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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906432/cuban-epidemic-optic-neuropathy-1991-1993-and-jos%C3%A3-saramago-s-novel-blindness-1995
#1
Robert M Feibel, Jennifer Arch
PURPOSE: This article reviews the history of Cuban Epidemic Optic Neuropathy (1991-1993), which caused visual loss, peripheral neuralgias, and other neurological symptoms in over 50,000 persons, an incidence of almost 0.5% of the entire population. The clinical findings, etiology, and treatment are described. We then relate the Cuban epidemic to the fictional epidemic of contagious blindness depicted by Nobel Laureate José Saramago in his 1995 novel Blindness. This novel describes an unnamed modern city in which all inhabitants, except the ophthalmologist's wife, are affected with a white, not black, blindness...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906223/new-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-hypertension-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis
#2
Dai Kimura, Jordy Saravia, Sridhar Jaligama, Isabella McNamara, Luan D Vu, Ryan D Sullivan, Salvatore Mancarella, Dahui You, Stephania A Cormier
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Serum free medium was administered to age-matched mice as control...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906006/topical-application-of-5-fluorouracil-5-percent-cream-associated-with-severe-neutropenia-discussion-of-a-case-and-review-of-systemic-reactions-after-topical-treatment-with-5-fluorouracil
#3
Philip R Cohen
5-fluorouracil, a fluoropyrimidine antineoplastic drug, is used to topically treat actinic keratoses. Local skin reactions to the medication are common and anticipated. However, severe adverse events from topical 5-fluorouracil are rare and unexpected. A 69-year-old man with a lower lip actinic keratosis developed severe neutropenia on day 11 of topical 5-fluorouracil treatment - after 14 applications. After receiving a subcutaneous injection of filgrastim, his neutrophil count normalized. The PubMed database was used to search the following terms: agranulocytosis, cream, 5-fluorouracil, granulocytopenia, neutropenia, severe, systemic, topical, and toxicity...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905630/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-neuromodulation-of-the-sciatic-nerve-for-postoperative-analgesia-following-ambulatory-foot-surgery-a-proof-of-concept-study
#4
Brian M Ilfeld, Rodney A Gabriel, Engy T Said, Amanda M Monahan, Jacklynn F Sztain, Wendy B Abramson, Bahareh Khatibi, John J Finneran, Pia T Jaeger, Alexandra K Schwartz, Sonya S Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducing needle followed by the delivery of electric current. This modality has been reported to treat chronic pain as well as postoperative pain the day following knee surgery. However, it remains unknown if this analgesic technique may be used in ambulatory subjects following foot procedures beginning within the recovery room immediately following surgery, and with only short series of patients reported to date, the only available data are derived from strictly observational studies...
June 13, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905414/tips-for-pedal-access-technical-evolution-and-review
#5
Ansar Z Vance, Daniel A Leung, Timothy W Clark
Pedal access has become an indispensable technique for endovascular therapy of complex lower extremity peripheral vascular disease. From an option as a single access in a patient lacking traditional access approaches to a critical maneuver in combined antegrade-retrograde approaches during the treatment of complex chronic total occlusions, pedal access is an essential tool for any endovascular physician treating peripheral arterial disease. Anticipatory planning is critical in the successful utilization of pedal access...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905151/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-with-t-14-18-and-trisomy-12-a-case-report
#6
Maïlys Le Guyader, Marie Coude, Kamel Laribi, Anne Besançon, Habib Ghnaya, Nathalie Denizon, Sabine Defasque, Fabienne Pineau-Vincent, Mohamed Kaabar, Pierre Lemaire
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell neoplasm defined by the presence of at least 5×109 G/L monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. It is the most common type of leukemia in adult patients from Western countries. CLL is characterized by a gradual accumulation of small, longliving, immunologically dysfunctional, morphologically mature-appearing B-lymphocytes in blood, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. It has also been reported that CLL cells have a proliferation rate higher than previously recognized, particularly in the lymphoid tissues...
