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Nociceptive pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#1
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909152/involvement-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-network-in-neuropathic-pain-relief-by-treadmill-exercise-a-study-for-specific-neural-control-with-gi-dreadd-in-mice
#2
Kenta Wakaizumi, Takashige Kondo, Yusuke Hamada, Michiko Narita, Rui Kawabe, Hiroki Narita, Moe Watanabe, Shigeki Kato, Emiko Senba, Kazuto Kobayashi, Naoko Kuzumaki, Akihiro Yamanaka, Hiroshi Morisaki, Minoru Narita
BACKGROUND: Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909035/randomised-controlled-pilot-study-to-investigate-the-effectiveness-of-thoracic-epidural-and-paravertebral-blockade-in-reducing-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-topic-feasibility-study-protocol
#3
Joyce Yeung, Teresa Melody, Amy Kerr, Babu Naidu, Lee Middleton, Kostas Tryposkiadis, Jane Daniels, Fang Gao
INTRODUCTION: Open chest surgery (thoracotomy) is considered the most painful of surgical procedures. Forceful wound retraction, costochondral dislocation, posterior costovertebral ligament disruption, intercostal nerve trauma and wound movement during respiration combine to produce an acute, severe postoperative pain insult and persistent chronic pain many months after surgery is common. Three recent systematic reviews conclude that unilateral continuous paravertebral blockade (PVB) provides analgesia at least equivalent to thoracic epidural blockade (TEB) in the postoperative period, has a lower failure rate, and symptom relief that lasted months...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906752/recent-developments-in-emerging-therapeutic-targets-of-osteoarthritis
#4
Margaret Man-Ger Sun, Frank Beier, Michael A Pest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the tremendous individual suffering and socioeconomic burden caused by osteoarthritis, there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatment options. This is in part because of our incomplete understanding of osteoarthritis disease mechanism. This review summarizes recent developments in therapeutic targets identified from surgical animal models of osteoarthritis that provide novel insight into osteoarthritis pathology and possess potential for progression into preclinical studies...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904941/trpa1-substance-p-histamine-and-5-hydroxytryptamine-interact-in-an-interdependent-way-to-induce-nociception
#5
Luana Fischer, Maria Isabel Lavoranti, Mariana de Oliveira Borges, Alana Farias Miksza, Natalia Fantin Sardi, Bruno Jacson Martynhak, Claudia H Tambeli, Carlos Amílcar Parada
BACKGROUND: Although TRPA1, SP, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have recognized contribution to nociceptive mechanisms, little is known about how they interact with each other to mediate inflammatory pain in vivo. In this study we evaluated whether TRPA1, SP, histamine and 5-HT interact, in an interdependent way, to induce nociception in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: The subcutaneous injection of the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) into the rat's hind paw induced a dose-dependent and short lasting behavioral nociceptive response that was blocked by the co-administration of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC030031, or by the pretreatment with antisense ODN against TRPA1...
November 30, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904914/testicular-infarction-in-a-patient-with-spinal-cord-injury-with-epididymitis-a-case-report
#6
Po-Cheng Hsu, William J Huang, Shih-Fong Huang
: O-bjective: To describe a case of epididymitis-related testicular infarction in a patient with spinal cord injury. CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old man with a traumatic spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A; neurological level, C4) developed epididymitis during hospitalization. He presented with spiking fever, autonomic dysreflexia, and increased spasticity. Physical examination revealed a rapidly progressive, firm swelling of the right hemiscrotum; however, the patient had no subjective complaint of pain owing to a loss of sensation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902570/preprotachykinin-a-ppta-is-expressed-by-a-distinct-population-of-excitatory-neurons-in-the-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-including-cells-that-respond-to-noxious-and-pruritic-stimuli
#7
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Andrew M Bell, Alina Marin, Rebecca Taylor, Kieran A Boyle, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Erika Polgár, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined three non-overlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P...
November 25, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901476/the-change-of-hcn1-hcn2-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-nerve-after-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathy-followed-by-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-therapy
#8
Hui Liu, Jun Zhou, Lianbing Gu, Yunxia Zuo
Neuropathic pain is usually defined as a chronic pain state caused by peripheral or central nerve injury as a result of acute damage or systemic diseases. It remains a difficult disease to treat. Recent studies showed that the frequency of action potentials in nociceptive afferents is affected by the activity of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCN) family. In the current study, we used a neuropathy rat model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve to evaluate the change of expression of HCN1/HCN2 mRNA in peripheral nerve and spinal cord...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901254/high-prevalence-of-neuropathic-pain-in-the-hand-of-patients-with-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Marcus V B Santana, Mauro T Bina, Matheus G Paz, Scheila N Santos, Manoel J Teixeira, Irina Raicher, José V Martins, Daniel C Araujo Andrade, Abrahão F Baptista
Objective: To describe the pain profile of patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury. Methods: We enrolled 65 patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire was used to classify pain and the SF-36 was used to evaluate quality of life. Results: The patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury were predominantly young male victims of motorcycle accidents. Pain was present in 75.4% of the individuals and 79% presented with neuropathic pain, mostly located in the hands (30...
