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Immune suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908187/cheater-altruist-synergy-in-public-goods-games
#1
Bryce Morsky, Dervis Can Vural
Much research has focused on the deleterious effects of free-riding in public goods games, and a variety of mechanisms that suppress cheating behavior. Here we argue that under certain conditions cheating can be beneficial to the population. In a public goods game, cheaters do not pay for the cost of the public goods, yet they receive the benefit. Although this free-riding harms the entire population in the long run, the success of cheaters may aid the population when there is a common enemy that antagonizes both cooperators and cheaters...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907971/loss-of-specificity-variants-of-wzxc-suggest-that-substrate-recognition-is-coupled-with-transporter-opening-in-mop-family-flippases
#2
Lok To Sham, Sanduo Zheng, Anastasiya A Yakhnina, Andrew C Kruse, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacteria produce a variety of surface-exposed polysaccharides important for cell integrity, biofilm formation, and evasion of the host immune response. Synthesis of these polymers often involves the assembly of monomer oligosaccharide units on the lipid carrier undecaprenyl-phosphate at the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane. For many polymers, including cell wall peptidoglycan, the lipid-linked precursors must be transported across the membrane by flippases to facilitate polymerization at the membrane surface...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907586/yap-is-essential-for-treg-mediated-suppression-of-anti-tumor-immunity
#3
Xuhao Ni, Jinhui Tao, Joseph Barbi, Qian Chen, Benjamin V Park, Zhiguang Li, Nailing Zhang, Andriana Lebid, Anjali Ramaswamy, Ping Wei, Ying Zheng, Xuehong Zhang, Xingmei Wu, Paolo D A Vignali, Cuiping Yang, Huabin Li, Drew Pardoll, Ling Lu, Duojia Pan, Fan Pan
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for maintaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis, but their suppressive function can impede effective anti-tumor immune responses. Foxp3 is a transcription factor expressed in Tregs that is required for their function. However, the pathways and microenvironmental cues governing Foxp3 expression and Treg function are not completely understood. Herein, we report that Yes-associated protein (YAP), a co-activator of the Hippo pathway, is highly expressed in Tregs and bolsters Foxp3 expression and Treg function in vitro and in vivo...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907361/mesenchymal-stem-cell-expression-of-interleukin-35-protects-against-ulcerative-colitis-by-suppressing-mucosal-immune-responses
#4
Yongjia Yan, Na Zhao, Xianghui He, Hao Guo, Zhixiang Zhang, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-35 (IL-35) has recently been identified as an immunosuppressive cytokine that has been used as a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding its potential benefits after integration into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: We used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model and treated them with IL-35-MSCs, MSCs or saline. The body weight was recorded daily and inflammatory processes were determined...
June 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906527/induction-of-bystander-tolerance-and-immune-deviation-following-fel-d-1-peptide-immunotherapy
#5
Daniel M Moldaver, Mantej S Bharhani, Christopher D Rudulier, Jennifer Wattie, Mark D Inman, Mark Larché
BACKGROUND: Treatment of cat allergic subjects with peptides derived from Fel d 1 (the major cat allergen) ameliorated symptoms of cat allergy in phase 2 clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the tolerance induced by Fel d 1 peptide immunotherapy can be exploited to reduce allergic responses to a second allergen, ovalbumin (OVA), in mice dually sensitized to OVA and Fel d 1. METHODS: The induction of tolerance to OVA was achieved via a simultaneous exposure to both allergens following peptide treatment...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906516/single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-affect-the-expression-of-genes-associated-with-immune-response-in-normal-human-astrocytes
#6
Oleksandr H Minchenko, Dariia O Tsymbal, Dmytro O Minchenko, Svitlana V Prylutska, Oksana S Hnatiuk, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Nikos G Tsierkezos, Uwe Ritter
The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the expression of a subset of immune response, apoptosis and cell proliferation -associated genes was studied in normal human astrocytes (line NHA/TS). In the cells treated with SWCNTs (2, 10 and 50 ng/ml of medium for 24 h) we observed a strong dose-dependent down-regulation of the expression of a cell surface glycoproteins HLA-DRA (major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha) and HLA-DRB1. At the same time, the expression of HLA-F (major histocompatibility complex, class I, F), LMNB1 (lamin B1), and HTRA1 (high temperature requirement A1) genes as well as the level of miR-190b and miR-7 was up-regulated in NHA/TS subjected to different concentrations of SWCNTs...
