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Immune suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110425/functional-effector-memory-t-cells-contribute-to-protection-from-superinfection-with-heterologous-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-or-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-isolates-in-chinese-rhesus-macaques
#1
Ming Sun, Huiwen Zheng, Yingpeng Xie, Bingxiang Li, Haiting Long, Ge Guo, Lei Guo, Jingjing Wang, Ruotong Ning, Yue Li, Longding Liu
Many studies have revealed a protective effect of infection of an individual with an immunodeficiency virus against subsequent infection with a heterologous strain. However, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biological consequences of superinfection are not well understood. Here, we report that a rhesus monkey model of mucosal superinfection was established to investigate the protective immune response. Protection against superinfection was shown to correlate with the extent of the polyfunctionality of CD4(+) effector memory T cells, whereas neutralizing antibody responses did not protect against superinfection in this model...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#2
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110209/expansion-of-cd11b-ly-6c-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-mdscs-driven-by-galectin-9-attenuates-cvb3-induced-myocarditis
#3
Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Xueqin Li, Zongsheng Tang, Ling He, Kun Lv
Galectin-9 is known to play a role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity to ameliorate CVB3-induced myocarditis. In the present study, we found that galectin-9 induced the expansion of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the heart from CVB3-infected mice. Adoptive transfer of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(+) MDSCs significantly alleviated myocarditis accompanied by increased Th2 and Treg frequency and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression in the heart tissue. Moreover, Ly6C(+) MDSCs, but not Ly6G(+) cells, expressed Arg-1 and NOS2, and suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro in an Arg-1-dependent mechanism; an event that was reversed with treatment of either an Arg-1 inhibitor or addition of excess l-arginine...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110075/tlr9-mediated-regulatory-b10-cell-amplification-following-sub-total-body-irradiation-implications-in-attenuating-eae
#4
Jinsheng Hong, Jie Fang, Ruilong Lan, Qi Tan, Yeping Tian, Mei Zhang, Paul Okunieff, Lurong Zhang, Jianhua Lin, Deping Han
Autoimmunity and inflammation are controlled in part by regulatory B (Breg) cells, including the recently identified IL-10-competent B10 cell subset that represents 1%-3% of mouse spleen B cells. In this study, the influence of irradiation on Breg/B10 cell generation and IL-10 production mediated by TLR9 signaling pathways was investigated. Spleen and peritoneal cavity Breg/B10 cell frequencies were significantly expanded three weeks after sub-total body irradiation (sub-TBI, 5Gy or 10Gy) in adult male wild type (WT) C57BL/6(B6) mice but not in TLR9(-/-) mice...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109920/myocardial-blood-flow-and-inflammatory%C3%A2-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#5
Matthew J Kruse, Lara Kovell, Edward K Kasper, Martin G Pomper, David R Moller, Lilja Solnes, Edward S Chen, Thomas H Schindler
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the effects of inflammatory sarcoid disease on coronary circulatory function and the response to immune-suppressive treatment. BACKGROUND: Although positron emission tomography assessment of myocardial inflammation is increasingly applied to identify active cardiac sarcoidosis, its effect on coronary flow and immune-suppressive treatment remains to be characterized. METHODS: Thirty-two individuals who were referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography were evaluated for known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis applying (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose to determine inflammation and (13)N-ammonia to assess for perfusion deficits following a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet and fasting state >12 h to suppress myocardial glucose uptake...
January 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109835/gut-microbiota-a-player-in-aging-and-a-target-for-anti-aging-intervention
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman, Alexander K Koliada, Francesco Marotta
Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat deposition and metabolism and prevention of insulin resistance...
January 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109817/salecan-protected-against-concanavalin-a-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-modulating-t-cell-immune-responses-and-nmr-based-metabolic-profiles
#7
Qi Sun, Xi Xu, Xiao Yang, Dan Weng, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model...
