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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340065/the-next-three-decades-of-the-comet-assay-a-report-of-the-11th-international-comet-assay-workshop
#1
Gudrun Koppen, Amaya Azqueta, Bertrand Pourrut, Gunnar Brunborg, Andrew R Collins, Sabine A S Langie
The International Comet Assay Workshops are a series of scientific conferences dealing with practical and theoretical aspects of the Comet Assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis)-a simple method for detecting DNA strand breaks. The first paper describing such an assay was published over 30 years ago in 1984 by Swedish researchers O. Ostling and K. J. Johanson. Appropriately, the theme for the 2015 meeting was looking to the future: 'The Next 3 Decades of the Comet Assay'. The programme included 25 oral and 43 poster presentations depicting the latest advances in technical developments as well as applications of the comet assay in genotoxicity testing (in vitro and in vivo) and biomonitoring of both humans and the environment...
March 4, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335492/novel-approach-for-the-recognition-and-prediction-of-multi-function-radar-behaviours-based-on-predictive-state-representations
#2
Jian Ou, Yongguang Chen, Feng Zhao, Jin Liu, Shunping Xiao
The extensive applications of multi-function radars (MFRs) have presented a great challenge to the technologies of radar countermeasures (RCMs) and electronic intelligence (ELINT). The recently proposed cognitive electronic warfare (CEW) provides a good solution, whose crux is to perceive present and future MFR behaviours, including the operating modes, waveform parameters, scheduling schemes, etc. Due to the variety and complexity of MFR waveforms, the existing approaches have the drawbacks of inefficiency and weak practicability in prediction...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335096/estimation-of-methane-emissions-from-local-and-crossbreed-beef-cattle-in-dak-lak-province-of-vietnam
#3
Carlos Alberto Ramírez-Restrepo, Dung Van Tien, Ngoan Le Duc, Mario Herrero, Phung Le Dinh, Dung Dinh Van, Sen Le Thi Hoa, Cuong Vu Chi, Cesar Solano-Patiño, Amy M Lerner, Timothy D Searchinger
Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems in Daklak Province, Vietnam. Methods: Records from Local Yellow x Red Sindhi (Bos indicus; Lai Sind) and ½ Limousin, ½ Drought Master and ½ Red Angus cattle during the growth (0 to 21 months) and fattening (22 to 25 months) periods were used to better understand variations on meat productivity and enteric methane emissions...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335080/comparisons-among-mri-signs-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-and-fractional-anisotropy-in-dogs-with-a-solitary-intracranial-meningioma-or-histiocytic-sarcoma
#4
Masae Wada, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuji Hamamoto, Yoshihiko Yu, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
Although MRI has become widely used in small animal practice, little is known about the validity of advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. The aim of this retrospective analytical observational study was to investigate the characteristics of diffusion parameters, that is the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy, in dogs with a solitary intracranial meningioma or histiocytic sarcoma. Dogs were included based on the performance of diffusion MRI and histological confirmation...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334767/discomfort-during-bronchoscopy-performed-after-endobronchial-intubation-with-fentanyl-and-midazolam-a-prospective-study
#5
Daisuke Minami, Nagio Takigawa, Hirohisa Kano, Takashi Ninomiya, Toshio Kubo, Eiki Ichihara, Kadoaki Ohashi, Akiko Sato, Katsuyuki Hotta, Masahiro Tabata, Mitsune Tanimoto, Katsuyuki Kiura
Objective: Although endobronchial intubation during a bronchoscopic examination is useful for invasive procedures, it is not routine practice in Japan. The present study evaluated discomfort due to endobronchial intubation using fentanyl and midazolam sedation during bronchoscopy. Methods: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled prospectively from November 2014 to September 2015 at Okayama University Hospital. Fentanyl (20 µg) was administered to the patients just before endobronchial intubation, and fentanyl (10 µg) and midazolam (1 mg) were added as needed during the procedure...
