia without manifestation of visible defense responses, indicating the suppression of plant immunity in the nodule in the favur of the symbiotic partner. Medicago truncatulaDNF2 (defective in nitrogen fixation 2) and NAD1 (nodules with activated defense 1) genes are essential for the control of plant defense during the colonization of the nitrogen-fixing nodule and are required for bacteroid persistence...
December 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240644/monocyte-function-and-clinical-outcomes-in-febrile-and-afebrile-patients-with-severe-sepsis
#15
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Catherine M Dalton, Brian M Fuller, Marin H Kollef, Richard S Hotchkiss
INTRODUCTION: Absence of fever is associated with higher mortality in septic patients, but the reason for this is unknown. Immune dysfunction may be a potential link between failure to mount a fever and poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate monocyte function and clinical surrogates of immunity (i.e. mortality and acquisition of secondary infections) in febrile and afebrile septic patients. METHODS: Single-center, prospective cohort study of 92 critically ill septic patients...
December 13, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239591/macrophages-and-cancer
#16
Marko Salmi
Macrophages are an important type of white blood cells in the dialogue between inflammatory response and cancer. Macrophages can maintain a chronic inflammatory state that predisposes to the development of cancer. In the tumor, macrophages phagocytose and kill cancer cells directly and promote the generation of antitumoral cytotoxic lymphocyte response. Cancer cells, however, often modulate the functions of macrophages in several ways to promote tumor progression. Such protumoral macrophages increase neovascularization, produce molecules promoting the growth and dissemination of cancer cells, and suppress antitumoral immune responses...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238731/porcine-to-human-heart-transplantation-is-clinical-application-now-appropriate
#17
REVIEW
Christopher G A McGregor, Guerard W Byrne
Cardiac xenotransplantation (CXTx) is a promising solution to the chronic shortage of donor hearts. Recent advancements in immune suppression have greatly improved the survival of heterotopic CXTx, now extended beyond 2 years, and life-supporting kidney XTx. Advances in donor genetic modification (B4GALNT2 and CMAH mutations) with proven Gal-deficient donors expressing human complement regulatory protein(s) have also accelerated, reducing donor pig organ antigenicity. These advances can now be combined and tested in life-supporting orthotopic preclinical studies in nonhuman primates and immunologically appropriate models confirming their efficacy and safety for a clinical CXTx program...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238698/detection-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-dna-in-serum-samples-of-healthy-blood-donors
#18
Elisa Mazzoni, John C Rotondo, Luisa Marracino, Rita Selvatici, Ilaria Bononi, Elena Torreggiani, Antoine Touzé, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238041/foxo1-is-a-regulator-of-mhc-ii-expression-and-anti-tumor-effect-of-tumor-associated-macrophages
#19
Jing-Bo Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Qing-Zhi Liu, Tai-Dou Hu, Jie Long, Kai Yan, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Macrophages are a critical component in host immune responses against tumor. In this work we investigated the role of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) in the transcriptional regulation in macrophages, which affects the anti-tumor functions of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). First, we showed that TAMs expressed reduced levels of FoxO1, which was associated with their protumoral M2 polarization state. The suppression of FoxO1 expression in TAM was induced by the hypoxic condition in the tumor microenviroment. Next, we confirmed that FoxO1 positively regulates MHC-II genes by binding to the promoter region of Ciita gene, the master activator of multiple MHC-II genes...
December 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237732/diverse-nadase-effector-families-mediate-interbacterial-antagonism-via-the-type-vi-secretion-system
#20
Jenny Y Tang, Nathan P Bullen, Shehryar Ahmad, John C Whitney
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates antagonistic cell-cell interactions between competing Gram-negative bacteria. In plant-beneficial bacteria, this pathway has been shown to suppress the growth of bacterial pathogens; however, the identification and mode of action of T6SS effector proteins that mediate this protective effect remain poorly defined. Here, we identify two previously uncharacterized effectors required for interbacterial antagonism by the plant commensal bacterium Pseudomonas protegens...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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