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Immune suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822039/stimulation-of-nachr%C3%AE-7-receptor-inhibits-tnf-synthesis-and-secretion-in-response-to-lps-treatment-of-mast-cells-by-targeting-erk1-2-and-tace-activation
#1
F Guzmán-Mejía, C López-Rubalcava, C González-Espinosa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is recognized as one of the main mechanisms of neuromodulation of the immune system. Activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchRα7) suppresses cytokine synthesis in distinct immune cells but the molecular mechanisms behind this effect remain to be fully described. Mast cells (MCs) are essential players of allergic reactions and innate immunity responses related to chronic inflammation. Activation of TLR4 receptor in MCs leads to the rapid secretion of pre-synthesized TNF from intracellular pools and to the activation of NFκB, necessary for de novo synthesis of TNF and other cytokines...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820170/paradoxical-worsening-of-a-case-of-tb-subretinal-abscess-with-serpiginous-like-choroiditis-following-the-initiation-of-antitubercular-therapy
#2
Sudha K Ganesh, B Sowkath Ali
A 37-year-old immunocompetent male patient presented with the blurring of vision, both eyes for the past1 year. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple subretinal abscesses with areas of healed serpiginous-like choroiditis. Laboratory investigations showed positive tuberculin skin test, positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold Test, and high resolution computed tomography chest showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The aqueous sample revealed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (MPB64 genome)...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819653/targeting-cytokines-in-gvhd-therapy
#3
Sandeep Kumar, Hemn Mohammadpour, Xuefang Cao
Transplantation of donor-derived allogeneic hematopoietic cells causes increased survival in patients suffering from various blood cancers and other hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, this health benefit is limited to certain patients. One major complication is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that occurs when donor-derived immune cells recognize host cells/tissues as foreign and perpetrate subsequent destruction. Cytokines are a major class of effector molecules that are involved in GVHD pathogenesis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819194/hdac3-inhibition-ameliorates-spinal-cord-injury-by-immunomodulation
#4
Tomoharu Kuboyama, Shalaka Wahane, Yong Huang, Xiang Zhou, Jamie K Wong, Andrew Koemeter-Cox, Michael Martini, Roland H Friedel, Hongyan Zou
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), the innate immune response of microglia and infiltrating macrophages clears up cellular debris and promotes tissue repair, but it also inflicts secondary injury from inflammatory responses. Immunomodulation aimed at maximizing the beneficial effects while minimizing the detrimental roles of the innate immunity may aid functional recovery after SCI. However, intracellular drivers of global reprogramming of the inflammatory gene networks in the innate immune cells are poorly understood...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819022/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-mice-housed-at-standard-temperatures-suppresses-an-effector-phenotype-in-cd8-t-cells-and-undermines-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#5
Mark J Bucsek, Guanxi Qiao, Cameron R MacDonald, Thejaswini Giridharan, Lauren Evans, Brian Niedzwecki, Haichao Liu, Kathleen M Kokolus, Jason W-L Eng, Michelle N Messmer, Kristopher Attwood, Scott I Abrams, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
The immune context of tumors has significant prognostic value and is predictive of responsiveness to several forms of therapy, including immunotherapy. We report here that CD8(+) T cell frequency and functional orientation within the tumor microenvironment is regulated by β2-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling in host immune cells. We used three strategies - physiologic (manipulation of ambient thermal environment), pharmacologic (β-blockers), and genetic (β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice) to reduce adrenergic stress signaling in two widely studied preclinical mouse tumor models...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818640/the-influence-of-physical-activity-in-the-anti-tumor-immune-response-in-experimental-breast-tumor
#6
Thiago M Bianco, Douglas R Abdalla, Chamberttan S Desidério, Sofie Thys, Cindy Simoens, John-Paul Bogers, Eddie F C Murta, Márcia A Michelin
This study aimed to investigate the influence of physical activity in innate immunity to conduce to an effective antitumoral immune response analyzing the phenotype and activation status of infiltrating cells. We analyzed the intracellular cytokines and the transcription factors of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) and spleen leukocytes. The Nos2 gene expression was evaluated in spleen cells and futhermore the ROS production was measured and spleen cells; another cell evaluated was dendritic cells (TIDCs), their cytokines expression and membrane molecules; finally to understood the results obtained, we analysed the dendritic cells obtained from bone marrow...