February 23, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334264/spatial-patterns-and-sequential-sampling-plans-for-predators-of-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae-in-minnesota-soybean
#6
Anh K Tran, Robert L Koch
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an economically important soybean pest. Many studies have demonstrated that predatory insects are important in suppressing A. glycines population growth. However, to improve the utilization of predators in A. glycines management, sampling plans need to be developed and validated for predators. Aphid predators were sampled in soybean fields near Rosemount, Minnesota, from 2006-2007 and 2013-2015 with sample sizes of 20-80 plants. Sampling plans were developed for Orius insidiosus (Say), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), and all aphidophagous Coccinellidae species combined...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333889/normothermic-ex-situ-liver-preservation-the-new-gold-standard
#7
Richard W Laing, Hynek Mergental, Darius F Mirza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technology recently introduced into the practice of liver transplantation. This review recapitulates benefits of normothermic perfusion over conventional static cold storage and summarizes recent publications in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: The first clinical trials have demonstrated both safety and feasibility of NMP-L. They have shown that machine perfusion can entirely replace cold storage or be commenced following a period of cold ischaemia...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333245/euploidy-rates-in-donor-egg-cycles-significantly-differ-between-fertility-centers
#8
S Munné, M Alikani, L Ribustello, P Colls, Pedro A Martínez-Ortiz, D H McCulloh
STUDY QUESTION: Do external factors affect euploidy in egg donor cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study demonstrates that during human assisted reproduction, embryonic chromosome abnormalities may be partly iatrogenic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chromosome abnormalities have been linked in the past to culture conditions such as temperature and Ph variations, as well as hormonal stimulation. Those reports were performed with older screening techniques (FISH), or ART methods no longer in use, and the subjects studied were not a homogeneous group...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333241/dysmorphic-patterns-are-associated-with-cytoskeletal-alterations-in-human-oocytes
#9
Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Maria Cristina Guglielmo, Mario Mignini Renzini, Rubens Fadini, Clarissa Moutier, Maria Merola, Elena De Ponti, Giovanni Coticchio
Study Question: Are specific morphological anomalies in human mature oocytes, as revealed by transmitted light microscopy, associated with intrinsic damage to the meiotic spindle and actin cytoskeleton? SUMMARY ANSWER: Aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and domains of centrally localized granular cytoplasm (GC) reflect intrinsic damage to the oocyte cytoskeleton, namely alterations in spindle size, chromosome misalignment and cortical actin disorganization...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333171/dual-dimensional-nanostructures-with-highly-durable-non-wetting-properties-under-dynamic-and-underwater-conditions
#10
Seunghyeon Baek, Wuseok Kim, Sangmin Jeon, Kijung Yong
Non-wetting states with high durability under both dynamic and underwater conditions are very desirable for practical applications of superhydrophobic surfaces in various fields. Despite increasing demands for this dual stability of non-wetting surfaces, studies investigating both the impact dynamics and underwater stability are very rare. In the current study, we performed water droplet impact dynamics and underwater stability studies using ZnO/Si hierarchical nanostructures (HNs) as a model system. The effects of the surface structure on the non-wetting states under dynamic conditions were first studied by comparing various surface structures, such as ZnO nanowires (NWs), Si microposts (MPs), ZnO/Si HNs with controlled MP interspacings, and lotus leaf (LL)...
March 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330702/-exploratory-population-study-of-overweight-and-obese-subjects-perceptions-searching-for-improved-management-practices
#11
C Crutze, B Pétré, N Dardenne, A-F Donneau, S Streel, A Albert, A Scheen, E Husson, M Guillaume
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are major public health problems of growing concern. Few studies have investigated the representations and perceptions of subjects with overweight and obesity, especially in the general population, as compared to people in a medical weight loss process. The objective of this study was to fill this gap by enabling participants to express their feelings and experience about their overweight, and to assess the extent of the body mass index (BMI) as a determinant of these perceptions...
March 19, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328986/estimation-of-genetic-parameters-and-genotype-by-environment-interactions-related-to-acute-ammonia-stress-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-juveniles-at-two-different-salinity-levels
#12
Xia Lu, Sheng Luan, Baoxiang Cao, Xianhong Meng, Juan Sui, Ping Dai, Kun Luo, Xiaoli Shi, Dengchun Hao, Guomin Han, Jie Kong
Regarding the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the deterioration of water quality from intensive culture systems and environmental pollution is a common but troublesome problem in the cultivation of this species. The toxicities that result from deteriorating water quality, such as that from ammonia stress, have lethal effects on juvenile shrimp and can increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The toxicity of ammonia plays an important role in the frequently high mortality during the early stage on shrimp farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328950/repeated-anaesthesia-with-isoflurane-and-medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl-in-guinea-pigs-and-its-influence-on-physiological-parameters
#13
Sabrina Schmitz, Sabine Tacke, Brian Guth, Julia Henke
Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328894/laboratory-environmental-factors-and-pain-behavior-the-relevance-of-unknown-unknowns-to-reproducibility-and-translation
#14
Jeffrey S Mogil
The poor record of basic-to-clinical translation in recent decades has led to speculation that preclinical research is "irreproducible", and this irreproducibility in turn has largely been attributed to deficiencies in reporting and statistical practices. There are, however, a number of other reasonable explanations of both poor translation and difficulties in one laboratory replicating the results of another. This article examines these explanations as they pertain to preclinical pain research. I submit that many instances of apparent irreproducibility are actually attributable to interactions between the phenomena and interventions under study and "latent" environmental factors affecting the rodent subjects...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328291/evaluation-of-multi-parameter-test-statistics-for-multiple-imputation
#15
Yu Liu, Craig K Enders
In Ordinary Least Square regression, researchers often are interested in knowing whether a set of parameters is different from zero. With complete data, this could be achieved using the gain in prediction test, hierarchical multiple regression, or an omnibus F test. However, in substantive research scenarios, missing data often exist. In the context of multiple imputation, one of the current state-of-art missing data strategies, there are several different analogous multi-parameter tests of the joint significance of a set of parameters, and these multi-parameter test statistics can be referenced to various distributions to make statistical inferences...