January 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109751/cord-blood-natural-killer-cells-expressing-a-dominant-negative-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-implications-for-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma
#8
Eric S Yvon, Rachel Burga, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Rohan Fernandes, Cecilia Barese, Tuongvan Nguyen, Mohamed S Abdel-Baki, Catherine M Bollard
Cord blood (CB) natural killer (NK) cells are promising effector cells for tumor immunotherapy but are currently limited by immune-suppressive cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β). We observed that TGF-β inhibits expression of activating receptors such as NKG2D and DNAM1 and decreases killing activity against glioblastoma tumor cells through inhibition of perforin secretion. To overcome the detrimental effects of TGF-β, we engrafted a dominant negative TGF-β receptor II (DNRII) on CB-derived NK cells by retroviral transduction and evaluated their ability to kill glioblastoma cells in the presence of TGF-β...
January 19, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109401/melanoma-last-call-for-radiotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Sophie Espenel, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magné
Melanoma is traditionally considered to be a radioresistant tumor. However, radiotherapy and immunotherapy latest developments might upset this radiobiological dogma. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows high dose per fraction delivery, with high dose rate. More DNA lethal damages, less sublethal damages reparation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and finally clonogenic cell dysfunction are produced, resulting in improved local control. Radiotherapy can also enhance immune responses, inducing neoantigens formation, tumor antigen presentation, and cytokines release...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109399/targeting-kras-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-history-of-failures-and-a-future-of-hope-for-a-diverse-entity
#10
REVIEW
Alexios Matikas, Dimitrios Mistriotis, Vasilios Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. However, the discovery of several oncogenic driver mutations and the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulted in improved clinical outcomes for most patients. Although activating KRAS mutations are the most common recurring molecular events in lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made during the past decades with no new agents being approved for this indication. The elucidation of the underlying biology of this diverse patient subgroup offers great potential and renewed hope regarding the rational development, rigorous evaluation and subsequent approval of novel targeted agents and combinations which will effectively suppress compensatory escape routes and the emergence of resistance, issues that have plagued previous attempts...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108987/activation-of-sirt1-by-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-exerts-a-therapeutic-effect-on-hepatic-injury-and-inflammation
#12
Caroline Steinmetz, Anubha Kashyap, Nataliya Zhivkova, Henry Alizor, Isabell Ernst, Daniela Gottfried-Brand, Henning Janssen, Andreas Teufel, Henning Schulze-Bergkamen, Johannes Lotz, Jürgen Kuball, Matthias Theobald, Michael Heise, Hauke Lang, Peter R Galle, Dennis Strand, Susanne Strand
: The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory liver diseases has increased over the last years but therapeutic options are limited. Pregnancy induces a state of immune tolerance, which can result in spontaneous improvement of clinical symptoms of certain autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We investigated the immune suppressive mechanisms of the human pregnancy hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the liver. HCG signaling activates SIRT1, which deacetylates FOXO3a, leading to repression of pro-apoptotic gene expression...
