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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431088/stationary-phase-genes-upregulated-by-polyamines-are-responsible-for-the-formation-of-escherichia-coli-persister-cells-tolerant-to-netilmicin
#1
Alexander G Tkachenko, Natalya M Kashevarova, Elena A Tyuleneva, Mikhail S Shumkov
Persisters are rare phenotypic variants of regular bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses owing to slowing down of their metabolism. Recently, we have shown that polyamine putrescine can upregulate persister cell formation in Escherichia coli via the stimulation of rpoS expression, encoding a master regulator of general stress response. We hypothesized that rmf and yqjD, the stationary-phase genes responsible for ribosome inactivation, might be good candidates for the similar role owing to their involvement in translational arrest and the ability to be affected by polyamines...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430277/rapid-single-cell-detection-and-identification-of-pathogens-by-using-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#2
N E Dina, H Zhou, A Colniţă, N Leopold, T Szoke-Nagy, C Coman, C Haisch
For the successful treatment of infections, real-time analysis and enhanced multiplex capacity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of the developed detection method are critical. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed with the final aim of identification and discrimination of pathogenic bacteria, based on their detected SERS fingerprint at the single-cell level. Several genera of bacteria that are found in most of the isolated infections in bacteraemia were successfully identified in less than 5 minutes without the use of antibodies or other specific receptors...
April 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429393/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-amide-and-n-thiazolyl-amide-fluoroquinolone-derivatives
#3
Isaac Garza, Miranda J Wallace, Dinesh Fernando, Aman Singh, Richard E Lee, Jason S Gerding, Cynthia Franklin, Raghunandan Yendapally
In an effort to develop new fluoroquinolones, we synthesized eight compounds and tested them against a panel of bacteria. The design of these compounds was guided by the introduction of the isothiazoloquinolone motif. The three most active compounds in this series, 8-10, demonstrated good antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.62-6.3 µg/mL). Further, when these three active compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial enzymes, compound 9 was the most effective agent exhibiting IC50 values of 33...
April 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426936/cholesterol-assisted-bacterial-cell-surface-engineering-for-photodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#4
Hao-Ran Jia, Ya-Xuan Zhu, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT) which enables effective killing of regular and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a promising treatment modality for bacterial infection. However, because most photosensitizer (PS) molecules fail to strongly interact with the surface of Gram-negative bacteria, this technique is only suitable for treating Gram-positive bacterial infection, which largely hampers its practical applications. Herein, we revealed for the first time that cholesterol could significantly facilitate the hydrophobic binding of PSs to the bacterial surface, achieving the hydrophobic interaction-based bacterial cell surface engineering that could effectively photo-inactivate both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426766/activated-entomopathogenic-nematode-infective-juveniles-release-lethal-venom-proteins
#5
Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Dennis Chang, Mirayana M Barros, James Baldwin, Ali Mortazavi, Adler R Dillman
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species) release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426083/energetic-isomers-of-1-2-4-5-tetrazine-bis-1-2-4-triazoles-with-low-toxicity
#6
A Shlomovich, T Pechersky, A Cohen, Q L Yan, M Kosa, N Petrutik, N Tal, A Aizikovich, M Gozin
A series of nitrogen-rich "green" Energetic Materials (EMs), some with improved sensitivity, thermostability, and very low toxicity, were synthesized on the basis of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT) and 1,2,4,5-tetrazine building blocks. Since DAT contains several nucleophilic reactive sites, obtaining selective reactivity and specific isomeric products with 1,2,4,5-tetrazine precursors is a challenging task. We developed reaction conditions under which specific isomers could be prepared. On evaluating these compounds for their energetic properties, we found that N(5),N(5)'-(1,2,4,5-tetrazine-3,6-diyl)-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diamine) 1 has very high thermostability (onset of decomposition temperature at 357 °C) and it is insensitive to impact (Im > 98 J), friction (>360 N) and electrostatic discharge (2512 mJ)...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417912/electrospun-fiber-pads-of-cellulose-acetate-and-essential-oils-with-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Ioannis L Liakos, Alina Maria Holban, Riccardo Carzino, Simone Lauciello, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
The method of electrospinning was used to create nanofibers made of cellulose acetate (CA) and essential oils (EOs). CA polymer at 15% w/v was dissolved in acetone and then 1% or 5% v/v of EOs was added to the polymer solution. The utilized essential oils were rosemary and oregano oils. Then, the CA/EOs in acetone solution were electrospun, creating micro/nanofibers, approximately 700-1500 nm in diameter. Raman spectroscopy was used to detect the attachment of the EOs in the CA electrospun fibers (ESFs). Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology, topography and dimensions of the ESFs...
