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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922816/the-progeroid-gene-bubr1-regulates-axon-myelination-and-motor-function
#1
Chan-Il Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Byeong Tak Jeon, John Welby, Haiyun Gan, Isobel A Scarisbrick, Zhiguo Zhang, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Moses Rodriguez, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Myelination, the process by which oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons, is key to axonal signal transduction and related motor function in the central nervous system (CNS). Aging is characterized by degenerative changes in the myelin sheath, although the molecular underpinnings of normal and aberrant myelination remain incompletely understood. Here we report that axon myelination and related motor function are dependent on BubR1, a mitotic checkpoint protein that has been linked to progeroid phenotypes when expressed at low levels and healthy lifespan when overabundant...
September 12, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922641/ip3-accumulation-and-or-inositol-depletion-two-downstream-lithium-s-effects-that-may-mediate-its-behavioral-and-cellular-changes
#2
Y Sade, L Toker, N Z Kara, H Einat, S Rapoport, D Moechars, G T Berry, Y Bersudsky, G Agam
Lithium is the prototype mood stabilizer but its mechanism is still unresolved. Two hypotheses dominate-the consequences of lithium's inhibition of inositol monophosphatase at therapeutically relevant concentrations (the 'inositol depletion' hypothesis), and of glycogen-synthase kinase-3. To further elaborate the inositol depletion hypothesis that did not decisively determine whether inositol depletion per se, or phosphoinositols accumulation induces the beneficial effects, we utilized knockout mice of either of two inositol metabolism-related genes-IMPA1 or SMIT1, both mimic several lithium's behavioral and biochemical effects...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922461/ipsilateral-ophthalmic-and-cerebral-infarctions-after-cosmetic-polylactic-acid-injection-into-the-forehead
#3
Ashwinee Ragam, Steven A Agemy, Sarita B Dave, Azita S Khorsandi, Rudrani Banik
A 55-year-old woman developed no light perception vision in her right eye 5 days after an injection of polylactic acid cosmetic filler into her right forehead. Diffuse corneal edema and anterior chamber inflammation prohibited any view to the posterior segment to identify the cause of her profound vision loss. MRI of the orbits with diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the right optic nerve with signal reduction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, consistent with ischemia. Our patient also was found to have acute infarctions in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery on MRI of the brain despite having no permanent focal neurologic deficits aside from vision loss...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#4
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920266/variability-of-ponto-cerebellar-fibers-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-diverse-brain-malformations
#5
Nancy K Rollins, Timothy N Booth, Maria H Chahrour
To describe pontine axonal anomalies across diverse brain malformations. Institutional review board-approved review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic testing of 31 children with brain malformations and abnormal pons by diffusion tensor imaging. Anomalous dorsal pontocerebellar tracts were seen in mid-hindbrain anomalies and in diffuse malformations of cortical development including lissencephaly, gyral disorganization with dysplastic basal ganglia, presumed congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3, and in callosal agenesis without malformations of cortical development...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920205/molecular-determinants-of-the-sensitivity-to-gq-11-phospholipase-c-dependent-gating-gd3-potentiation-and-ca2-permeability-in-the-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-type-5-trpc5-channel
#6
Xingjuan Chen, Wennan Li, Ashley M Riley, Mario Soliman, Saikat Chakraborty, Christopher W Stamatkin, Alexander G Obukhov
Transient Receptor Potential Canonical type 5 (TRPC5) is a Ca(2+) permeable cation channel that is highly expressed in the brain and is implicated in motor coordination, innate fear behavior, and seizure-genesis. The channel is activated by a signal downstream of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-Gq/11-phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. In this study, we aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating TRPC5 activity. We report that R593, a residue located in the E4 loop near the TRPC5's extracellular Gd(3+)-binding site, is critical for conferring the sensitivity to GPCR-Gq/11-PLC-dependent gating on TRPC5...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#7
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920126/postnatal-activation-of-tlr4-in-astrocytes-promotes-excitatory-synaptogenesis-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Yi Shen, Huaping Qin, Juan Chen, Lingyan Mou, Yang He, Yixiu Yan, Hang Zhou, Ya Lv, Zhong Chen, Junlu Wang, Yu-Dong Zhou
Astrocytes are critical in synapse development, and their dysfunction in crucial developmental stages leads to serious neurodevelopmental diseases, including seizures and epilepsy. Immune challenges not only affect brain development, but also promote seizure generation and epileptogenesis, implying immune activation is one of the key factors linking seizures and epilepsy to abnormal brain development. In this study, we report that activating astrocytes by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges in the second postnatal week promotes excitatory synapse development, leading to enhanced seizure susceptibility in mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919646/role-of-neurotrophic-factors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Shih-Jen Tsai
Neurotrophins (NTs), a family of proteins including nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-4, are essential for neural growth, survival, and differentiation, and are therefore crucial for brain development. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. ADHD is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of the disorder, although the precise causes of ADHD have not yet been identified...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919636/adrenomedullin-and-angiotensin-ii-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-effects-on-cerebellar-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#10
Figueira Leticia, Israel Anita
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and their receptors are expressed in several localized areas, including the cerebellum. AM has been reported as an antioxidant...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919468/somatic-gnaq-mutation-is-enriched-in-brain-endothelial-cells-in%C3%A2-sturge-weber-syndrome
#11
Lan Huang, Javier A Couto, Anna Pinto, Sanda Alexandrescu, Joseph R Madsen, Arin K Greene, Mustafa Sahin, Joyce Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial and extracraniofacial capillary malformations and capillary-venule malformations in the leptomeninges. A somatic mosaic mutation in GNAQ (c.548G>A; p.R183Q) was found in SWS brain and skin capillary malformations. Our laboratory showed endothelial cells in skin capillary malformations are enriched for the GNAQ mutation. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the GNAQ mutation is also enriched in endothelial cells in affected SWS brain...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919008/phenotype-analysis-of-male-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-mutant-igfbp-2-lacking-the-cardin-weintraub-sequence-motif-reduced-expression-of-synaptic-markers-and-myelin-basic-protein-in-the-brain-and-a-lower-degree-of-anxiety-like-behaviour
#12
N Schindler, J Mayer, S Saenger, U Gimsa, C Walz, J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Wirthgen, A Tuchscherer, V C Russo, M Frank, T Kirschstein, F Metzger, A Hoeflich
Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence...
