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Brain signals

Maryam Songhorzadeh, Karim Ansari-Asl, Alimorad Mahmoudi
Quantifying delayed directional couplings between electroencephalographic (EEG) time series requires an efficient method of causal network inference. This is especially due to the limited knowledge about the underlying dynamics of the brain activity. Recent methods based on information theoretic measures such as Transfer Entropy (TE) made significant progress on this issue by providing a model-free framework for causality detection. However, TE estimation from observed data is not a trivial task, especially when the number of variables is large which is the case in a highly complex system like human brain...
October 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Allison C Nugent, Bruce Luber, Frederick W Carver, Stephen E Robinson, Richard Coppola, Carlos A Zarate
Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies...
October 22, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Luisa Iacovelli, Luisa Di Menna, Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Rosamaria Orlando, Gemma Molinaro, Antonio De Blasi, Valeria Bruno, Giuseppe Battaglia, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt, Ferdinando Nicoletti
We studied the interaction between mGlu7 and α1-adrenergic receptors in heterologous expression systems, brain slices, and living animals. L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4), and l-serine-O-phosphate (L-SOP), which activate group III mGlu receptors, restrained the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis induced by the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in HEK 293 cells co-expressing α1-adrenergic and mGlu7 receptors. The inibitory action of L-AP4 was abrogated by (i) the mGlu7 receptor antagonist, XAP044; (ii) the C-terminal portion of type-2 G protein coupled receptor kinase; and (iii) the MAP kinase inhibitors, UO126 and PD98059...
October 18, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Dan Li, Nan Liu, Liang Zhao, Lei Tong, Hitoshi Kawano, Hong-Jing Yan, Hong-Peng Li
Nigrostriatal pathway injury is one of the traumatic brain injury models that usually lead to neurological dysfunction or neuron necrosis. Resveratrol-induced benefits have recently been demonstrated in several models of neuronal degeneration diseases. However, the protective properties of resveratrol against neurodegeneration have not been explored definitely. Thus, we employ the nigrostriatal pathway injury model to mimic the insults on the brain. Resveratrol decreased the p-ERK expression and increased the p-JNK expression compared to the DMSO group, but not alter the p38 MAPK proteins around the lesion site by Western blot...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
V M Kovalzon, L S Moiseenko, A V Ambaryan, S Kurtenbach, V I Shestopalov, Y V Panchin
Pannexins are membrane channel proteins that play a role in a number of critical biological processes (Panchin et al., 2000; Shestopalov, Panchin, 2008). Among other cellular functions, pannexin hemichannels serve as purine nucleoside conduits providing ATP efflux into the extracellular space (Dahl, 2015), where it is rapidly degraded to adenosine. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is abundantly expressed in the brain and has been shown to contribute to adenosine signaling in nervous system tissues (Prochnow, 2012)...
October 18, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Tanja Gempe, Silke Stach, Kaspar Bienefeld, Marianne Otte, Martin Beye
BACKGROUND: Hygienic behavior (HB) enables honeybees to tolerate parasites, including infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, and it is a well-known example of a quantitative genetic trait. The understanding of the molecular processes underpinning the quantitative differences in this behavior remains limited. RESULTS: We performed gene expression studies in worker bees that displayed quantitative genetic differences in HB. We established a high and low genetic source of HB performance and studied the engagements into HB of single worker bees under the same environmental conditions...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Jing Qiu, Min Wang, Jun Zhang, Qing Cai, Dan Lu, Yansong Li, Yushu Dong, Tianzhi Zhao, Huisheng Chen
Neuroinflammation remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke-induced secondary brain injury. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, including cerebral ischemia, and is thus considered an effective therapeutic target. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotection of Sinomenine (SINO), a potent natural anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory molecule, against cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and in an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated astrocytes/microglia model in vitro...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Annekathrin Widmann, Marc Artinger, Lukas Biesinger, Kathrin Boepple, Christina Peters, Jana Schlechter, Mareike Selcho, Andreas S Thum
Memory formation is a highly complex and dynamic process. It consists of different phases, which depend on various neuronal and molecular mechanisms. In adult Drosophila it was shown that memory formation after aversive Pavlovian conditioning includes-besides other forms-a labile short-term component that consolidates within hours to a longer-lasting memory. Accordingly, memory formation requires the timely controlled action of different neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and molecules that were initially identified by classical forward genetic approaches...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Dong-Eog Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Su-Kyoung Lee, Ju Hee Ryu, Ick Chan Kwon, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Kwangmeyung Kim, Dawid Schellingerhout
Direct thrombus imaging visualizes the root cause of thromboembolic infarction. Being able to image thrombus directly allows far better investigation of stroke than relying on indirect measurements, and will be a potent and robust vascular research tool. We use an optical imaging approach that labels thrombi with a molecular imaging thrombus marker - a Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe that is covalently linked to the fibrin strands of the thrombus by the fibrin-crosslinking enzymatic action of activated coagulation factor XIIIa during the process of clot maturation...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Marion T Turnbull, Elizabeth J Coulson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that destroys memory and cognitive function. Aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are a prominent feature in the brain of patients with AD, and are a major contributor to neuronal toxicity and disease progression. However, the factors that initiate the toxic cascade that results in tau hyperphosphorylation in sporadic AD are unknown. Here we investigated whether degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and/or a resultant decrease in neurotrophin signaling cause aberrant tau hyperphosphorylation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Katie M Parkins, Amanda M Hamilton, Ashley V Makela, Yuanxin Chen, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah Elizabeth Skerratt, Mark D Andrews, Sharan K Bagal, James Bilsland, David Brown, Peter J Bungay, Susan Cole, Karl R Gibson, Russell Jones, Inaki Morao, Angus Nedderman, Kiyoyuki Omoto, Colin Robinson, Thomas Ryckmans, Kimberly Skinner, Paul Anthony Stupple, Gareth Waldron
The neurotrophin family of growth factors, comprised of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4), is implicated in the physiology of chronic pain. Given the clinical efficacy of anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies, there is significant interest in the development of small molecule modulators of neurotrophin activity. Neurotrophins signal through the tropomyosin related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors, hence Trk kinase inhibition represents a potentially "druggable" point of intervention...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Zhe Zhang, Bing Zhang, Ming Li, Xue Liang, Xiaodong Chen, Renyuan Liu, Xin Zhang, Hua Guo
PURPOSE: To report a diffusion imaging technique insensitive to off-resonance artifacts and motion-induced ghost artifacts using mulitshot Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) acquisition and iterative POCS-based reconstruction of multiplexed sensitivity encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (POCSMUSE) for phase correction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase insensitive diffusion preparation was used to deal with the violation of the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) conditions of TSE diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), followed by a mulitshot Cartesian TSE readout for data acquisition...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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