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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923060/the-limitations-of-model-based-experimental-design-and-parameter-estimation-in-sloppy-systems
#1
Andrew White, Malachi Tolman, Howard D Thames, Hubert Rodney Withers, Kathy A Mason, Mark K Transtrum
We explore the relationship among experimental design, parameter estimation, and systematic error in sloppy models. We show that the approximate nature of mathematical models poses challenges for experimental design in sloppy models. In many models of complex biological processes it is unknown what are the relevant physical mechanisms that must be included to explain system behaviors. As a consequence, models are often overly complex, with many practically unidentifiable parameters. Furthermore, which mechanisms are relevant/irrelevant vary among experiments...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923051/electrophysiological-characteristics-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-the-assessment-of-drug-induced-proarrhythmic-potential
#2
Wataru Yamamoto, Keiichi Asakura, Hiroyuki Ando, Tomohiko Taniguchi, Atsuko Ojima, Takaaki Uda, Tomoharu Osada, Seiji Hayashi, Chieko Kasai, Norimasa Miyamoto, Hiroyuki Tashibu, Takashi Yoshinaga, Daiju Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama, Yasunari Kanda, Kohei Sawada, Yuko Sekino
The aims of this study were to (1) characterize basic electrophysiological elements of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) that correspond to clinical properties such as QT-RR relationship, (2) determine the applicability of QT correction and analysis methods, and (3) determine if and how these in-vitro parameters could be used in risk assessment for adverse drug-induced effects such as Torsades de pointes (TdP). Field potential recordings were obtained from commercially available hiPSC-CMs using multi-electrode array (MEA) platform with and without ion channel antagonists in the recording solution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922254/comparison-of-two-different-forms-of-sevoflurane-for-anaesthesia-maintenance-and-recovery
#3
Yonca Yanli, Mehtap Ozdemir, Nurten Bakan, Cafer T Yuruk, Ahmet Yildirim, Ali O Cetinkaya
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is a commonly used inhalation agent. There are two forms of sevoflurane in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of original versus generic sevoflurane products on hemodynamics, time to reach 1 MAC level, inspired and expired sevoflurane levels and postoperative recovery profile. METHODS: Seventy patients undergoing general anaesthesia were divided into two groups as Group Sevo or Group Sojo. After intravenous induction of anaesthesia (with the same drugs in both groups), inhalation anaesthetic was started...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922132/wideband-helicity-dependent-spoof-surface-plasmon-polaritons-coupling-metasurface-based-on-dispersion-design
#4
Guoxiang Dong, Hongyu Shi, Yuchen He, Anxue Zhang, Xiaoyong Wei, Yongyong Zhuang, Bai Du, Song Xia, Zhuo Xu
The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have many potential application due to their local field enhancement and sub-wavelength characteristics. Recently, the gradient metasurface is introduced to couple the spoof SPPs in microwave frequency band. One of the most important issue which should be solved is the narrowband of spoof SPPs coupling on the gradient metasurface. Here, the metasurface is proposed to achieve the wideband helicity dependent directional spoof SPPs coupling for circular polarized light. Our research show that the coupling frequency of spoof SPPs on the gradient metasurface is determined by the dispersion of the metasurface, so the coupling frequency can be controlled by dispersion design...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922082/optimized-invisibility-cloaks-from-the-logarithm-conformal-mapping
#5
Chunhui Zhu, Lijun Liu, Zhengyong Song, Qing Huo Liu
Invisibility cloaks designed from the coordinate transformation method have attracted increasing interest recently. Conformal transformation optics scheme leads to cloaks that possess isotopic media, thus provides a prospective way to facilitate easier realization. Reducing the maximum value of the refractive index required by the cloaks is very important in practical imple- mentation. This letter studies on how the parameters in the logarithm conformal mapping control the cloaking effect. The optimized invisibility cloaks are designed...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#6
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920308/expanded-scopes-of-practice-for-dental-hygienists-associated-with-improved-oral-health-outcomes-for-adults
#7
Margaret Langelier, Tracey Continelli, Jean Moore, Bridget Baker, Simona Surdu
Dental hygienists are important members of the oral health care team, providing preventive and prophylactic services and oral health education. However, scope-of-practice parameters in some states limit their ability to provide needed services effectively. In 2001 we developed the Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index, a numerical tool to measure the state-level professional practice environment for dental hygienists. We used the index to score state-level scopes of practice in all fifty states and the District of Columbia in 2001 and 2014...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919562/impact-of-pre-equilibration-and-diffusion-limited-release-kinetics-on-effluent-concentration-in-column-leaching-tests-insights-from-numerical-simulations
#8
Michael Finkel, Peter Grathwohl
Column leaching tests have become a standard method for assessing leaching of pollutants from materials used, e.g., for road and railway constructions and in landscaping measures. Column tests showed to be practical in laboratories yielding robust and reproducible results. However, considerable uncertainty still exists related particularly to the degree of equilibration of the pore water with the solids during preparation (pre-equilibration) and percolation of the column. We analyse equilibration time scales and sensitivity of concentrations in column leachate with respect to initial conditions in a series of numerical experiments covering a broad spectrum of material and solute properties...