January 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108766/immunosuppressive-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-splenocytes-from-cancer-patients
#13
Kimberly R Jordan, Puja Kapoor, Eric Spongberg, Richard P Tobin, Dexiang Gao, Virginia F Borges, Martin D McCarter
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that are increased in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and limit productive immune responses against tumors. Immunosuppressive MDSCs are well characterized in murine splenic tissue and are found at higher frequencies in spleens of tumor-bearing mice. However, no studies have yet analyzed these cells in parallel human spleens. We hypothesized that MDSCs would be increased in the spleens of human cancer patients, similar to tumor-bearing mice...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108653/galectin-1-expression-is-associated-with-tumour-immunity-and-prognosis-in-gingival-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Yuri Noda, Mitsunobu Kishino, Sunao Sato, Katsutoshi Hirose, Manabu Sakai, Yasuo Fukuda, Shumei Murakami, Satoru Toyosawa
AIMS: Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein that overexpresses in cancer and plays pivotal roles in tumour progression. Gal-1 regulates angiogenesis and invasiveness, and suppresses tumour immunity by inducing T cell apoptosis. Several studies have examined the relationship between Gal-1 and tumour immunosuppression in vivo, but they have not examined the clinicopathological relationship between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cell number in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the association between Gal-1 expression and apoptotic T cells of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC), as well as other clinicopathological factors...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108629/myeloid-stat3-promotes-lung-tumorigenesis-by-transforming-tumor-immunosurveillance-into-tumor-promoting-inflammation
#15
Jingjiao Zhou, Zhaoxia Qu, Fan Sun, Lei Han, Liwen Li, Shapei Yan, Laura P Stabile, Lin-Feng Chen, Jill M Siegfried, Gutian Xiao
One of the most fundamental and challenging questions in the cancer field is how immunity in cancer patients is transformed from tumor immunosurveillance to tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we identify the transcription factor STAT3 as the culprit responsible for this pathogenic event in lung cancer development. We found that antitumor type 1 CD4(+) T helper (Th1) cells and CD8(+) T cells were directly counter-balanced in lung cancer development with tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and suppressive macrophages, and that activation of STAT3 in MDSCs and macrophages promoted tumorigenesis through pulmonary recruitment and increased resistance of suppressive cells to CD8(+) T cells, enhancement of cytotoxicity towards CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, induction of regulatory T cell (Treg), inhibition of dendritic cells (DCs), and polarization of macrophages toward the M2 phenotype...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108611/reversal-of-diabetes-in-nod-mice-by-clinical-grade-proinsulin-and-il-10-secreting-lactococcus-lactis-in-combination-with-low-dose-anti-cd3-depends-on-the-induction-of-foxp3-positive-t-cells
#16
Tatiana Takiishi, Dana Paulina Cook, Hannelie Korf, Guido Sebastiani, Francesca Mancarella, João Paulo Monteiro Carvalho Mori Cunha, Clive Wasserfall, Noelia Casares, Juan José Lasarte, Lothar Steidler, Pieter Rottiers, Francesco Dotta, Conny Gysemans, Chantal Mathieu
The introduction of β-cell autoantigens via the gut through Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for diabetes reversal in NOD mice. Here we show that a combination therapy of low-dose anti-CD3 with a clinical-grade self-containing L. lactis, appropriate for human application, secreting human proinsulin and interleukin-10, cured 66% of mice with new-onset diabetes, which is comparable to therapy results with plasmid-driven L. lactis Initial blood glucose concentrations (<350 mg/dL) and insulin autoantibody positivity were predictors of the stable reversal of hyperglycemia, and decline in insulin autoantibody positivity was an immune biomarker of therapeutic outcome...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#17
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108458/loss-of-tlr4-expression-promotes-glioblastoma-stem-cell-stemness
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reduced TLR4 expression in GBM CSCs ablates innate immune-mediated suppression of self-renewal.
January 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108421/tlr4-knockout-attenuated-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-jnk-dependent-activation-of-autophagy
#19
Nan Hu, Yingmei Zhang
Obesity is commonly associated with a low grade systematic inflammation, which may contribute to the onset and development of myocardial remodeling and contractile dysfunction. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity and inflammation although its role in high fat diet-induced obesity cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the effect of TLR4 ablation on high fat diet intake-induced cardiac anomalies, if any, and underlying mechanism(s) involved...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108365/neutrophil-subset-responses-in-infants-with-severe-viral-respiratory-infection
#20
Bart Cortjens, Sarah A Ingelse, Job C Calis, Alexander P Vlaar, Leo Koenderman, Reinout A Bem, Job B van Woensel
Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells recruited to the respiratory tract as part of the innate immune response to viral infections. Recent reports indicate the existence of distinct functional neutrophil subsets in the circulatory compartment of adults, following severe inflammatory conditions. Here, we evaluated the occurrence of neutrophil subsets in blood and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during severe viral respiratory infection in infants based on CD16/CD62L expression. We show that during the course of severe respiratory infection infants may develop four heterogeneous neutrophil subsets in blood (mature, immature, progenitor, and suppressive neutrophils), each with distinct activation states...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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