June 15, 2018: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905038/in-vivo-precision-assessment-of-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-tissue-oximeter-oxyprem-v1-3-in-neonates-considering-systemic-hemodynamic-fluctuations
#7
Stefan Kleiser, Daniel Ostojic, Nassim Nasseri, Helene Isler, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Dirk Bassler, Martin Wolf, Felix Scholkmann, Tanja Karen
The aim was to determine the precision of a noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based tissue oximeter (OxyPrem v1.3). Using a linear mixed-effects model, we quantified the variability for cerebral tissue oxygenation (StO2) measurements in 35 preterm neonates to be 2.64%, a value that meets the often-articulated clinicians' demand for a precise tissue oxygenation measurement. We showed that the variability of StO2 values measured was dominated by spontaneous systemic hemodynamic fluctuations during the measurement, meaning that precision of the instrument was actually even better...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904426/antinociceptive-effects-of-dezocine-on-complete-freund-s-adjuvant-induced-inflammatory-pain-in-rats
#8
Zhenhai Ye, Maoxian Zhang, Ning Ding, Peng Gao, Yunpeng Hei, Yun Wang, Wei Gao, Qingshan Ye
Inflammatory pain is known to severely impact the life quality of patients. Notably, dezocine is widely used for the treatment of pain. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the effects of dezocine on a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats and to investigate the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, including the control, CFA and dezocine+CFA groups, and then subcutaneously injected with 100 µl saline, subcutaneously injected with 100 µl CFA or pretreated with 1 ml dezocine (0...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904387/anti-lipoarabinomannan-specific-salivary-iga-as-prognostic-marker-for-leprosy-reactions-in-patients-and-cellular-immunity-in-contacts
#9
André Alan Nahas, Mayara Ingrid de Sousa Lima, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904379/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-as-a-promising-antigen-specific-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica-from-preclinical-to-clinical-trials
#10
REVIEW
Georgina Flórez-Grau, Irati Zubizarreta, Raquel Cabezón, Pablo Villoslada, Daniel Benitez-Ribas
The identification of activated T-lymphocytes restricted to myelin-derived immunogenic peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 water channel in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in the blood of patients opened the possibility for developing highly selective and disease-specific therapeutic approaches. Antigen presenting cells and in particular dendritic cells (DCs) represent a strategy to inhibit pro-inflammatory T helper cells. DCs are located in peripheral and lymphoid tissues and are essential for homeostasis of T cell-dependent immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903654/anti-pruritic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-oxymatrine-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#11
Xiaoyun Xu, Wei Xiao, Zhe Zhang, Jianhao Pan, Yixi Yan, Tao Zhu, Dan Tang, Kaihe Ye, Manish Paranjpe, Lintao Qu, Hong Nie
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease of the skin. As a result of the complex etiology in ACD, therapeutic compounds targeting refractory pruritus in ACD lack efficacy and lead to numerous side effects. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the anti-pruritic effects of oxymatrine (OMT) and explored its mechanism of action in a mouse model of ACD. METHOD: 72 male SPF C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, ACD model group, dexamethasone positive control group (0...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903620/computational-motility-models-of-neurogastroenterology-and-neuromodulation
#12
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902669/effects-of-central-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-on-anxiety-feeding-behavior-and-hypothalamic-neuromodulators-in-the-rat
#13
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando, Sheila Leone
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is strongly involved in the regulation of anxiety and feeding behavior. RVD-hemopressin(α) [RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of CB2 receptor which has been recently reported to exert anxiolytic/antidepressant and anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration in rats. Pharmacological evidences reported a possible link between brain hypocretin/orexin, monoamine and eCB systems, as regards appetite and emotional behavior control...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902518/differential-effects-of-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotics-on-astroglial-cells-in-vitro
#14
Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Amanda da Silva, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are glial cells that are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system functions, modulating neurotransmitters, providing metabolic, trophic and antioxidant support, and producing a wide range of cytokines to modulate the inflammatory response. These cells can be targets for antipsychotics, medications used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, several studies have shown that antipsychotics are able to modulate peripheral cytokine release, but their effects on astroglial inflammatory response need to be further investigated...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902470/automated-mechanical-peripheral-stimulation-effects-on-gait-variability-in-individuals-with-parkison-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-ms-ref-no-archives-pmr-d-18-00162
