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Brain signals

William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Karl Kuntzelman, L Jack Rhodes, Lillian N Harrington, Vladimir Miskovic
There is a broad family of statistical methods for capturing time series regularity, with increasingly widespread adoption by the neuroscientific community. A common feature of these methods is that they permit investigators to quantify the entropy of brain signals - an index of unpredictability/complexity. Despite the proliferation of algorithms for computing entropy from neural time series data there is scant evidence concerning their relative stability and efficiency. Here we evaluated several different algorithmic implementations (sample, fuzzy, dispersion and permutation) of multiscale entropy in terms of their stability across sessions, internal consistency and computational speed, accuracy and precision using a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) and synthetic 1/ƒ noise signals...
March 18, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Walderik W Zomerman, Sabine L A Plasschaert, Siobhan Conroy, Frank J Scherpen, Tiny G J Meeuwsen-de Boer, Harm J Lourens, Sergi Guerrero Llobet, Marlinde J Smit, Lorian Slagter-Menkema, Annika Seitz, Corrie E M Gidding, Esther Hulleman, Pieter Wesseling, Lisethe Meijer, Leon C van Kempen, Anke van den Berg, Daniël O Warmerdam, Frank A E Kruyt, Floris Foijer, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Wilfred F A den Dunnen, Eelco W Hoving, Victor Guryev, Eveline S J M de Bont, Sophia W M Bruggeman
The brain cancer medulloblastoma consists of different transcriptional subgroups. To characterize medulloblastoma at the phosphoprotein-signaling level, we performed high-throughput peptide phosphorylation profiling on a large cohort of SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), group 3, and group 4 medulloblastomas. We identified two major protein-signaling profiles. One profile was associated with rapid death post-recurrence and resembled MYC-like signaling for which MYC lesions are sufficient but not necessary. The second profile showed enrichment for DNA damage, as well as apoptotic and neuronal signaling...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Carlos A Gómez, Jason Sutin, Weicheng Wu, Buyin Fu, Hana Uhlirova, Anna Devor, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Mohammad A Yaseen
Investigating cerebral metabolism in vivo at a microscopic level is essential for understanding brain function and its pathological alterations. The intricate signaling and metabolic dynamics between neurons, glia, and microvasculature requires much more detailed understanding to better comprehend the mechanisms governing brain function and its disease-related changes. We recently demonstrated that pharmacologically-induced alterations to different steps of cerebral metabolism can be distinguished utilizing 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence in vivo...
2018: PloS One
Germano Guerra, Angela Lucariello, Angelica Perna, Laura Botta, Antonio De Luca, Francesco Moccia
BACKGROUND: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the mechanism whereby an increase in neuronal activity (NA) leads to local elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to match the metabolic requirements of firing neurons. Following synaptic activity, an increase in neuronal and/or astrocyte Ca2+ concentration leads to the synthesis of multiple vasoactive messengers. Curiously, the role of endothelial Ca2+ signaling in NVC has been rather neglected, although endothelial cells are known to control the vascular tone in a Ca2+ -dependent manner throughout peripheral vasculature...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
A Lina Teichmann, Tijl Grootswagers, Thomas Carlson, Anina N Rich
Numerical format describes the way magnitude is conveyed, for example, as a digit ("3") or Roman numeral ("III"). In the field of numerical cognition, there is an ongoing debate of whether magnitude representation is independent of numerical format. Here, we examine the time course of magnitude processing when using different symbolic formats. We presented participants with a series of digits and dice patterns corresponding to the magnitudes of 1 to 6 while performing a 1-back task on magnitude...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sing-Han Huang, Yu-Shu Lo, Yong-Chun Luo, Yu-Yao Tseng, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Qiong Wang, Wei Huang, Hong-Yang Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of silent information regulator factor 2-related enzyme 1 (SIRT 1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in rats with acute cerebral ischemia (ACI), so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of ACI. METHODS: One hundred female SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control (normal), sham-operation (sham), model, non-acupoint and acupoint, with 20 rats in each. The ACI model was established by occlusion (electric coagulation) of the middle cerebral artery after craniotomy...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Balaji Krishnan, Rakez Kayed, Giulio Taglialatela
Introduction: Phospholipase D (PLD), a lipolytic enzyme that breaks down membrane phospholipids, is also involved in signaling mechanisms downstream of seven transmembrane receptors. Abnormally elevated levels of PLD activity are well-established in Alzheimer's disease (AD), implicating the two isoforms of mammalian phosphatidylcholine cleaving PLD (PC-PLD1 and PC-PLD2). Therefore, we took a systematic approach of investigating isoform-specific expression in human synaptosomes and further investigated the possibility of therapeutic intervention using preclinical studies...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Meeri Eeva-Liisa Mäkinen, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Susanna Narkilahti
The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Raquel Marin, Mario Diaz
Estrogens (E2) exert a plethora of neuroprotective actions against aged-associated brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Part of these actions takes place through binding to estrogen receptors (ER) embedded in signalosomes, where numerous signaling proteins are clustered. Signalosomes are preferentially located in lipid rafts which are dynamic membrane microstructures characterized by a peculiar lipid composition enriched in gangliosides, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Rapid E2 interactions with ER-related signalosomes appear to trigger intracellular signaling ultimately leading to the activation of molecular mechanisms against AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ki-Chun Yoo, Yongjoon Suh, Yoojeong An, Hae-June Lee, Ye Ji Jeong, Nizam Uddin, Yan-Hong Cui, Tae-Hoon Roh, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Jong Hee Chang, Jong Bae Park, Min-Jung Kim, In-Gyu Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Su-Jae Lee
Ionizing radiation is widely used for patient with glioblastoma (GBM). However, the effect of radiation on patient survival is marginal and upon recurrence tumors frequently shift toward mesenchymal subtype adopting invasiveness. Here, we show that ionizing radiation affects biomechanical tension in GBM microenvironment and provides proinvasive extracellular signaling cue, hyaluronic acid (HA)-rich condition. In response to radiation, HA production was increased in GBM cells by HA synthase-2 (HAS2) that was transcriptionally upregulated by NF-ĸB...
