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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786136/temporal-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-cervical-cancer-in-south-africa-1994-2012
#1
Gbenga Olorunfemi, Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Gwinyai Masukume, Admire Chikandiwa, Pedro T Pisa, Elvira Singh
Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of cancer death among female South Africans (SA). Improved access to reproductive health services following multi-ethnic democracy in 1994, HIV epidemic, and the initiation of CC population-based screening in early 2000's have influenced the epidemiology of CC in SA. We therefore evaluated the trends in CC age-standardized incidence (ASIR) (1994 - 2009) and mortality rates (ASMR) (2004 - 2012) using data from the South African National Cancer Registry and the Statistics South Africa, respectively...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782302/reasons-for-not-using-condoms-among-heterosexual-men-in-belgrade-serbia
#2
Milan Bjekić, Sandra Sipetić-Grujičić, Hristina Vlajinac, Aleksandra Nikolić
Dear Editor, Proper and consistent use of male condoms can be a highly effective method of preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV (1), but this method relies on men's willingness and ability to use condoms. In the United States of America, about 20% overall and less than 50% of adults with multiple partners used a condom at last intercourse (2). In Serbia in 2013 (3), 50.0% of women and 62.5% of men aged 15-49 who had more than one partner in the past year used a condom during their last intercourse...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781882/no-hiv-transmission-from-virally-suppressed-mothers-during-breastfeeding-in-rural-tanzania
#3
Ezekiel Luoga, Fiona Vanobberghen, Rahel Bircher, Amina Nyuri, Alex J Ntamatungiro, Dorcas Mnzava, Getrud J Mollel, Emilio Letang, Manuel Battegay, Maja Weisser, Anna Gamell
BACKGROUND: To what extent antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) during breastfeeding remains unclear. We assessed the MTCT risk from mothers on ART to their infants during breastfeeding. SETTING: Ifakara, rural Tanzania. METHODS: We included infants born between 01/2013 and 05/2016 to mothers who initiated ART before delivery, had a negative HIV DNA-PCR at 4-12 weeks, and exclusively breastfed for ≥6 months...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781877/human-papillomavirus-genotypes-in-invasive-cervical-carcinoma-in-hiv-seropositive-and-seronegative-women-in-zimbabwe
#4
Washington Mudini, Joel Michael Palefsky, Martin John Hale, Michael Zvavahera Chirenje, Rudo Tanyaradzwa Makunike-Mutasa, Fiona Mutisi, Alltalents Murahwa, Altini Mario
BACKGROUND: Invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) accounts for 23% of all cancer-related deaths in Zimbabwean women. Trials for a national program of genotype-specific HPV vaccines are underway to prevent cervical carcinoma, but the distribution of HPV types among women with ICC according to HIV status is unknown. METHODS: To determine prevalence and distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes by HIV status in women with ICC, we performed a cross-sectional study on women referred for ICC testing at four urban referral hospitals in Zimbabwe from June 2014 - December 2015...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777420/what-role-do-masculine-norms-play-in-men-s-hiv-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#5
REVIEW
Katelyn M Sileo, Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Shari L Dworkin, Paul J Fleming
Men living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to test for HIV than women. We conducted a scoping review in May of 2016 to identify how masculine norms influence men's HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review yielded a total of 13 qualitative studies from 8 countries. Masculine norms create both barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included emotional inexpression, gendered communication, social pressures to be strong and self-reliant, and the fear that an HIV positive result would threaten traditional social roles (i...