March 22, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328072/tensor-estimation-for-double-pulsed-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging
#16
Calvin B Shaw, Edward S Hui, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen
Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging (DP-DKI) represents the double diffusion encoding (DDE) MRI signal in terms of six-dimensional (6D) diffusion and kurtosis tensors. Here a method for estimating these tensors from experimental data is described. A standard numerical algorithm for tensor estimation from conventional (i.e. single diffusion encoding) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data is generalized to DP-DKI. This algorithm is based on a weighted least squares (WLS) fit of the signal model to the data combined with constraints designed to minimize unphysical parameter estimates...
March 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327898/adherence-to-capecitabine-in-preoperative-treatment-of-stage-ii-and-iii-rectal-cancer-do-we-need-to-worry
#17
R Font, J A Espinas, L Layos, M Martinez Villacampa, J Capdevila, M Tobeña, A Pisa, C Pericay, C Lezcano, E Fort, I Cardona, N Berga, J Solà, J M Borras
Background: : Preoperative oral capecitabine plus radiotherapy has been progressively adopted in oncology units to provide more convenient care to patients with rectal cancer, but little is known about adherence to this therapy. Patients and methods: : Prospective, multicentre observational study in six hospitals in metropolitan Barcelona (Spain), in patients with stage II and III rectal cancer. Assessment of adherence was based on the medical report in the clinical history, a patient questionnaire and a pill count in the pharmacy service upon finalization of treatment...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327897/towards-a-global-cancer-knowledge-network-dissecting-the-current-international-cancer-genomic-sequencing-landscape
#18
D J Vis, J Lewin, R G Liao, M Mao, F Andre, R L Ward, F Calvo, B T Teh, A A Camargo, B M Knoppers, C Sawyers, L F A Wessels, M Lawler, L L Siu, E Voest
Background: While next generation sequencing has enhanced our understanding of the biological basis of malignancy, current knowledge on global practices for sequencing cancer samples is limited. To address this deficiency, we developed a survey to provide a snapshot of current sequencing activities globally, identify barriers to data sharing and use this information to develop sustainable solutions for the cancer research community. Methods: A multi-item survey was conducted assessing demographics, clinical data collection, genomic platforms, privacy/ethics concerns, funding sources and data sharing barriers for sequencing initiatives globally...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327718/can-charged-colloidal-particles-increase-the-thermoelectric-energy-conversion-efficiency
#19
Thomas J Salez, Bo Tao Huang, Maud Rietjens, Marco Bonetti, Cécile Wiertel-Gasquet, Michel Roger, Cleber Lopes Filomeno, Emmanuelle Dubois, Régine Perzynski, Sawako Nakamae
Currently, liquid thermocells are receiving increasing attention as an inexpensive alternative to conventional solid-state thermoelectrics for low-grade waste heat recovery applications. Here we present a novel path to increase the Seebeck coefficient of liquid thermoelectric materials using charged colloidal suspensions; namely, ionically stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluids) dispersed in aqueous potassium ferro-/ferri-cyanide electrolytes. The dependency of thermoelectric potential on experimental parameters such as nanoparticle concentration and types of solute ions (lithium citrate and tetrabutylammonium citrate) is examined to reveal the relative contributions from the thermogalvanic potential of redox couples and the entropy of transfer of nanoparticles and ions...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327545/calibration-free-assays-on-standard-real-time-pcr-devices
#20
Pawel R Debski, Kamil Gewartowski, Seweryn Bajer, Piotr Garstecki
Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) is one of central techniques in molecular biology and important tool in medical diagnostics. While being a golden standard qPCR techniques depend on reference measurements and are susceptible to large errors caused by even small changes of reaction efficiency or conditions that are typically not marked by decreased precision. Digital PCR (dPCR) technologies should alleviate the need for calibration by providing absolute quantitation using binary (yes/no) signals from partitions provided that the basic assumption of amplification a single target molecule into a positive signal is met...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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