March 21, 2018: Oncogene
Nancy R Stallings, Melissa A O'Neal, Jie Hu, Ege T Kavalali, Ilya Bezprozvanny, James S Malter
Early-stage Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the loss of dendritic spines in the neocortex of the brain. This phenomenon precedes tau pathology, plaque formation, and neurodegeneration and likely contributes to synaptic loss, memory impairment, and behavioral changes in patients. Studies suggest that dendritic spine loss is induced by soluble, multimeric amyloid-β (Aβ42 ), which, through postsynaptic signaling, activates the protein phosphatase calcineurin. We investigated how calcineurin caused spine pathology and found that the cis-trans prolyl isomerase Pin1 was a critical downstream target of Aβ42 -calcineurin signaling...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Tanusree Sen, Pampa Saha, Nilkantha Sen
Acetylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau promotes its polymerization into neurofibrillary tangles that are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell signaling through the nitrosylation of proteins. We found that NO production and tau acetylation at Lys280 occurred in the brain tissue in mice and in cultured mouse cortical neurons in response to exposure to amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42 ), a peptide that is also implicated in AD...
March 20, 2018: Science Signaling
Joseph Scafidi, Jonathan Ritter, Brooke M Talbot, Jorge Edwards, Li-Jin Chew, Vittorio Gallo
Newly developed targeted anticancer drugs inhibit signaling pathways commonly altered in adult and pediatric cancers. However, as these pathways are also essential for normal brain development, concerns have emerged of neurologic sequelae resulting specifically from their application in pediatric cancers. The neural substrates and age dependency of these drug-induced effects in vivo are unknown, and their long-term behavioral consequences have not been characterized. This study defines the age-dependent cellular and behavioral effects of these drugs on normally developing brains and determines their reversibility with post-drug intervention...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Manoj P Dandekar, Tao Peng, David D McPherson, Joao Quevedo, Jair C Soares, Shaoling Huang
AIM: Similar to ketamine, xenon gas acts as a glutamatergic N-methyl-d -aspartate receptor antagonist, but devoid of propensity to cause untoward effects. Herein, we loaded xenon gas into a liposomal carrier called xenon-containing liposomes (Xe-liposome) for systemic delivery, and investigated its effect as an antidepressant and also analyzed synaptic biomarkers including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), protein kinase B (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) in blood and brain...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, hunger has a significant impact on its sensory systems and brain functions, and consequently modifies related behaviors. However, it remains unclarified whether hunger affects nociceptive behavioral responses to heat stimuli. In this study, we show that food deprivation reduces responses to noxious heat in wild-type flies. We further identified that the neuropeptide Leucokinin (Lk) and its receptor (Lkr) are essential for the reduction of responses to noxious heat. Temporal silencing of Lk-expressing neurons and a knockout mutation of Lkr generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system inhibited the reduction of responses to noxious heat...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Agnieszka Niemierzycka, Krzysztof Tomczuk, Mirosław Mikicin, Agnieszka Zdrodowska, Grzegorz Orzechowski, Marek Kowalczyk
OBJECTIVE: The article represents the preliminary study, with the aim of the experiment being to examine whether different types of light sources used commonly in building interiors combined with various color temperature have an effect on EEG activity. The effect of frequency pulsation and color temperature on brain activity in EEG examinations in the beta 2 band was assumed. MATERIAL/PARTICIPANTS: Twenty healthy men aged 19-25 years participated in the experiment...
March 8, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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