May 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777162/hiv-and-vertebral-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-metanalysis
#6
Thales A S H Ilha, Fabio V Comim, Rafaela M Copes, Juliet E Compston, Melissa O Premaor
The survival of HIV-infected patients has increased with the advent of antiretroviral therapy with the emergence of new comorbidities. Vertebral fracture is a manifestation of reduced bone strength and osteoporosis. This study aims to assess the frequency of spine fractures in HIV-positive men and women aged over 18 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies. Studies that evaluated morphometric and/or clinical vertebral fracture were included...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772814/chronic-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-botswana
#7
Tshepiso Mbangiwa, Ishmael Kasvosve, Motswedi Anderson, Prisca K Thami, Wonderful T Choga, Austen Needleman, Bonolo B Phinius, Sikhulile Moyo, Melvin Leteane, Jean Leidner, Jason T Blackard, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Rosemary M Musonda, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Simani Gaseitsiwe
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771940/unplanned-pregnancies-and-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-positive-women-in-care
#8
Madeline Y Sutton, Wen Zhou, Emma L Frazier
Among 230,360 women with diagnosed HIV in the United States (U.S.), ~ 8,500 give birth annually, and unplanned pregnancies (as with HIV-negative women) are prevalent. However, unplanned pregnancies and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women have been understudied. To examine unplanned pregnancies and contraceptive use among HIV-positive women, we used 2013-2014 data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), an HIV surveillance system that produces national estimates for HIV-positive adults in care in the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771792/using-a-social-network-strategy-to-distribute-hiv-self-test-kits-to-african-american-and-latino-msm
#9
Marguerita A Lightfoot, Chadwick K Campbell, Nicholas Moss, Sarah Treves-Kagan, Emily Agnew, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Hyman Scott, Aria M Sa'id, Sheri A Lippman
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted globally by the HIV epidemic. Studies suggest that HIV Self-testing (HIVST) is highly acceptable among MSM. Social network strategies to increase testing are effective in reaching MSM, particularly MSM of color, who may not otherwise test. We tested a social-network based strategy to distribute HIVST kits to African American and Latino MSM. SETTING: This study was conducted in Alameda County, California a large, urban/suburban county with an HIV epidemic mirroring the national HIV epidemic...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771781/lack-of-virological-suppression-among-young-hiv-positive-adults-in-botswana
#10
Vlad Novitsky, Tendani Gaolathe, Mompati Mmalane, Sikhulile Moyo, Unoda Chakalisa, Etienne Kadima Yankinda, Tafireyi Marukutira, Molly Pretorius Holme, Tumalano Sekoto, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Rosemary Musonda, Erik van Widenfelt, Kathleen M Powis, Nealia Khan, Scott Dryden-Peterson, Kara Bennett, Kathleen E Wirth, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Pam Bachanas, Lisa A Mills, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, El-Halabi Shenaaz, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, M Essex
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 RNA load is the best biological predictor of HIV transmission and treatment response. The rate of virologic suppression among key sub-populations can guide HIV prevention programs. METHODS: The Botswana Combination Prevention Project performed a population-based household survey among adults in 30 communities in Botswana. Data collected included knowledge of HIV-positive status, ART coverage and virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767637/hiv-risk-among-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-age-disparate-partnerships-evidence-from-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#11
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Gavin George, Sean Beckett, Meredith Evans, Lara Lewis, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Ayesha B M Kharsany
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of age-disparate partnerships in high HIV-infection rates among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains inconclusive. This study examined the HIV-infection risk associated with age-disparate partnerships among 15- to 24-year-old women in a hyperendemic setting in South Africa. METHODS: Face-to-face questionnaire, and laboratory HIV and viral load data were collected during 2014-2015 among a representative sample (15-49 years old) in KwaZulu-Natal...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764247/survey-and-analysis-for-impact-factors-of-psychological-distress-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-who-continue-pregnancy
#12
Shouxue Qin, Yanping Tan, Bingyan Lu, Yuqing Cheng, Yanli Nong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759086/comprehensive-nationwide-analysis-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-finland-from-1983-to-2013
#13
I Aho, P Kivelä, M Kaijomaa, H-M Surcel, M Ristola, O Heikinheimo, J Sutinen
HIV-positive children are still born in Europe despite low mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates. We aimed to clarify the remaining barriers to the prevention of MTCT. By combining the national registers, we identified all women living with HIV delivering at least one child during 1983-2013. Of the 212 women delivering after HIV diagnosis, 46% were diagnosed during the pregnancy. In multivariate analysis, age >30 years (P = 0.001), sexual transmission (P = 0.012), living outside of the metropolitan area (P = 0...
May 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755758/autoantibodies-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-impact-on-clinical-outcomes-and-extrahepatic-manifestations
#14
Andrew J Gilman, An K Le, Changqing Zhao, Joseph Hoang, Lee A Yasukawa, Susan C Weber, John M Vierling, Mindie H Nguyen
Goals: To examine the role that autoantibodies (auto-abs) play in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) regarding demographics, presence of extrahepatic manifestations and long-term outcomes in a large US cohort. Background: Auto-abs have been reported to be prevalent in patients with chronic HCV infection, but data on the natural history of these patients are limited. Study: The study included 1556 consecutive patients with HCV without concurrent HIV and/or HBV who had testing for antinuclear antibody (ANA), antimitochondrial antibody (AMA), antismooth muscle antibody (ASMA) and/or antiliver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM)...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754267/mood-meth-condom-use-and-gender-latent-growth-curve-modeling-results-from-a-randomized-trial
#15
Eileen V Pitpitan, Shirley J Semple, Jim Zians, Steffanie A Strathdee, Thomas L Patterson
Methamphetamine use poses increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. There is robust evidence that methamphetamine use increases sexual risk behavior, like condomless sex, primarily among men who have sex with men but also among heterosexual women and men. Gender differences have been found among women and men who use meth, and there is a high degree of interconnectedness between meth use, depression, and condomless sex. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the efficacy of a theory-based, tri-focal intervention designed to reduce depression, meth use, and condomless sex among women and men, and to examine gender as a moderator of efficacy...