August 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818387/plant-response-to-biotic-stress-is-there-a-common-epigenetic-response-during-plant-pathogenic-and-symbiotic-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Prince Zogli, Marc Libault
Plants constantly interact with pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Recent studies have revealed several regulatory mechanisms controlling these interactions. Among them, the plant defense system is activated not only in response to pathogenic, but also in response to symbiotic microbes. Interestingly, shortly after symbiotic microbial recognition, the plant defense system is suppressed to promote plant infection by symbionts. Research studies have demonstrated the influence of the plant epigenome in modulating both pathogenic and symbiotic plant-microbe interactions, thereby influencing plant survival, adaptation and evolution of the plant response to microbial infections...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818275/electromagnetic-fields-may-act-via-calcineurin-inhibition-to-suppress-immunity-thereby-increasing-risk-for-opportunistic-infection-conceivable-mechanisms-of-action
#8
P R Doyon, O Johansson
While a good number of studies have demonstrated that modern, man-made ambient electromagnetic fields can have both stimulatory and inhibitory effect on immune system function, the precise mechanisms have yet to be completely elucidated. It is hypothesized here that, depending on the parameters, one of the means by which long-term electromagnetic field exposure has the potential to eventually lead to immunosuppression is via downstream inhibition of the enzyme calcineurin - a protein phosphatase, which activates the T-cells of the immune system and can be blocked by pharmaceutical agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#9
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817177/the-n-terminal-ubiquitin-associated-domain-of-cezanne-is-crucial-for-its-function-to-suppress-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Yanxi Ji, Liu Cao, Lanyi Zeng, Zhen Zhang, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Penglin Guan, Shiyou Chen, Yu Chen, Min Wang, Deyin Guo
Cezanne, a deubiquitinating cysteine protease (DUB) belonging to A20 subgroup of ovarian tumor (OTU) protein superfamily, functions as a negative regulator of NF-κB to attenuate NF-κB activation and to restrain pro-inflammatory transcription in response to TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling. It is the first documented OTU DUB that preferably disassembles Lys11-linked polyubiquitin chains and has been shown to regulate multiple cellular events including immune signaling, cell survival and tumor progression. Previous studies showed that in response to TNF stimulation, Cezanne is recruited to the activated TNFR complex to suppress the build-up of polyubiquitinated RIP1 signal by removing Lys63 polyubiquitin from RIP1...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817117/increased-tumor-infiltrating-cd45ra-ccr7-regulatory-t-cell-subset-with-immunosuppressive-properties-foster-gastric-cancer-progress
#11
Fang-Yuan Mao, Hui Kong, Yong-Liang Zhao, Liu-Sheng Peng, Weisan Chen, Jin-Yu Zhang, Ping Cheng, Ting-Ting Wang, Yi-Pin Lv, Yong-Sheng Teng, Xiao-Long Fu, Yu-Gang Liu, Xiao-Long Wu, Chuan-Jie Hao, Nan You, Ping Luo, Pei-Wu Yu, Quan-Ming Zou, Gang Guo, Yuan Zhuang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817109/dysfunctional-natural-killer-cells-in-the-aftermath-of-cancer-surgery
#12
REVIEW
Leonard Angka, Sarwat T Khan, Marisa K Kilgour, Rebecca Xu, Michael A Kennedy, Rebecca C Auer
The physiological changes that occur immediately following cancer surgeries initiate a chain of events that ultimately result in a short pro-, followed by a prolonged anti-, inflammatory period. Natural Killer (NK) cells are severely affected during this period in the recovering cancer patient. NK cells play a crucial role in anti-tumour immunity because of their innate ability to differentiate between malignant versus normal cells. Therefore, an opportunity arises in the aftermath of cancer surgery for residual cancer cells, including distant metastases, to gain a foothold in the absence of NK cell surveillance...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816601/stomate-based-defense-and-environmental-cues
#13
Shweta Panchal, Maeli Melotto
Environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants. For instance, many bacterial disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata. Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. Recently, we found that high humidity compromises stomatal defense, which is accompanied by regulation of the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid pathways in guard cells...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815941/t3ss-effector-exoy-reduces-inflammasome-related-responses-by-suppressing-bacterial-motility-and-delaying-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-caspase-1
#14
Jisu Jeon, Yong-Jae Kim, Heesung Shin, Un-Hwan Ha
Type III secreted effectors are essential for modulating host immune responses during the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Little is known about the impact of one of the effectors, ExoY, on inflammasome activation, which results in IL-1β production and pyroptotic cell death. In this study, we found that transcriptional expression of Il-1β was induced to a lesser extent in response to an exoY harboring strain than to a deleted mutant. This suppressive effect of ExoY was verified by complementation assay as well as by direct translocation of exoY into host cells...