November 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900410/-%C3%AE-bisabolol-reduces-orofacial-nociceptive-behavior-in-rodents
#10
Luana Torres Melo, Mariana Araújo Braz Duailibe, Luciana Moura Pessoa, Flávio Nogueira da Costa, Antonio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Ana Paula de Vasconcellos Abdon, Adriana Rolim Campos
The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effect of oral and topical administration of (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA) in rodent models of formalin- or cinnamaldehyde-induced orofacial pain and to explore the inhibitory mechanisms involved. Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 1.5% formalin into the upper lip of mice (20 μL) or into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats (50 μL). In another experiment, orofacial pain was induced with cinnamaldehyde (13.2 μg/lip). Nociceptive behavior was proxied by time (s) spent rubbing the injected area and by the incidence of head flinching...
November 29, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899695/consistent-sex-dependent-effects-of-pkm%C3%AE-gene-ablation-and-pharmacological-inhibition-on-the-maintenance-of-referred-pain
#11
Hibatulnaseer Nasir, Hicham Mahboubi, Sandeep Gyawali, Stephanie Ding, Aiste Mickeviciute, J Vaigunda Ragavendran, André Laferrière, Ursula Stochaj, Terence J Coderre
BACKGROUND: Persistently active PKMζ has been implicated in maintaining spinal nociceptive sensitization that underlies pain hypersensitivity. However, evidence for PKMζ in the maintenance of pain hypersensitivity comes exclusively from short-term studies in males using pharmacological agents of questionable selectivity. The present study examines the contribution of PKMζ to long-lasting allodynia associated with neuropathic, inflammatory, or referred visceral and muscle pain in males and females using pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899280/behavioural-phenotype-of-histamine-h4-receptor-knockout-mice-focus-on-central-neuronal-functions
#12
Maria Domenica Sanna, Carla Ghelardini, Robin L Thurmond, Emanuela Masini, Nicoletta Galeotti
The functional expression of H4 receptors (H4R) within neurons of the central nervous system has been recently reported, but their role is poorly understood. The present study aims to elucidate the role of neuronal H4R by providing the first description of the behavioural phenotype of H4R-deficient (H4R knockout, H4R-KO) mice. Mice lacking H4R underwent behavioural studies to evaluate locomotor activity, pain perception, anxiety, depression, memory and feeding behaviour. H4R-KO mice showed a significant increase in ambulation in an open field as well as in exploratory activity in the absence of any modification of motor coordination...
November 26, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899097/antinociception-of-petroleum-ether-fraction-derived-from-crude-methanol-extract-of-melastoma-malabathricum-leaves-and-its-possible-mechanisms-of-action-in-animal-models
#13
Z A Zakaria, E S Jaios, M H Omar, S Abd Rahman, S S A Hamid, S M Ching, L K Teh, M Z Salleh, S Deny, M Taher
BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae) has been traditionally used as remedies against various ailments including those related to pain. The methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves has been proven to show antinociceptive activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most effective fraction among the petroleum ether- (PEMM), ethyl acetate- (EAMM) and aqueous- (AQMM) fractions obtained through successive fractionation of crude, dried methanol extract of M...
November 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898492/growth-hormone-regulates-the-sensitization-of-developing-peripheral-nociceptors-during-cutaneous-inflammation
#14
Xiaohua Liu, Kathryn J Green, Zachary K Ford, Luis F Queme, Peilin Lu, Jessica L Ross, Frank B Lee, Aaron T Shank, Renita C Hudgins, Michael P Jankowski
Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). However specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. GH modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH effects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine if GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyper-responsiveness during skin inflammation in young mice, we examined behavioral hypersensitivity and the response properties of cutaneous afferents using an ex vivo hairy skin-saphenous nerve-dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-spinal cord preparation...