May 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747434/the-impact-of-human-papilloma-viruses-matrix-metallo-proteinases-and-hiv-protease-inhibitors-on-the-onset-and-progression-of-uterine-cervix-epithelial-tumors-a-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Barillari, Paolo Monini, Cecilia Sgadari, Barbara Ensoli
Infection of uterine cervix epithelial cells by the Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) is associated with the development of dysplastic/hyperplastic lesions, termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN lesions may regress, persist or progress to invasive cervical carcinoma (CC), a leading cause of death worldwide. CIN is particularly frequent and aggressive in women infected by both HPV and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), as compared to the general female population. In these individuals, however, therapeutic regimens employing HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) have reduced CIN incidence and/or clinical progression, shedding light on the mechanism(s) of its development...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747339/-distribution-and-associated-factors-of-high-risk-hpv-genotypes-infection-among-hpv-positive-women-who-participated-cervical-screening-test-in-shenzhen-2014-2016-china
#17
Y Y Wang, W Lin, B Wu, S X Yuan, J L Yao, X S Zhao, B Chen, Y L Qiao, F H Zhao, W Chen, S Y Hu, Z H Liu
Objective: To analyze the distribution and associated factors of high-risk genotypes of HPV in cervical infection among women in Shenzhen. Methods: The information on sociodemographic characteristics and HPV genotypes of HPV-positive women who participated cervical screening test from January 2014 to December 2016 was downloaded from Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Management Information System. According to the pathogenicity, the high-risk HPV genotypes were divided into 15 types including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68; and there were 6 low-risk genotypes including HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, and 81...
May 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746535/gonorrhea-chlamydia-and-hiv-incidence-among-female-sex-workers-in-cotonou-benin-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Souleymane Diabaté, Annie Chamberland, Nassirou Geraldo, Cécile Tremblay, Michel Alary
Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to carry a heavy burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). For prevention purposes, there is a need to identify most-at-risk subgroups among them. The objective of this longitudinal cohort study conducted at Dispensaire IST, Cotonou, Benin, was to assess Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) / Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) incidence and determinants; and HIV incidence among FSWs in presence of STI/HIV risk reduction activities. Overall, 319 adult FSWs were followed quarterly from September 2008 to March 2012...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744766/social-support-and-violence-prone-relationships-as-predictors-of-disclosure-of-hiv-status-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-south-africans
#19
Jocelyn Fifield, Lucia O'Sullivan, Elizabeth A Kelvin, Joanne E Mantell, Theresa Exner, Gita Ramjee, Kelly Blanchard, Susie Hoffman
Despite the salience of social support and violence as potential outcomes of disclosure, how pre-existing social support and relationship violence among people living with HIV shapes and influences HIV status disclosure has received limited attention. Following the Disclosure Process Model, this study investigated pre-disclosure support and violence-prone relationships as predictors of disclosure using data from a prospective study of 459 newly diagnosed South African women and men. Most (88%) disclosed their status to at least one person by their 8-month interview...
May 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736274/burden-of-physical-psychological-and-social-ill-health-during-and-after-pregnancy-among-women-in-india-pakistan-kenya-and-malawi
#20
Mary McCauley, Barbara Madaj, Sarah A White, Fiona Dickinson, Sarah Bar-Zev, Mamuda Aminu, Pamela Godia, Pratima Mittal, Shamsa Zafar, Nynke van den Broek
Introduction: For every woman who dies during pregnancy and childbirth, many more suffer ill-health, the burden of which is highest in low-resource settings. We sought to assess the extent and types of maternal morbidity. Methods: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study at primary-level and secondary-level healthcare facilities in India, Pakistan, Kenya and Malawi to assess physical, psychological and social morbidity during and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic factors, education, socioeconomic status (SES), quality of life, satisfaction with health, reported symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory investigations were assessed...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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