November 16, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918959/specificity-protein-1-zinc-finger-protein-179-pathway-is-involved-in-the-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-following-brain-injury
#13
Jian-Ying Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Shu-Hui Lin, An-Chih Wu, Pin-Tse Lee, Tsung-Ping Su, Shiu-Hwa Yeh, Yi-Chao Lee, Chung-Che Wu, Wen-Chang Chang
After sudden traumatic brain injuries, secondary injuries may occur during the following days or weeks, which leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since ROS exacerbate brain damage, it is important to protect neurons against their activity. Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) was shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, but the regulation of gene expression under oxidative stress remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated an increase in Znf179 protein levels in both in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation and animal models of traumatic brain injury...
November 29, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918823/short-term-alteration-of-developmental-neural-activity-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-of-retinal-explants
#14
Meng-Jung Lee, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Purpose: It is well known that the gradual loss of axon growth ability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during development is largely determined by extrinsic signals rather than being programmed intrinsically. Spontaneous retinal waves are the major neural activity during retinal development. Thus restoring the developmental environment by providing the proper neural activity may be able to help axon regeneration of RGCs. Methods: Retinal explants from P5 and P11 C57BL/6 mice were treated pharmacologically or stimulated electrically, and cultured with or without brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on coverslips or a multielectrode array for 5 days to examine the neurite outgrowth capacity of RGCs...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918421/decreased-stat3-phosphorylation-mediates-cell-swelling-in-ammonia-treated-astrocyte-cultures
#15
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Kevin M Curtis, Kiran S Panickar, Nagarajarao Shamaladevi, Michael D Norenberg
Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, and the subsequent increase in intracranial pressure and brain herniation, are major complications of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated level of brain ammonia has been strongly implicated in the development of astrocyte swelling associated with ALF. The means by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling, however, is incompletely understood. Recently, oxidative/nitrosative stress and associated signaling events, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), as well as activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), have been implicated in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling...
December 2, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918413/a-brain-machine-interface-based-on-erd-ers-for-an-upper-limb-exoskeleton-control
#16
Zhichuan Tang, Shouqian Sun, Sanyuan Zhang, Yumiao Chen, Chao Li, Shi Chen
To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI)...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918277/computational-model-of-a-positive-bdnf-feedback-loop-in-hippocampal-neurons-following-inhibitory-avoidance-training
#17
Yili Zhang, Paul Smolen, Cristina M Alberini, Douglas A Baxter, John H Byrne
Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins with an IA-induced release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which in turn leads to rapid phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), and a subsequent increase in the level of the β isoform of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPβ)...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#18
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917413/efficacy-of-s-lacosamide-in-preclinical-models-of-cephalic-pain
#19
Aubin Moutal, Nathan Eyde, Edwin Telemi, Ki Duk Park, Jennifer Y Xie, David W Dodick, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Migraine is one of the world's most common neurological disorders. Current acute migraine treatments have sub-optimal efficacy and new therapeutic options are needed. Approaches targeting calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) signaling are clinically effective but small molecule antagonists have not been advanced due to toxicity. In this study, we explored the axonal growth/specification collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) as a novel "druggable" target for inhibiting CGRP release and for potential relevance for treatment of migraine pain...
June 2016: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917312/a-4d-ct-digital-phantom-of-an-individual-human-brain-for-perfusion-analysis
#20
Rashindra Manniesing, Christoph Brune, Bram van Ginneken, Mathias Prokop
Brain perfusion is of key importance to assess brain function. Modern CT scanners can acquire perfusion maps of the cerebral parenchyma in vivo at submillimeter resolution. These perfusion maps give insights into the hemodynamics of the cerebral parenchyma and are critical for example for treatment decisions in acute stroke. However, the relations between acquisition parameters, tissue attenuation curves, and perfusion values are still poorly understood and cannot be unraveled by studies involving humans because of ethical concerns...
2016: PeerJ
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