August 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#15
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815045/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#16
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815044/agonist-anti-gitr-antibody-significantly-enhances-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-listeria-monocytogenes-based-immunotherapy
#17
Rajeev Shrimali, Shamim Ahmad, Zuzana Berrong, Grigori Okoev, Adelaida Matevosyan, Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi, Robert Petit, Seema Gupta, Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Samir N Khleif
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that in addition to generating an antigen-specific immune response, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based immunotherapy significantly reduces the ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs)/CD4(+) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment. Since Lm-based immunotherapy is able to inhibit the immune suppressive environment, we hypothesized that combining this treatment with agonist antibody to a co-stimulatory receptor that would further boost the effector arm of immunity will result in significant improvement of anti-tumor efficacy of treatment...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814673/human-lung-tumor-foxp-tregs-upregulate-four-treg-locking-transcription-factors
#18
Tatiana Akimova, Tianyi Zhang, Dmitri Negorev, Sunil Singhal, Jason Stadanlick, Abhishek Rao, Michael Annunziata, Matthew H Levine, Ulf H Beier, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, Steven M Albelda, Evgeniy B Eruslanov, Wayne W Hancock
Experimental data indicate that FOXP3+ Tregs can markedly curtail host antitumor immune responses, but the properties of human intratumoral Tregs are still largely unknown, in part due to significant methodologic problems. We studied the phenotypic, functional, epigenetic, and transcriptional features of Tregs in 92 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, comparing the features of Tregs within tumors versus corresponding blood, lung, and lymph node samples. Intratumoral Treg numbers and suppressive function were significantly increased compared with all other sites but did not display a distinctive phenotype by flow cytometry...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814661/hdac-inhibition-induces-hiv-1-protein-and-enables-immune-based-clearance-following-latency-reversal
#19
Guoxin Wu, Michael Swanson, Aarthi Talla, Donald Graham, Julie Strizki, Daniel Gorman, Richard Jo Barnard, Wade Blair, Ole S Søgaard, Martin Tolstrup, Lars Østergaard, Thomas A Rasmussen, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis, Daria J Hazuda, Bonnie J Howell
Promising therapeutic approaches for eradicating HIV include transcriptional activation of provirus from latently infected cells using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and immune-mediated clearance to purge reservoirs. Accurate detection of cells capable of producing viral antigens and virions, and the measurement of clearance of infected cells, is essential to assessing therapeutic efficacy. Here, we apply enhanced methodology extending the sensitivity limits for the rapid detection of subfemtomolar HIV gag p24 capsid protein in CD4+ T cells from ART-suppressed HIV+ individuals, and we show viral protein induction following treatment with LRAs...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814516/baculovirus-molecular-evolution-via-gene-turnover-and-recurrent-positive-selection-of-key-genes
#20
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Hosts and viruses are locked in an evolutionary arms race. Hosts are constantly evolving to suppress virulence and replication, while viruses, reliant on host machinery for survival and reproduction, develop counter-strategies to escape this immune defense. Viruses must also adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in a host species. Both processes provide strong selection for viral adaptation. Understanding adaptive evolution in insect viruses can help us better understand adaptive evolution in general, and is important due to their use as biocontrol agents, and for protecting ecologically or economically important species from outbreaks...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
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