December 2, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919221/joint-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data-a-review-of-reporting-quality-with-a-view-to-meta-analysis
#9
Maria Sudell, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona, Catrin Tudur-Smith
BACKGROUND: Joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data are commonly used to simultaneously analyse correlated data in single study cases. Synthesis of evidence from multiple studies using meta-analysis is a natural next step but its feasibility depends heavily on the standard of reporting of joint models in the medical literature. During this review we aim to assess the current standard of reporting of joint models applied in the literature, and to determine whether current reporting standards would allow or hinder future aggregate data meta-analyses of model results...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918743/could-formaldehyde-induce-mutagenic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-buccal-epithelial-cells-during-anatomy-classes
#10
D-C Lorenzoni, L-P Pinheiro, H-S Nascimento, C-S Menegardo, R-G Silva, W-G Bautz, J-F Henriques, K-L Almeida-Coburn, L-N da Gama-de-Souza
BACKGROUND: Due to increased formaldehyde exposure, carcinogenic to humans, several researches have been studying the potential toxicity and the safe levels for human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal epithelial exfoliated cells (BEC) of students subjected to formaldehyde (FA) during anatomy classes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BEC were collected periodically from 17 volunteers of undergraduate programs, who had participated in practical anatomy classes, before and after FA exposure...
December 6, 2016: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918663/comparison-of-critical-power-and-w-derived-from-two-or-three-maximal-tests
#11
Len Parker Simpson, Mehdi Kordi
PURPOSE: Typically, accessing the asymptote (Critical Power; CP) and curvature constant (W') parameters of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship requires multiple constant-power, exhaustive exercise trials, spread over several visits. However, more recently single-visit protocols and personal power meters have been used. We investigated the practicality of using a two-trial, single-visit protocol in providing reliable CP & W' estimates. METHODS: 8 trained cyclists underwent 3- and 12-min maximal exercise trials in a single session to derive (2-trial) CP & W' estimates...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918613/defining-the-radiation-chemistry-during-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-to-enable-visualization-of-nanomaterial-growth-and-degradation-dynamics
#12
T J Woehl, P Abellan
We present a critical review of methods for defining the chemical environment during liquid cell electron microscopy investigation of electron beam induced nanomaterial growth and degradation. We draw from the radiation chemistry and liquid cell electron microscopy literature to present solution chemistry and electron beam-based methods for selecting the radiolysis products formed and their relative amount during electron irradiation of liquid media in a transmission electron microscope. We outline various methods for establishing net oxidizing or net reducing reaction environments and propose solvents with minimal overall production of radicals under the electron beam...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918253/placental-growth-factor-alone-or-in-combination-with-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-as-an-aid-to-the-assessment-of-women-with-suspected-pre-eclampsia-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#13
Geoff K Frampton, Jeremy Jones, Micah Rose, Liz Payne
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) prediction based on blood pressure, presence of protein in the urine, symptoms and laboratory test abnormalities can result in false-positive diagnoses. This may lead to unnecessary antenatal admissions and preterm delivery. Blood tests that measure placental growth factor (PlGF) or the ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) to PlGF could aid prediction of PE if either were added to routine clinical assessment or used as a replacement for proteinuria testing...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918199/advances-and-controversies-in-the-management-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#14
George D Demetri, Jean-Yves Blay, Paolo G Casali
Intensive clinical research in the sarcoma field has provided insight into the histopathological diversity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and led to the introduction of many new agents that promise to play an important role in the management of patients with STS. While an increasing body of scientific data has advanced our knowledge of this complex family of mesenchymal diseases, several controversies remain to be resolved: Is doxorubicin-based therapy still the definitive standard first-line treatment for all patients with unresectable and/or metastatic STS of all subtypes? Is histology-driven therapy beyond gastrointestinal stromal tumors a reality or are we pursuing an unachievable objective? Are we making practical headway in the establishment of sarcoma reference centers? Is it clearly established which is the best parameter to evaluate the efficacy of a new agent in STS?...