#15
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Aline de Souza Pagnussat, Camila Pinto, Ritchele Rovido, Ana Paula Salazar, Manuela Galli
OBJECTIVE: to assess the effects of Automated Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS) in reducing gait variability of subjects with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) treated with AMPS and to explore the effects of this treatment on gait during a single task (walking) and a dual task (walking while attending the word-color Stroop test). DESIGN: interventional, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. SETTING: Clinical rehabilitation...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902182/triticum-vulgare-extract-exerts-an-anti-inflammatory-action-in-two-in-vitro-models-of-inflammation-in-microglial-cells
#16
Luca Sanguigno, Antonella Casamassa, Niccola Funel, Massimiliano Minale, Rodolfo Riccio, Salvatore Riccio, Francesca Boscia, Paola Brancaccio, Luca Emanuele Pollina, Serenella Anzilotti, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Ornella Cuomo
Triticum vulgare has been extensively used in traditional medicine thanks to its properties of accelerating tissue repair. The specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor (TVE-DAMOR) is already present in some pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of decubitus ulcers, skin lesions and burns. It has been recently suggested that this Triticum vulgare extract may possess potential anti-inflammatory properties. In the light of these premises the aim of the present paper was to verify the anti-inflammatory role of TVE, using the LPS-stimulated microglia model of inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901585/abdominal-peripheral-nerve-block-as-the-only-anesthetic-technique-for-totally-extraperitoneal-endoscopic-inguinal-hernia-repair-two-case-reports
#17
Woojin Kwon, Seunguk Bang, Hyojung Soh, Won Jun Jeong, Sang Chul Lee, Byung Jo Choi
RATIONALE: Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair is a rapidly evolving, minimally invasive treatment modality for inguinal hernia. Compared with open hernia repair, this method requires a smaller incision, has cosmetic advantages, and facilitates rapid recovery and early return to daily activities because of less postoperative pain. Because general anesthesia is essential for TEP hernia repair, it cannot be performed on patients who have an increased risk of developing complications when placed under general anesthesia...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901315/should-nurses-be-trained-to-use-ultrasound-for-intravenous-access-to-patients-with-difficult-veins
#18
Claire Smith
Peripheral venous access is the most common invasive procedure performed on patients in the UK and is traditionally the responsibility of nursing staff. In an emergency, intravenous therapy can be lifesaving. Approximately 11% of adults have difficult venous access and are often subjected to repeated failed attempts, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment. Eventually, rescue methods are used by a doctor, but this increases demand on their time and the workflow of emergency departments. This article explores whether training nurses to obtain venous access using ultrasound would have a positive effect on doctors' workload and benefit adult patients with difficult veins...
June 14, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901068/mitotic-kinase-pbk-topk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-adult-t%C3%A2-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#19
Chie Ishikawa, Masachika Senba, Naoki Mori
Adult T‑cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a disorder involving human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV‑1)-infected T‑cells characterized by increased clonal neoplastic proliferation. PDZ-binding kinase (PBK) [also known as T‑lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)] is a serine/threonine kinase expressed in proliferative cells and is phosphorylated during mitosis. In this study, the expression and phosphorylation of PBK/TOPK were examined by western blot analysis and RT‑PCR...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900874/dabigatran-in-patients-with-myocardial-injury-after-non-cardiac-surgery-manage-an-international-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
P J Devereaux, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Gordon Guyatt, Vikas Tandon, Reitze Rodseth, Bruce M Biccard, Denis Xavier, Wojciech Szczeklik, Christian S Meyhoff, Jessica Vincent, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Sadeesh K Srinathan, Jason Erb, Patrick Magloire, John Neary, Mangala Rao, Prashant V Rahate, Navneet K Chaudhry, Bongani Mayosi, Miriam de Nadal, Pilar Paniagua Iglesias, Otavio Berwanger, Juan Carlos Villar, Fernando Botto, John W Eikelboom, Daniel I Sessler, Clive Kearon, Shirley Pettit, Mukul Sharma, Stuart J Connolly, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Purnima Rao-Melacini, Andreas Hoeft, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and deaths, which anticoagulation therapy could prevent. Dabigatran prevents perioperative venous thromboembolism, but whether this drug can prevent a broader range of vascular complications in patients with MINS is unknown. The MANAGE trial assessed the potential of dabigatran to prevent major vascular complications among such patients. METHODS: In this international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited patients from 84 hospitals in 19 countries...
June 9, 2018: Lancet
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