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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#1
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631632/risk-of-cardiac-pacemaker-pocket-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Jaswinder Singh Gill, Navreet Singh, S P Khanna
BACKGROUND: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs) is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013-February 2016) from all the patients with PPI...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631614/3d-printed-bioceramic-scaffolds-with-antibacterial-and-osteogenic-activity
#3
Yongliang Zhang, Dong Zhai, Mengchi Xu, Qingqiang Yao, Huiying Zhu, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu
Bacterial infection poses a significant risk with the wide application of bone graft materials. Designing bone grafts with good antibacterial performance and excellent bone-forming activity is of particular significance for bone tissue engineering. In our study, a 3D printing method was used to prepare β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramic scaffolds. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on graphene oxide (GO) to form a homogeneous nanocomposite (named Ag@GO) with different Ag-to-graphene oxide mass ratios, with this being synthesized via the liquid chemical reduction approach...
June 20, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628295/a-cross-linked-protein-nano-filter-with-anti-bacteria-properties-for-multi-functional-air-filtration
#4
Hamid Souzandeh, Banafsheh Molki, Min Zheng, Haluk Beyenal, Louis Scudiero, Yu Wang, Wei-Hong Zhong
Development of high-performance nanomaterials with not only strong ability to trap the pollutants, but also good structure stability under varying environmental conditions is in critical need for air-filtration applications. However, it has been very challenging for a filtering material to simultaneously realize multi-functional air filtration and good environmental stability. Here, based on our previous studies on protein-based nano-filters, we report a cross-linked protein nanofabric to address this challenging issue...
June 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627245/phytochemical-screening-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-pharmacological-activities-of-peels-of-musa-sapientum-and-carica-papaya-fruit
#5
Sarmad Siddique, Shamsa Nawaz, Faqir Muhammad, Bushra Akhtar, Bilal Aslam
Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract...
June 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621642/spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-between-2004-and-2015-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-hungary
#6
András Magyar, Béla Köves, Károly Nagy, András Dobák, Vinodh Kumar Adithyaa Arthanareeswaran, Péter Bálint, Florian Wagenlehner, Péter Tenke
PURPOSE: Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620254/isolation-morphological-identification-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-endophytic-bacteria-isolated-from-azadirachta-indica-neem-leaves
#7
Ankit Kumar Singh, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Varsha Sharma, Tanmay Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Dimple Kumari
AIM: The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh leaves of A. indica (neem) was procured from the Department of Botany, JNKVV, Jabalpur...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619637/preparation-and-characterization-of-silk-sericin-pva-blend-film-with-silver-nanoparticles-for-potential-antimicrobial-application
#8
Huawei He, Rui Cai, Yejing Wang, Gang Tao, Pengchao Guo, Hua Zuo, Liqun Chen, Xinyu Liu, Ping Zhao, Qingyou Xia
Sericin has great potentials in biomedical applications for its good reactive activity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the undesirable mechanical performance limits its application. Here, we developed a green, facile and economic approach to prepare sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend film. Further, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on the surface of sericin/PVA film via UV-assisted green synthesis method. Mechanical performance, swelling, mass losing and water retention tests showed the blend film had good mechanical performance, hygroscopicity, water retention capacity and low mass losing ratio...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619172/genetic-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-gallinarum-biovar-pullorum-based-on-characterization-and-evolution-of-crispr-sequence
#9
Xiaolei Xie, Yachen Hu, Yaohui Xu, Kequan Yin, Yang Li, Yun Chen, Jie Xia, Lijuan Xu, Zijian Liu, Shizhong Geng, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao, Xiang Chen, Zhiming Pan
Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is the cause of pullorum disease, characterized by white diarrhea, which leads to high mortality in poultry. In this study, we aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 655 S. Pullorum strains from 1962 to 2015 in China, Europe, and South America. A sequence typing scheme based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) was used to reveal the genetic relationships among these strains in this study. Overall, a total of 20 Pullorum sequence types (PSTs) of CRISPR were identified in the 655 isolates with PST7 (74%, 486/655) and PST3 (13%, 86/655) to be the most two frequent PSTs belonging to two different lineages, which confirmed the genetic conservation of S...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617605/arginine-based-polymer-brush-coatings-with-hydrolysis-triggered-switchable-functionalities-from-antimicrobial-cationic-to-antifouling-zwitterionic
#10