January 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918139/an-observational-study-to-assess-brain-mri-change-and-disease-progression-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-practice-the-ms-mrius-study
#15
Robert Zivadinov, Nasreen Khan, Jennie Medin, Pia Christoffersen, Jennifer Price, Jonathan R Korn, Ian Bonzani, Michael G Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Ellen Carl, Diego Silva, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To describe methodology, interim baseline, and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition parameter characteristics of the multiple sclerosis clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS). MATERIAL & METHODS: The MS-MRIUS is an ongoing longitudinal and retrospective study of MS patients on fingolimod. Clinical and brain MRI image scan data were collected from 600 patients across 33 MS centers in the United States. MRI brain outcomes included change in whole-brain volume, lateral ventricle volume, T2- and T1-lesion volumes, and new/enlarging T2 and gadolinium-enhancing lesions...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917402/academic-institution-pilot-study-shows-far-fewer-diagnoses-of-sinusitis-than-reported-nationally
#16
Sarah R Akkina, Sarah J Novis, Nahid R Keshavarzi, Melissa A Pynnonen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of acute sinusitis (AS) and chronic sinusitis (CS) diagnosed by primary care and emergency medicine physicians in our academic institution to national data. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study of institutional census data and a population-based national sample. The setting was primary care and emergency departments at an academic healthcare institution and community healthcare practices nationally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the proportion of adults visits at our institution for AS and CS from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010...
October 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916725/prognostic-value-of-a-category-based-on-electron-microscopic-features-of-clival-chordomas
#17
Jiwei Bai, Yixuan Zhai, Shuai Wang, Hua Gao, Jiang Du, Junmei Wang, Mingxuan Li, Chuzhong Li, Songbai Gui, Cuiping Zhang, Yilin Sun, Yazhuo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Skull base chordomas are clinically malignant because of the difficulty of total removal and the high recurrence rate. Because the disease-free survival after surgery is currently unpredictable, there is a need for new parameters obtained from histological analyses of the resection specimen that allows a risk stratification of patients with chordoma. METHODS: Electron microscopic diagnoses were introduced into the clinical practice for the diagnosis of chordoma in our department in recent years...
December 1, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916703/oogenesis_pred-a-sequence-based-method-for-predicting-oogenesis-proteins-by-six-different-modes-of-chou-s-pseudo-amino-acid-composition
#18
Maryam Rahimi, Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh
Regarding to critical roles of oogenesis in formation of ova or unfertilized eggs from the oogonia by mitotic division and subsequent differentiation, the identification of oogenesis-related proteins is of great interest. However, the experimental determination of proteins involved in oogenesis is expensive, time consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, a new powerful discriminating model is indispensable for classifying oogenesis/non-oogenesis-related proteins with high accuracy and precision. Hereby, for the first time we developed a support vector machine based oogenesis protein prediction method which differentiates oogenesis from non-oogenesis proteins...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916248/analysis-of-consistency-between-temporospatial-gait-parameters-and-gait-assessment-with-the-use-of-wisconsin-gait-scale-in-post-stroke-patients
#19
Agnieszka Guzik, Mariusz Drużbicki, Grzegorz Przysada, Andrzej Kwolek, Agnieszka Brzozowska-Magoń, Andżelina Wolan-Nieroda
INTRODUCTION: Due to the increasing incidence and social effects of stroke there is a growing interest in finding methods enabling gait analysis in this group of patients. Observational techniques are predominantly applied in clinical practice; on the other hand advanced quantitative methods allow in-depth multidimensional gait assessment. The present study was designed to assess the consistency between temporospatial gait parameters acquired through 3-dimensional gait analysis and the results of gait assessment with the use of observational WGS in post stroke hemiparetic patients...
November 18, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914816/clinical-approach-used-in-medical-consultations-for-allergic-like-events-following-immunization-case-series-report-in-relation-to-practice-guidelines
#20
Joseline G Zafack, Gaston De Serres, Isabelle Rouleau, Marie-Claude Gariépy, Rémi Gagnon, Jean-Philippe Drolet, Danuta M Skowronski
BACKGROUND: The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters (JTFPP) guidelines for the investigation and reimmunization of patients who experienced allergic-like events (ALEs) after immunization are predicated on the likelihood of anaphylaxis, assessed through the time to symptom onset (≤ or >4 hours) and number of systems involved. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to compare the management of a series of patients with ALE in actual practice relative to JTFPP guidelines and to discuss key concepts and considerations in their use...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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