April 12, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416855/production-and-characterization-of-functional-properties-of-protein-hydrolysates-from-egg-shell-membranes-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-fermentation
#8
Surangna Jain, Anil Kumar Anal
This study aimed to ferment the chicken eggshell membrane (ESM) using the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum for preparation of functional and bioactive protein hydrolysates. Cultivation at an initial pH of 8.0 for 36 h resulted in maximum protein concentration (177.3 mg/g) and degree of hydrolysis (25.1%) of the hydrolysates. Fermentation resulted in the production of hydrolysates that demonstrated excellent solubility (90.7%), good foaming capacity (36.7%) and emulsification activity (94.6 m(2)/g)...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416709/spheres-of-hope-packets-of-doom-the-good-and-bad-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-interspecies-and-ecological-dynamics
#9
Jonathan B Lynch, Rosanna A Alegado
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are proteoliposome nanoparticles ubiquitously produced by Gram-negative bacteria. Typically bearing similar composition to the outer membrane and periplasm of the cells from which they are derived, OMVs package an array of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Once considered inconsequential byproducts of bacterial growth, OMVs have since been demonstrated to mediate cellular stress relief, promote horizontal gene transfer and antimicrobial activity, and elicit metazoan inflammation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416398/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-poly-aminoethyl-modified-chitosan-and-its-hydrogel-used-as-antibacterial-wound-dressing
#10
Yubei Zhang, Qifeng Dang, Chengsheng Liu, Jingquan Yan, Dongsu Cha, Shengnan Liang, Xiaoli Li, Bing Fan
This study aims to develop new antibacterial hydrogel wound dressings composed of poly(aminoethyl) modified chitosan (PAEMCS). FTIR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis demonstrated that PAEMCS was successfully synthesized via grafting poly(aminoethyl) groups onto hydroxyl groups on chitin first, and removing acetyl groups from the grafted polymer afterward. XRD and TGA implied its well-defined crystallinity and thermostability. Furthermore, a series of hydrogels were fabricated under the participation of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DHP)...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411217/transfer-potential-of-plasmids-encoding-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-poultry
#11
Solveig Sølverød Mo, Marianne Sunde, Hanna Karin Ilag, Solveig Langsrud, Even Heir
Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are widely distributed in Norwegian broiler production, and the majority harbour transferable IncK or IncI1 plasmids with blaCMY-2 Persistent occurrence in broiler farms may occur through survival of ESC-resistant E. coli in the farm environment, or by transfer and maintenance of resistance plasmids within a population of environmental bacteria with high survival abilities. The aim of this study was to determine the transferability of two successful blaCMY-2 carrying plasmids belonging to the incompatibility groups IncK and IncI1, into E...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410799/genomic-identification-and-characterization-of-the-elite-strains-bradyrhizobium-yuanmingense-br-3267-and-bradyrhizobium-pachyrhizi-br-3262-recommended-for-cowpea-inoculation-in-brazil
#12
Jakson Leite, Samuel Ribeiro Passos, Jean Luiz Simões-Araújo, Norma Gouvêa Rumjanek, Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier, Jerri Édson Zilli
The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium...