November 18, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898057/functional-brain-mapping-using-specific-sensory-circuit-stimulation-and-a-theoretical-graph-network-analysis-in-mice-with-neuropathic-allodynia
#15
Yuji Komaki, Keigo Hikishima, Shinsuke Shibata, Tsunehiko Konomi, Fumiko Seki, Masayuki Yamada, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirotaka J Okano, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Allodynia, a form of neuropathic pain, is defined as pain in response to a non-nociceptive stimulus. The brain regions responsible for pain, which are not normally activated, can be activated in allodynic mice by providing a suitable stimulus to Aβ-fibers, which transmit signals from tactile sensory fibers. Functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to objectively observe abnormal brain activation. In the present study, fMRI was conducted to investigate allodynia in mice; allodynia was generated by surgical injury at the L4 spinal nerve root, thus selectively stimulating sensory nerve fibers...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896922/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-antihyperalgesic-effect-associates-with-reduced-cx3cl1-chemokine-expression-in-spinal-cord
#16
Marc Bosch-Mola, Judit Homs, Beltrán Álvarez-Pérez, Teresa Puig, Francisco Reina, Enrique Verdú, Pere Boadas-Vaello
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol in green tea with beneficial effects on the neuropathic pain alleviation in animal models. Because chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) has been suggested as an important signal during neuropathic pain development, this study aimed to investigate whether CX3CL1 expression may be modulated by EGCG treatment reducing hyperalgesia in chronic constriction injured mice. To this end, Balb/c mice were subjected to a chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve (CCI) and treated with EGCG or vehicle once a day during the first week following surgery...
November 29, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892594/chloroprocaine-10-mg-ml-for-low-dose-spinal-anaesthesia-in-perianal-surgery-a-randomised-dose-finding-study
#17
V Gebhardt, L Mueller-Hansen, A Schwarz, D Bussen, C Weiss, M D Schmittner
BACKGROUND: Low-dose spinal anaesthesia is a safe and reliable anaesthesia technique in outpatient perianal surgery. Regarding its short duration of action and its trend to hyperbaric characteristics, plain chloroprocaine 10 mg/ml seems to be ideal to perform low-dose spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this trial was to determine the optimal dosage of chloroprocaine for this indication. METHODS: Hundred and twenty patients undergoing perianal surgery were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive 10, 20 or 30 mg of chloroprocaine 10 mg/ml intrathecally...
November 28, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891703/an-investigation-into-the-inhibitory-function-of-serotonin-in-diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-in-the-neuropathic-rat
#18
K Bannister, S Lockwood, L Goncalves, R Patel, A H Dickenson
BACKGROUND: Following neuropathy α2-adrenoceptor-mediated diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), whereby a noxious conditioning stimulus inhibits the activity of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons, are abolished, and spinal 5-HT7 receptor densities are increased. Here, we manipulate spinal 5-HT content in spinal nerve ligated (SNL) animals and investigate which 5-HT receptor mediated actions predominate. METHODS: Using in vivo electrophysiology we recorded WDR neuronal responses to von frey filaments applied to the hind paw before, and concurrent to, a noxious ear pinch (the conditioning stimulus) in isoflurane-anaesthetised rats...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890817/sec-butylpropylacetamide-spd-a-new-amide-derivative-of-valproic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-and-inflammatory-pain
#19
Dan Kaufmann, Peter J West, Misty D Smith, Boris Yagen, Meir Bialer, Marshall Devor, H Steve White, K C Brennan
Chronic pain is a multifactorial disease comprised of both inflammatory and neuropathic components that affect ∼20% of the world's population. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD) is a novel amide analogue of valproic acid (VPA) previously shown to possess a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. In this study we defined the pharmacokinetic parameters of SPD in rat and mouse, and then evaluated its antinociceptive potential in neuropathic and acute inflammatory pain models. In the sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, SPD was equipotent to gabapentin and more potent than its parent compound VPA...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888117/testing-assumptions-in-human-pain-models-psychophysical-differences-between-first-and-second-pain
#20
Nathanial R Eckert, Charles J Vierck, Corey B Simon, Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Roger B Fillingim, Joseph L Riley
: Acute pain arises from activation of myelinated (A delta) and unmyelinated (C) nociceptive afferents, leading to 1st (A-fiber) or 2nd (C-fiber) pain sensations. The current study sought to investigate first and second pain within glabrous and hairy skin sites in human upper-limbs. Fifty healthy adults (25 males/25 females, 18-30 yrs: mean = 20.5 ± 1.4) participated in a psychophysical study investigating electronically rated, thermal first and second pain sensations within the glabrous skin at the palm and hairy skin of the forearm...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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