Gang Xu, Xianneng Liu, Peng Liu, Dicky Pranantyo, Koon Gee Neoh, En-Tang Kang
Arginine polymer-based coatings with switchable properties were developed on the glass slides (GS) to demonstrate the smart transition from antimicrobial (cationic) to fouling-resistant (zwitterionic) surfaces. L-arginine methyl ester-methacryloylamide (Arg-Est) and L-arginine-methacryloylamide (Arg-Me) polymer brushes were grafted from the GS surface via surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization. In comparison to the pristine GS and Arg-Me graft polymerized GS (GS-Arg-Me) surfaces, the Arg-Est polymer brushes-functionalized GS surfaces exhibit a superior antimicrobial activity...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617577/imaging-with-mass-spectrometry-of-bacteria-on-the-exoskeletons-of-fungus-growing-ants
#11
Erin Gemperline, Heidi A Horn, Kellen DeLaney, Cameron R Currie, Lingjun Li
Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful analytical technique for detecting and determining spatial distributions of molecules within a sample. Typically mass spectrometry imaging is limited to the analysis of thin tissue sections taken from the middle of a sample. In this work, we present a mass spectrometry imaging method for the detection of compounds produced by bacteria on the outside surface of ant exoskeletons in response to pathogen exposure. Fungus-growing ants have a specialized mutualism with Pseudonocardia, a bacterium that lives on the ants' exoskeleton and helps protect their fungal garden food source from harmful pathogens...
June 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617525/characterization-of-high-exopolysaccharide-producing-lactobacillus-strains-isolated-from-mustard-pickles-for-potential-probiotic-applications
#12
Jing-Yao Huang, Cheng-Yen Kao, We-Sin Liu, Tony J Fang
The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0...
June 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613449/study-of-the-cytotoxic-and-bactericidal-effects-of-sila-substituted-thioalkyne-and-mercapto-thionecompounds-based-on-1-2-3-triazole-scaffold
#13
Hanieh Mousazadeh, Mortaza Milani, Nosratollah Zarghami, Effat Alizadeh, Kazem D Safa
A series of sila-organosulfur compounds containing 1,2,3-triazole cores were screened for their cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Most of the tested compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against the cancer cells. Especially, the compound 4-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynylthio)methyl)-1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole 3a from series of sila-substituted thioalkyne 1,2,3-triazoles (STATs) and the compounds 3-(1-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1-mercapto-1,1-bis(trimethylsilyl)propane-2-thione 4a and 1-Mercapto-1,1-bis(trimethylsilyl)-3-(1-phenethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)propane-2-thione 4e from series of sila-substituted mercapto-thione 1,2,3-triazoles (SMTTs)exhibited promising cytotoxicity against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 35...
June 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612692/-fosfomycin-an-old-antibiotic-with-new-possibilities
#14
A C Dijkmans, S G Kuiper, J Burggraaf, J W Mouton, E B Wilms, D J Touw, J Stevens, C van Nieuwkoop, I M C Kamerling
- Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent used orally for uncomplicated cystitis. The intravenous form of administration has recently been authorised in the Netherlands.- Thanks to its broad spectrum and extensive tissue penetration, fosfomycin offers possibilities for the treatment of infections in different organs.- Infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a significant threat to public health. Many of these multidrug-resistant bacteria are sensitive to fosfomycin, which means fosfomycin may be an option for the treatment of infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611499/lactobacillus-futsaii-cs3-a-new-gaba-producing-strain-isolated-from-thai-fermented-shrimp-kung-som
#15
Chatthaphisuth Sanchart, Onnicha Rattanaporn, Dietmar Haltrich, Pimpimol Phukpattaranont, Suppasil Maneerat
Kung-Som is a popular traditional Thai fermented shrimp product. It is rich in glutamic acid, which is the major substrate for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the present study, LAB from Kung-Som were isolated, screened for GABA formation, and the two isolates that transform glutamic acid most efficiently into GABA were identified. Based on the API-CHL50 fermentation profile and a phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences, strain CS3 and CS5 were identified as Lactobacillus futsaii, which was for the first time shown to be a promising GABA producer...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604693/genetically-encoding-phosphotyrosine-and-its-nonhydrolyzable-analog-in-bacteria
#16
Xiaozhou Luo, Guangsen Fu, Rongsheng E Wang, Xueyong Zhu, Claudio Zambaldo, Renhe Liu, Tao Liu, Xiaoxuan Lyu, Jintang Du, Weimin Xuan, Anzhi Yao, Sean A Reed, Mingchao Kang, Yuhan Zhang, Hui Guo, Chunhui Huang, Peng-Yu Yang, Ian A Wilson, Peter G Schultz, Feng Wang
Tyrosine phosphorylation is a common protein post-translational modification that plays a critical role in signal transduction and the regulation of many cellular processes. Using a propeptide strategy to increase cellular uptake of O-phosphotyrosine (pTyr) and its nonhydrolyzable analog 4-phosphomethyl-L-phenylalanine (Pmp), we identified an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-tRNA pair that allows site-specific incorporation of both pTyr and Pmp into recombinant proteins in response to the amber stop codon in Escherichia coli in good yields...
