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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707423/impact-of-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-for-no-touch-terminal-room-disinfection-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-incidence-among-hematology-oncology-patients
#1
David A Pegues, Jennifer Han, Cheryl Gilmar, Brooke McDonnell, Steven Gaynes
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of no-touch terminal room no-touch disinfection using ultraviolet wavelength C germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on C. difficile infection (CDI) rates on inpatient units with persistently high rates of CDI despite infection control measures. DESIGN Interrupted time-series analysis with a comparison arm. SETTING 3 adult hematology-oncology units in a large, tertiary-care hospital. METHODS We conducted a 12-month prospective valuation of UVGI. Rooms of patients with CDI or on contact precautions were targeted for UVGI upon discharge using an electronic patient flow system...
October 6, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038734/occupant-uv-exposure-measurements-for-upper-room-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation
#2
Sonya Milonova, Stephen Rudnick, James McDevitt, Edward Nardell
The threshold limit value (TLV) guideline for ultraviolet (UV) radiation specifies that irradiance measurements to ensure occupant safety be taken over an angle of 80° at the sensor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 80° field of view (FOV) tube on lower room UV-C irradiation measurements. Measurements were made in an experimental chamber at a height of 1.73m with and without an FOV tube. The FOV tube reduced the lower room irradiance readings by 18-34%, a statistically significant reduction compared to the bare sensor...
June 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028152/comparison-of-hospital-room-surface-disinfection-using-a-novel-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-generator
#3
Katelyn C Jelden, Shawn G Gibbs, Philip W Smith, Angela L Hewlett, Peter C Iwen, Kendra K Schmid, John J Lowe
The estimated 721,800 hospital acquired infections per year in the United States have necessitated development of novel environmental decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI). This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel, portable UVGI generator (the TORCH, ChlorDiSys Solutions, Inc., Lebanon, NJ) to disinfect surface coupons composed of plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, chrome-plated light switch cover, and a porcelain tile that were inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)...
September 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376157/ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-compared-with-methicillin-susceptible-s-aureus
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christopher F Green, Laura A Elbe, Tyler D Neal, John J Lowe, Shawn G Gibbs
Antibiotic misuse and overuse in both the healthcare and agricultural fields have dramatically increased the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (ATCC 43330 and a wild-type) and 1 strain of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were challenged (9 runs in triplicate) in a preliminary study with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) doses ranging from 0.25 to 3.00 mJ/cm(2). The mean percent kill was calculated for each strain when compared with the control plates (no exposure to UVGI)...
November 2015: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25985534/evaluation-of-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-in-reducing-the-airborne-cultural-bacteria-concentrations-in-an-elementary-school-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#5
Chunxiao Su, Josephine Lau, Shawn G Gibbs
This article describes a casestudythe authors conducted in an elementary school in the Midwest. The objective was to evaluate the performance of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UGVI) to reduce the bioaerosol concentration in a classroom. Two fourth grade classrooms with the same dimensions were studied. One classroom was designated as the UVGI group and the other as the control group. Two-stage Tisch culturable impactors were utilized for collecting airborne bacteria with monthly samples collected from October 2012 to January 2013...
May 2015: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25806411/effects-of-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-on-n95-respirator-filtration-performance-and-structural-integrity
#6
William G Lindsley, Stephen B Martin, Robert E Thewlis, Khachatur Sarkisian, Julian O Nwoko, Kenneth R Mead, John D Noti
The ability to disinfect and reuse disposable N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) may be needed during a pandemic of an infectious respiratory disease such as influenza. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is one possible method for respirator disinfection. However, UV radiation degrades polymers, which presents the possibility that UVGI exposure could degrade the ability of a disposable respirator to protect the worker. To study this, we exposed both sides of material coupons and respirator straps from four models of N95 FFRs to UVGI doses from 120-950 J/cm(2)...