June 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906476/adar1-affects-hcv-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-response
#7
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905411/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effects-of-mesenchymal-and-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-a-rheumatoid-arthritis-rat-model
#8
Hanan Abdelmawgoud, Asmaa Saleh
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of increased importance because of their capacity to counteract inflammation and suppress host immune responses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paw swelling was assessed by measuring the thickness of the hind paws using a caliper. Cytokines - interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and IL-10 - and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904644/neopterin-is-associated-with-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-and-cognition-in-hiv
#9
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904580/cd28-between-tolerance-and-autoimmunity-the-side-effects-of-animal-models
#10
REVIEW
Nicla Porciello, Martina Kunkl, Loretta Tuosto
Regulation of immune responses is critical for ensuring pathogen clearance and for preventing reaction against self-antigens. Failure or breakdown of immunological tolerance results in autoimmunity. CD28 is an important co-stimulatory receptor expressed on T cells that, upon specific ligand binding, delivers signals essential for full T-cell activation and for the development and homeostasis of suppressive regulatory T cells. Many in vivo mouse models have been used for understanding the role of CD28 in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, thus leading to the development of CD28 signaling modulators that have been approved for the treatment of some autoimmune diseases...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901644/hepatic-actinomycosis-with-immunoglobulin-g4-related-liver-disease-a-case-report
#11
Joo Hyung Lee, Hyung Sun Kim, Ji Sub Kim, Dong Ki Lee, Jin Hong Lim
RATIONALE: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related pseudotumors of the liver are very rare diseases that are difficult to distinguish from malignant tumors. They can be usually improved by steroid therapy. Actinomycosis is a chronic, suppurative, granulomatous infection, for which immune suppression is a predisposing factor. It can also mimic malignant tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old man presented with mild abdominal discomfort and a 5-kg weight loss for 3 months...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901571/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-targetable-mechanism-of-immune-resistance-frequently-coexpressed-with-pd-l1
#12
Ashley Volaric, Ryan Gentzler, Richard Hall, James H Mehaffey, Edward B Stelow, Timothy N Bullock, Linda W Martin, Anne M Mills
The immune regulatory enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) suppresses T cell responses and may reduce efficacy of therapies targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1). Early phase clinical trials combining IDO-1 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have shown some promise in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). However, the coexpression of IDO-1 and PD-L1 has not been thoroughly investigated, and the potential for IDO-1 immunohistochemical expression as a therapeutic biomarker is unknown...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900065/the-immune-checkpoint-protein-pd-l1-induces-and-maintains-regulatory-t-cells-in-glioblastoma
#13
Joseph DiDomenico, Jonathan B Lamano, Daniel Oyon, Yuping Li, Dorina Veliceasa, Gurvinder Kaur, Leonel Ampie, Winward Choy, Jason B Lamano, Orin Bloch
Glioblastoma (GBM) promotes immunosuppression through upregulation of PD-L1 and regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion, but the association of these suppressive factors has not been well elucidated. Here, we investigate a role of PD-L1 in expanding Tregs and the value of targeting the PD-1 receptor to inhibit Treg expansion. Quantitative RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were evaluated for an association between CD274 and FOXP3 transcript expressions and impact of FOXP3 on clinical outcomes. Peripheral leukocytes from patients with newly diagnosed GBM were profiled for PD-L1+ myeloid expressions and Treg abundance...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900061/deficiency-of-host-cd96-and-pd-1-or-tigit-enhances-tumor-immunity-without-significantly-compromising-immune-homeostasis
#14
Heidi Harjunpää, Stephen J Blake, Elizabeth Ahern, Stacey Allen, Jing Liu, Juming Yan, Viviana Lutzky, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Amy Roman Aguilera, Camille Guillerey, Deepak Mittal, Xian Yang Li, William C Dougall, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Multiple non-redundant immunosuppressive pathways co-exist in the tumor microenvironment and their co-targeting can increase clinical responses. Indeed, concurrent blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 in patients with advanced melanoma increased clinical responses over monotherapy alone although the frequency and severity of immune related adverse events (irAEs) also increased. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients still display an innate resistance phenotype and are unresponsive to current approved immunotherapies even when utilized in combination...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900059/the-possibility-of-cancer-immune-editing-in-gliomas-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Víctor A Arrieta, Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Junfei Zhao, Raul Rabadan, Li Chen, Adam M Sonabend