June 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604647/marine-sponges-and-bacteria-as-challenging-sources-of-enzyme-inhibitors-for-pharmacological-applications
#17
REVIEW
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Flora Palumbo, Maria Costantini
Enzymes play key roles in different cellular processes, for example, in signal transduction, cell differentiation and proliferation, metabolic processes, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and response to stress. A deregulation of enzymes has been considered one of the first causes of several diseases, including cancers. In the last several years, enzyme inhibitors, being good candidates as drugs in the pathogenic processes, have received an increasing amount of attention for their potential application in pharmacology...
June 12, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604361/synthetic-scaffolds-with-full-pore-interconnectivity-for-bone-regeneration-prepared-by-supercritical-foaming-using-advanced-biofunctional-plasticizers
#18
Aurelio Salerno, Sara Diéguez, Luis Diaz-Gomez, Jose Luis Gomez-Amoza, Beatriz Magariños, Angel Concheiro, Concepcion Domingo, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carlos A García-González
Supercritical foaming allows for the solvent-free processing of synthetic scaffolds for bone regeneration. However, the control on the pore interconnectivity and throat pore size with this technique still needs to be improved. The use of plasticizers may help to overcome these limitations. Eugenol, a GRAS natural compound extracted from plants, is proposed in this work as an advanced plasticizer with bioactive properties. Eugenol-containing poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were obtained by supercritical foaming (20...
June 12, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601909/study-of-conjunctival-flora-in-anophthalmic-patients-influence-on-the-comfort-of-the-socket
#19
Alvaro Toribio, Teresa Marrodán, Isabel Fernández-Natal, Honorina Martínez-Blanco, Leandro Rodríguez-Aparicio, Miguel Á Ferrero
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between conjunctival flora and comfort of the socket in anophthalmic patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional clinical study including 60 patients with unilateral anophthalmia who wear a prosthetic eye. From each patient three microbiological samples were taken from the lower conjunctival sac (healthy eye, pre-prosthesis, and retro-prosthesis space of socket). The 180 samples obtained were cultured. Samples from a randomized subgroup of 29 patients were measured by spectrophotometry at 540 nm after 48 h of growth, to determine their microbial density (MD)...
June 10, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600314/nitrogen-source-stabilization-of-quorum-sensing-in-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bioaugmentation-strain-sd-1
#20
Mei-Zhen Wang, Bai-Min Lai, Ajai A Dandekar, Yu-Sheng Yang, Na Li, Jun Yin, Dong-Sheng Shen
Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD-1 is efficient at degrading aromatic compounds and therefore can contribute to bioremediation of wastewater. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the production of numerous secreted "public goods". In wastewater bioaugmentation applications, there are myriad nitrogen sources and we queried the impact of various nitrogen sources on the stability of both QS and the bacterial populations. In a laboratory strain of P. aeruginosa, PAO1, the absence of a nitrogen source has been shown to destabilize these populations through the emergence of QS mutant "cheaters"...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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