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Linda Resnik, Sarah Ekerholm, Erin E Johnson, Marsha L Ellison, Thomas P O'Toole
OBJECTIVE: Veterans Affairs (VA) is expanding peer support. Research is limited on Veterans' perspective on benefits from peer services. We describe homeless Veteran perceptions of value and examine characteristics associated with benefit. METHOD: From a sample of Veterans in a multisite randomized control trial, we studied addition of peers in VA Primary Care and homeless-oriented primary care clinics. We used qualitative methods to study the perceptions of peer services among a subsample of homeless Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Sally P Weinrich, Jill E Bormann, Dale Glaser, Sally Hardin, Mary Barger, Cabiria Lizarraga, Juan Del Rio, Carolyn B Allard
Women and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Negative attitudes of nurses toward homeless women are a major barrier to homeless women seeking health care. This cross-sectional, mixed-methods pilot study, conducted primarily by nurses, tested the Mantram Repetition Program for the first time with 29 homeless women. The Mantram Repetition Program is a spiritually based skills training that teaches mantram (sacred word) repetition as a cost-effective, personalized, portable, and focused strategy for reducing stress and improving well-being...
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
Aliya Yamin, Ethan Bornstein, Rachel Hensel, Omar Mohamed, Russell R Kempker
Background.  Despite the low and decreasing prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, there remain certain high-risk groups with high incidence rates. The targeted screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) among these high-risk groups are needed to achieve TB elimination; however, by most accounts, LTBI treatment completion rates remain low. Methods.  We retrospectively studied all patients accepting treatment for LTBI at the Fulton County Health Department TB clinic over 2 years...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Eric M Nordstrom, Angela Keniston, Fafa Baouchi, Alvaro Martinez-Camacho
AIMS: This study assesses the efficacy, accessibility, and safety of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in a safety net hospital population. METHODS: Patients at Denver Health receiving pegylated interferon for HCV infection between 2008 and 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Sociodemographic, biochemical, and virologic data were collected on each patient. The primary outcomes were the rate of sustained virologic response and early treatment discontinuation, with reason for discontinuation documented...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Stephen Metraux, Dan Treglia, Thomas P O'Toole
We examined migration patterns among 113,400 homeless veterans, focusing on the prevalence and the basic geographic patterns of this migration. Data were for all veterans who initiated use of Veterans Affairs homeless services in 2011 or 2012; and we followed them using Veterans Affairs administrative records for up to 2 years following this initial contact. Results showed that 15.3% of the veterans migrated across regions while homeless. Those who were homeless for longer periods were more likely to migrate, and migration, were it to occur, was most likely earlier on in veterans' homelessness episodes...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Jennifer L Stanley, Alexandra V Jansson, Adebola A Akinyemi, Clifford S Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: People experiencing homelessness are susceptible to many adverse health events, including violence. The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of homeless individuals who suffered a violent death in Maryland. Characterizing these deaths will provide a basis for additional analyses that can inform violence prevention activities. METHODS: This study used data from the Maryland Violent Death Reporting System to examine violent deaths of homeless people occurring from 2003 through 2011...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Maria J O'Connell, Wesley J Kasprow, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: This study examined social network structure and function among a sample of 460 homeless veterans who participated in an experimental trial of the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supported Housing (HUD-VASH) program. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to HUD-VASH (housing subsidies and case management), case management only, or standard care. Mixed-model longitudinal analysis was used to compare treatment groups on social network outcomes over 18 months...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
R Scott Johnson, Andrea G Stolar, James F McGuire, Krithika Mittakanti, Sean Clark, Loretta A Coonan, David P Graham
OBJECTIVE: Significant variability exists regarding the criteria and procedures used by different veterans' courts (VCs) across the country. Limited guidance is available regarding which VC model has the most successful outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with incarceration during VC participation. METHODS: This study used data for 1,224 veterans collected from the HOMES (Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System) database of the Department of Veterans Affairs, as well as data from a national phone survey inventory of all U...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Carol A Keane, Christopher A Magee, Peter J Kelly
Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael S Gordon, Steven B Carswell, Monique Wilson, Timothy W Kinlock, Lauren Restivo, Michelle McKenzie, Josiah D Rich
Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = ...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Yuri P Springer, Roy Gerona, Erich Scheunemann, Sarah L Shafer, Thomas Lin, Samuel D Banister, Michael P Cooper, Louisa J Castrodale, Michael Levy, Jay C Butler, Joseph B McLaughlin
In July 2015, personnel in the Alaska Division of Public Health's Section of Epidemiology became aware of an increase in the number of patients being treated in Anchorage hospital emergency departments for adverse reactions associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs are a chemically diverse class of designer drugs that bind to the same cannabinoid receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. A public health investigation was initiated to describe clinical outcomes, characterize the outbreak, and identify SC chemicals circulating in Anchorage...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Melanie J Gregg, Andrea Bedard
PURPOSE: A pilot study was conducted to describe the physical activity experiences and perceived benefits of and barriers to physical activity participation for patrons of a homeless shelter. The resulting pilot data may be used to inform the creation of and support for physical activity and sport programs for those experiencing homelessness. METHOD: Eighteen male patrons of a homeless shelter completed self-report questionnaires to assess psychosocial factors: global self-esteem, general self-efficacy, exercise intention and attitudes, and quality of life...