2015: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25007943/for-the-inactivation-of-mold-spores-by-uvc-irradiation-with-ozone-acting-as-a-promoter-tio2-nanoparticles-may-act-better-as-a-sun-block-than-as-a-photocatalytic-disinfectant
#7
Jia-You Gong, Yen-Chi Chen, Yi-Ting Huang, Ming-Chien Tsai, Kuo-Pin Yu
Fungal spores are known as critical indoor allergens, and indoor air purification techniques including photocatalytic disinfection using titanium dioxide (TiO2), ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) and ozonation, have been considerably investigated. However, most of the research is in regard to photocatalytic disinfection, focused on the anti-bacterial efficacy of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Furthermore, some research even showed that the photocatalytic antifungal efficacy of TiO2 NPs may not be that significant...
September 2014: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24426180/numerical-modeling-of-indoor-environment-with-a-ceiling-fan-and-an-upper-room-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-system
#8
Shengwei Zhu, Jelena Srebric, Stephen N Rudnick, Richard L Vincent, Edward A Nardell
This study proposes a numerical modeling method for the indoor environment with ceiling fans and upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UR-UVGI) fixtures. The numerical modeling deployed steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with a rotating reference frame to simulate the rotation of fan blades. CFD was validated with experimental data of velocity field and fraction of microorganism remaining at the exhaust diffuser. The fraction of microorganism remaining represented the ratio of the concentration of airborne microorganisms measured with UVGI turned on to the one measured with UVGI turned off...
February 2014: Building and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24318285/estimation-of-environmental-control-measures-for-tuberculosis-transmission-in-care-facilities-for-the-elderly
#9
Hiroyuki Furuya
OBJECTIVES: Exogenous reinfections in tuberculosis (TB) have been reported among elderly patients in long-term care facilities. This study estimated the impact of upper room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) and negative air ionization on the reduction in TB infection assuming that current TB control failed. METHODS: Estimated probability distributions RA, RM, RUV+M, and RIO+M, denoting the reproduction numbers of cases with no intervention, wearing surgical mask of infector, upper room UVGI, and negative ionization with wearing mask, respectively were determined...
2013: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23889191/eggcrate-uv-a-whole-ceiling-upper-room-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-system-for-air-disinfection-in-occupied-rooms
#10
J C Linnes, S N Rudnick, G M Hunt, J J McDevitt, E A Nardell
A novel whole ceiling upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system [eggcrate ultraviolet (UV)] has been developed that incorporates open-cell 'eggcrate'-suspended ceiling panels and bare UV lamps with a ceiling fan. Upper-room UVGI is more effective for air disinfection than mechanical ventilation at much lower installation and operating costs. Conventional upper-room UVGI fixtures employ multiple tightly spaced horizontal louvers to confine UV to the upper-room. These louvered fixtures protect occupants in the lower-room from UV-induced eye and skin irritation, but at a major cost to fixture efficiency...
April 2014: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23683092/upper-room-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-uvgi-for-air-disinfection-a-symposium-in-print
#11
Edward Nardell, Richard Vincent, David H Sliney
Upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) has several applications, its most important use is to reduce tuberculosis transmission in high-burden, resource-limited settings, especially those dealing with epidemics of drug-resistant disease. The efficacy of upper-room (UVGI) to reduce the transmission of airborne infection in real-world settings is no longer in question. International application (dosing) guidelines are needed, as are safety standards and commissioning procedures. A recent symposium to build consensus on guidelines discussed specifications for affordable UVGI fixture designs, safety, performance, computer-aided design (CAD) for UVGI, maintenance, dosimetry, gonioradiometric measurement and innovation using germicidal LEDs...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23581680/ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-future-directions-for-air-disinfection-and-building-applications
#12
Shelly L Miller, Jacqueline Linnes, Julia Luongo
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for air disinfection applications has relied on low-pressure mercury vapor lamps for decades. New design requirements have generated the need for alternatives in some uses. This study describes the current state of UVGI technology and describes future directions for technology development, including the use of lamps produced from nontoxic materials and light-emitting diode lamps. Important applications are discussed such as the use of ultraviolet germicidal lamps in developing countries, in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality, and for whole room disinfection...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23437974/characterizing-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiance-luminaires
#13
Wilhelm Leuschner, Faatiema Salie
In upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiance (UVGI) design, irradiance is an important characteristic, with two opposing dominant dynamics: high-level irradiation on the microorganism and minimum levels of irradiance on human skin and eyes. The use of high-level ray-tracing procedures is followed in establishing radiance and irradiance levels. The main constants in a room influencing these calculations are the spectral and spatial characteristics of the radiation sources in the inter-reflecting surfaces inside the luminaire, as well as the surfaces in the room...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23418820/using-computational-fluid-dynamics-modeling-to-evaluate-the-design-of-hospital-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-systems-for-inactivating-airborne-mycobacteria
#14
Peng Xu, Noah Fisher, Shelly L Miller
This research was conducted to evaluate the design of hospital ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) systems and to assess their effectiveness for inactivating airborne mycobacteria. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and tested by simulating previous experiments measuring the effectiveness of a lab-based UVGI system. Model testing showed reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. The model captured trends similar to the experiments: Effectiveness of an upper-room UVGI system is higher when there is no ventilation compared with when there is ventilation, and wintertime ventilation conditions can markedly decrease the performance of an upper-room UVGI system...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23311354/numerical-investigation-of-upper-room-uvgi-disinfection-efficacy-in-an-environmental-chamber-with-a-ceiling-fan
#15
Shengwei Zhu, Jelena Srebric, Stephen N Rudnick, Richard L Vincent, Edward A Nardell
This study investigated the disinfection efficacy of the upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UR-UVGI) system with ceiling fans. The investigation used the steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to solve the rotation of ceiling fan with a rotating reference frame. Two ambient air exchange rates, 2 and 6 air changes per hour (ACH), and four downward fan rotational speeds, 0, 80, 150 and 235 rpm were considered. In addition, the passive scalar concentration simulations incorporated ultraviolet (UV) dose by two methods: one based on the total exposure time and average UV fluence rate, and another based on SVE3* (New Scale for Ventilation Efficiency 3), originally defined to evaluate the mean age of the air from an air supply opening...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23278626/ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-safety-concerns-a-lesson-from-the-tuberculosis-ultraviolet-shelter-study-murphy-s-law-affirmed
#16
Philip W Brickner, Richard L Vincent
Concerns about the safety of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) applications on human beings have been an issue at least since the introduction of this technology for practical use in the 1930s. The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in UV technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. These failures in TB control led to a revival of UVGI use. And with that revival grew necessary and appropriate concerns about attempts to eliminate human overexposure...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23106610/application-of-cfd-simulation-to-predicting-upper-room-uvgi-effectiveness
#17
Carl A Gilkeson, Catherine Noakes
This study outlines the potential for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation to be used to predict upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) effectiveness to aid system design and the development of future guidance. A numerical study of two wall-mounted UVGI lamps in a mechanically ventilated test chamber is used to assess the influence of modeling parameters on prediction of dose distribution and microorganism inactivation. Irradiance fields for both UVGI fixtures are obtained via radiometry and implemented in the model...
July 2013: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23074468/air-cleaning-technologies-an-evidence-based-analysis
#18
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used?How effective are in-room air cleaners?Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone?What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan?The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities...
2005: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22809847/minimizing-the-exposure-of-airborne-pathogens-by-upper-room-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-an-experimental-and-numerical-study
#19
Y Yang, W Y Chan, C L Wu, R Y C Kong, A C K Lai
There has been increasing interest in the use of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) because of its proven effectiveness in disinfecting airborne pathogens. An improved drift flux mathematical model is developed for optimizing the design of indoor upper-room UVGI systems by predicting the distribution and inactivation of bioaerosols in a ventilation room equipped with a UVGI system. The model takes into account several bacteria removal mechanisms such as convection, turbulent diffusion, deposition and UV inactivation...
December 7, 2012: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22680348/effects-of-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-and-swirling-motion-on-airborne-staphylococcus-aureus-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-legionella-pneumophila-under-various-relative-humidities
#20
C-W Chang, S-Y Li, S-H Huang, C-K Huang, Y-Y Chen, C-C Chen
UNLABELLED: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Legionella pneumophila have been detected in indoor air and linked to human infection. It is essential to adopt control methods to inactivate airborne pathogens. By passing bioaerosols horizontally into a UV device at two flow rates (Qs) and moving cells around a central UVC lamp at relative humidity (RH) of 12.7-16.7%, 58.7-59.6%, and 87.3-90%, the effects of swirling motion and 254-nm ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) against bioaerosols were assessed under UV-off and UV-on settings, respectively...
February 2013: Indoor Air
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