The relationship between anti-tumoral immunity and cancer progression is complex. Recently, immune editing has emerged as a model to explain the interplay between the immune system and the selection of genetic alterations in cancer. In this model, the immune system selects cancer cells that grow as these are fit to escape immune surveillance during tumor development. Gliomas and glioblastoma, the most aggressive and most common of all primary malignant brain tumors are genetically heterogeneous, are relatively less antigenic, and are less responsive to immunotherapy than other cancers...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900055/ph-regulators-to-target-the-tumor-immune-microenvironment-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Olga Kuchuk, Alessandra Tuccitto, Davide Citterio, Veronica Huber, Chiara Camisaschi, Massimo Milione, Barbara Vergani, Antonello Villa, Malcolm Ronald Alison, Simone Carradori, Claudiu T Supuran, Licia Rivoltini, Chiara Castelli, Vincenzo Mazzaferro
Interfering with tumor metabolism is an emerging strategy for treating cancers that are resistant to standard therapies. Featuring a rapid proliferation rate and exacerbated glycolysis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) creates a highly hypoxic microenvironment with excessive production of lactic and carbonic acids. These metabolic conditions promote disease aggressiveness and cancer-related immunosuppression. The pH regulatory molecules work as a bridge between tumor cells and their surrounding milieu. Herein, we show that the pH regulatory molecules CAIX, CAXII and V-ATPase are overexpressed in the HCC microenvironment and that interfering with their pathways exerts antitumor activity...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900050/metformin-blocks-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-accumulation-through-ampk-dach1-cxcl1-axis
#17
Guohui Qin, Jingyao Lian, Lan Huang, Qitai Zhao, Shasha Liu, Zhen Zhang, Xinfeng Chen, Dongli Yue, Lifeng Li, Feng Li, Lidong Wang, Viktor Umansky, Bin Zhang, Shengli Yang, Yi Zhang
Purpose : Tumor development has been closely linked to tumor microenvironment, particularly in terms of myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that protect tumors from elimination by immune cells. Approaches aimed at blocking MDSC accumulation could improve cancer clinical outcome. Experimental Design : We investigated that metformin suppressed MDSC migration to inhibit cancer progression. Primary tumor tissues were incubated with metformin, and proinflammatory chemokine production was measured...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900048/vaccination-induced-skin-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-mediate-strong-protection-against-cutaneous-melanoma
#18
Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, Ernesto López, Evelyn Menares, Ximena Díaz, Camila Flores, Pablo Cáceres, Sofía Hidalgo, Ornella Chovar, Marcela Alcántara-Hernández, Vincenzo Borgna, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Juliana Idoyaga, Alvaro Lladser
Memory CD8+ T cell responses have the potential to mediate long-lasting protection against cancers. Resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cells stably reside in non-lymphoid tissues and mediate superior innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens. Emerging evidence indicates that Trm cells develop in human solid cancers and play a key role in controlling tumor growth. However, the specific contribution of Trm cells to anti-tumor immunity is incompletely understood. Moreover, clinically applicable vaccination strategies that efficiently establish Trm cell responses remain largely unexplored and are expected to strongly protect against tumors...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900047/immunosuppressive-activity-of-tumor-infiltrating-myeloid-cells-in-patients-with-meningioma
#19
Laura Pinton, Samantha Solito, Elena Masetto, Marina Vettore, Stefania Canè, Alessandro Della Puppa, Susanna Mandruzzato
Meningiomas WHO grade I and II are common intracranial tumors in adults that normally display a benign outcome, but are characterized by a great clinical heterogeneity and frequent recurrence of the disease. Although the presence of an immune cell infiltrate has been documented in these tumors, a clear phenotypical and functional characterization of the immune web is missing. Here, we performed an extensive immunophenotyping of peripheral blood and fresh tumor tissue at surgery by multiparametric flow cytometry in 34 meningioma patients, along with immunosuppressive activity of sorted cells of myeloid origin...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900042/unveiling-a-cd70-positive-subset-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-marked-by-pro-migratory-activity-and-thriving-regulatory-t-cell-accumulation
#20
Julie Jacobs, Vanessa Deschoolmeester, Karen Zwaenepoel, Tal Flieswasser, Christophe Deben, Jolien Van den Bossche, Christophe Hermans, Christian Rolfo, Marc Peeters, Olivier De Wever, Filip Lardon, Vasiliki Siozopoulou, Evelien Smits, Patrick Pauwels
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are involved in the proliferative and invasive behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nonetheless, CAFs represent a heterogeneous population with both cancer-promoting and cancer-restraining actions, lacking specific markers to target them. Expression of the immune checkpoint molecule CD70 is normally limited to cells of the lymphoid lineage. Instead, tumor cells hijack CD70 to facilitate immune evasion by increasing the amount of suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). The aim of this study was to explore CD70 expression patterns in CRC, not merely focusing on the tumor cells, but also taking the tumor stromal cells into account...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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