October 13, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Alex Holmes, Trevor Carlisle, Zoe Vale, George Hatvani, Camillie Heagney, Simon Jones
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether a 'housing first' permanent supported accommodation was effective in improving housing stability, continuity of care and reducing mental health admissions for persons experiencing chronic homelessness with psychosis. METHODS: A quasi prospective cohort study of 42 chronic homeless persons with psychosis accommodated in a new purpose built facility in central Melbourne. Accommodation stability, mental health service contacts and psychiatric admissions were compared across the 2 years prior, the first 2 years of placement and the 2 years after leaving...
October 11, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hao Wang, Carol Johnson, Richard D Robinson, Vicki A Nejtek, Chet D Schrader, JoAnna Leuck, Johnbosco Umejiego, Allison Trop, Kathleen A Delaney, Nestor R Zenarosa
BACKGROUND: Risks prediction models of 30-day all-cause hospital readmissions are multi-factorial. Severity of illness (SOI) and risk of mortality (ROM) categorized by All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRG) seem to predict hospital readmission but lack large sample validation. Effects of risk reduction interventions including providing post-discharge outpatient visits remain uncertain. We aim to determine the accuracy of using SOI and ROM to predict readmission and further investigate the role of outpatient visits in association with hospital readmission...
October 10, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Matthew J To, Anita Palepu, Tim Aubry, Rosane Nisenbaum, Evie Gogosis, Anne Gadermann, Rebecca Cherner, Susan Farrell, Vachan Misir, Stephen W Hwang
BACKGROUND: Homelessness is a major concern in many urban communities across North America. Since vulnerably housed individuals are at risk of experiencing homelessness, it is important to identify predictive factors linked to subsequent homelessness in this population. The objectives of this study were to determine the probability of experiencing homelessness among vulnerably housed adults over three years and factors associated with higher risk of homelessness. METHODS: Vulnerably housed adults were recruited in three Canadian cities...
October 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
Daniel P Riggins, Chinazo O Cunningham, Yuming Ning, Aaron D Fox
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) is an effective means of therapy, but patients with recent criminal justice involvement may need more support during BMT than other patients. We hypothesized that recently incarcerated BMT patients who initiated treatment in primary care would have poorer treatment outcomes than those who were not recently incarcerated. METHODS: We analyzed data from a multi-site cohort study of BMT integrated into HIV care...
August 11, 2016: Substance Abuse
Elaine Hsieh
In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless...
October 7, 2016: Social Work in Public Health
Kathi L H Harp, Carrie B Oser
African American families are overrepresented in the Child Welfare System; however, extant research on this phenomenon has (1) focused mostly on Caucasian or mixed-race samples and (2) has not examined informal custody arrangements alongside official child custody loss. This research addresses these gaps in the literature by examining factors associated with both official and informal child custody loss among a sample of African American mothers. Multinomial regression results show that having ever been incarcerated following a conviction increases the odds of experiencing both types of custody loss relative to no loss...
November 2016: Social Science Research
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