March 31, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404780/environmental-modification-via-a-quorum-sensing-molecule-influences-the-social-landscape-of-siderophore-production
#13
Roman Popat, Freya Harrison, Ana C da Silva, Scott A S Easton, Luke McNally, Paul Williams, Stephen P Diggle
Bacteria produce a wide variety of exoproducts that favourably modify their environment and increase their fitness. These are often termed 'public goods' because they are costly for individuals to produce and can be exploited by non-producers (cheats). The outcome of conflict over public goods is dependent upon the prevailing environment and the phenotype of the individuals in competition. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules to regulate the production of public goods. QS, therefore, determines the cooperative phenotype of individuals, and influences conflict over public goods...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404228/dynamic-light-scattering-a-fast-and-reliable-method-to-analyze-bacterial-growth-during-the-lag-phase
#14
Susana Vargas, Blanca E Millán-Chiu, Sofía M Arvizu-Medrano, Achim M Loske, Rogelio Rodríguez
A comparison between plate counting (PC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) is reported. PC is the standard technique to determine bacterial population as a function of time; however, this method has drawbacks, such as the cumbersome preparation and handling of samples, as well as the long time required to obtain results. Alternative methods based on optical density are faster, but do not distinguish viable from non-viable cells. These inconveniences are overcome by using DLS. Two different bacteria strains were considered: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403598/prospective-study-to-compare-antibiosis-versus-the-association-of-n-acetylcysteine-d-mannose-and-morinda-citrifolia-fruit-extract-in-preventing-urinary-tract-infections-in-patients-submitted-to-urodynamic-investigation
#15
Giovanni Palleschi, Antonio Carbone, Pier Paolo Zanello, Rita Mele, Antonino Leto, Andrea Fuschi, Yazan Al Salhi, Gennaro Velotti, Samer Al Rawashdah, Gianluca Coppola, Angela Maurizi, Serena Maruccia, Antonio L Pastore
BACKGROUND: The abuse of antimicrobical drugs has increased the resistance of microorganisms to treatments, thus to make urinary tract infections (UTIs) more difficult to eradicate. Among natural substances used to prevent UTI, literature has provided preliminary data of the beneficial effects of D-mannose, N-acetylcysteine, and Morinda citrifolia fruit extract, due to their complementary mechanism of action which contributes respectively to limit bacteria adhesion to the urothelium, to destroy bacterial pathogenic biofilm, and to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401350/peritoneal-fluid-biomarkers-in-the-detection-of-colorectal-anastomotic-leaks-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Emma C Wright, Patricia Connolly, Mark Vella, Susan Moug
PURPOSE: Anastomotic leak (AL) in colorectal surgery leads to significant morbidity, mortality and poorer oncological outcomes. Diagnosis of AL is frequently delayed as current methods of detection are not 100% sensitive or specific. 'Biomarkers', such as cytokines and markers of ischaemia, from the milieu of the anastomosis may aid early detection. This paper aims to review the evidence for their role in AL detection, allowing identification of targets for future research. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400009/autochthonous-lactic-acid-bacteria-with-probiotic-aptitudes-as-starter-cultures-for-fish-based-products
#17
Barbara Speranza, Angela Racioppo, Luciano Beneduce, Antonio Bevilacqua, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
This study focused on the selection of lactic starters with probiotic properties for the production of fermented fish-products by the use of a multivariate approach (Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis). Seventy-five isolates were recovered from fish intestinal microbiota and characterized by evaluating phenotypical, technological and probiotic traits; the most promising isolates were molecularly identified and then used into fish fermented sausage production. Namely, data from technological characterization were modelled through Growth Index and used as input to run a preliminary selection...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399415/nitrogen-removal-performance-and-loading-capacity-of-a-novel-single-stage-nitritation-anammox-system-with-syntrophic-micro-granules
#18
Shaopo Wang, Yuan Liu, Qigui Niu, Jiayuan Ji, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
The operation performance of a novel micro-granule based syntrophic system of nitritation and anammox was studied by controlling the oxygen concentration and maintaining a constant temperature of 25°C. With the oxygen concentration of around 0.11 (<0.15)mg/L, the single-stage nitritation-anammox system was startup successfully at a nitrogen loading rate (NLR) of 1.5kgN/m(3)/d. The reactor was successfully operated at volumetric N loadings ranging from 0.5 to 2.5kgN/m(3)/d with a high nitrogen removal of 82%...
March 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397809/second-harmonic-generation-imaging-of-corneal-stroma-after-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Danielle M Robertson, Nathan A Rogers, W Matthew Petroll, Meifang Zhu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic gram-negative organism that has the ability to cause blinding corneal infections following trauma and during contact lens wear. In this study, we investigated the directional movement and orientation of an invasive corneal isolate of P. aeruginosa in the corneal stroma during infection of ex vivo and in vivo rabbit corneas using multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Ex vivo, rabbit corneas were subject to three partial thickness wounds prior to inoculation...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397654/-infection-with-carbapenemase-producing-organisms-after-cosmetic-surgery-at-a-hospital-abroad
#20
Vigith Andrews, Anette M Hammerum, Niclas Dohrn, Barbara J Holzknecht
In Denmark, the incidence of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is increasing, and a coordinated national strategy is needed. We describe a case story of a 40-year-old woman transferred to a Danish hospital with severe complications after cosmetic surgery in the Middle East. She had an intra-abdominal infection with three different CPO, one of them co-resistant to colistin, one of the few remaining antibiotics for CPO treatment. Because of good clinical response to surgical treatment, antibiotics covering these multiresistant bacteria were not given...
March 27, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
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