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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334662/aqueous-extracts-of-two-tropical-ethnobotanicals-tetrapleura-tetraptera-and-quassia-undulata-improved-spatial-and-non-spatial-working-memories-in-scopolamine-induced-amnesic-rats-influence-of-neuronal-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems
#1
Veronica O Odubanjo, Emmanuel O Ibukun, Ganiyu Oboh, Stephen A Adefegha
BACKGROUND: Tetrapleura tetraptera (TT) and Quassia undulata (QU) are two predominant tropical ethnobotanicals with various medicinal values but are commonly used in folklore for the treatment of mental illness without justifiable mechanisms of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of aqueous extracts from TT fruits and QU leaves on the spatial and non-spatial working memory, antioxidant status and activities of neuronal marker enzymes of scopolamine-induced amnesic rats and thus, understand the possible mechanism of action of these plants...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334640/not-single-brain-areas-but-a-network-is-involved-in-language-applications-in-presurgical-planning
#2
Razieh Alemi, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Ebrahim Behzad, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Mohammad Ali Oghabian
OBJECTIVES: Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334322/plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pbdnf-and-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Stefanie Wagner, Sarah Kayser, Jan Engelmann, Konrad F Schlicht, Nadine Dreimüller, Oliver Tüscher, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Dieter F Braus, André Tadić, Alexandra Neyazi, Helge Frieling, Klaus Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunctions are frequently seen in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and normalize in many cases during effective antidepressant therapy. This study investigated whether a normalization of executive dysfunctions during antidepressant treatment correlates with or can be predicted by clinical parameters or levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: In 110 MDD patients with executive dysfunctions (percentile < 16), executive functions and plasma BDNF levels were analysed at baseline, day 14 and 56 of an antidepressant treatment...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333914/hybrid-pet-mri-imaging-in-healthy-unsedated-newborn-infants-with-quantitative-rcbf-measurements-using-15o-water-pet
#4
Julie B Andersen, Ulrich Lindberg, Oline V Olesen, Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Henrik Bw Larsson, Liselotte Højgaard, Gorm Greisen, Ian Law
In this study, a new hybrid PET/MRI method for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements in healthy newborn infants was assessed and the low values of rCBF in white matter previously obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) were tested. Four healthy full-term newborn subjects were scanned in a PET/MRI scanner during natural sleep after median intravenous injection of 14 MBq 15O-water. Regional CBF was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment model employing an image-derived input function (IDIF) from the left ventricle...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333886/anaemia-worsens-early-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study
#5
N Scott Litofsky, Douglas C Miller, Zhenzhou Chen, Agnes Simonyi, Diana Klakotskaia, Andrew Giritharan, Qi Feng, Diane McConnell, Jiankun Cui, Zezong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. METHODS: CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume...
January 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333823/brain-death-and-organ-donation-in-argentine-pediatric-intensive-care-units-a-multicenter-study
#6
Germán Bonetto, Pedro Taffarel, Melisa Gamerman, Facundo Jorro Barón, Carolina Gaviña, Laura Flores, Emanuel Fernández, Andrea Zifferman, Gustavo Debaisi, Marcelo Acerenza, Jorge Selandari, Luis Landry, Ariel Cacciamano, Alfredo Clavel, Patricia Capocasa, Bernardo Calvo, Marcial Angos
Brain death (BD) is a condition determined by the complete and irreversible absence of brain functions. Maintenance of vital functions creates an opportunity for organ donation. A retrospective study was carried out in 7 pediatric intensive care units of Argentina (from 1/1/2013 to 9/30/2016) to determine the incidence of clinical and certified BD, and the proportion of effective transplantations. Among deceased patients, 19.14% (147/768) met the clinical requirements for BD, and the main cause of BD was multiple trauma...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333742/parvalbumin-fast-spiking-interneurons-are-selectively-altered-by-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Joshua Nichols, George Reed Bjorklund, Jason Newbern, Trent Anderson
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Traditionally, ongoing neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity have thought to confer children with an advantage following TBI. However, recent findings indicate that the pediatric brain may be more sensitive to brain injury. Inhibitory interneurons are essential for proper cortical function and implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI, yet few studies have directly examined for TBI induced changes to interneurons themselves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333725/chemoreflex-function-and-brain-blood-flow-during-upright-posture-in-men-and-women
#8
Christopher Hazlett, Heather Edgell
Orthostatic intolerance is more common in women than men, and some studies have found that women in the early follicular (EF) phase of the menstrual cycle experience the greatest feelings of lightheadedness. Chemoreflex function while supine or upright was investigated to determine the potential contribution of ventilatory control to these phenomena. Men (n = 13) and women (n = 14) were tested while supine and 70° upright (head-up tilt [HUT]) and given: (1) normoxia or (2) hypercapnia (5% CO2 ). Women were tested during the EF phase (days 2-5) and the midluteal phase (ML; days 18-24)...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333681/myotropic-activity-and-immuno-localization-of-selected-neuropeptides-of-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-coleoptera-silphidae
#9
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333676/ether-%C3%A3-go-go-k-channels-effective-modulators-of-neuronal-excitability
#10
Christiane K Bauer, Jürgen R Schwarz
Mammalian EAG (ether-à-go-go) channels are voltage-gated K+ channels. They are encoded by the KCNH gene family and divided into three subfamilies, eag (Kv10), erg (eag-related gene; Kv11) and elk (eag-like; Kv12). All EAG channel subtypes are expressed in the brain where they effectively modulate neuronal excitability. This Topical Review describes the biophysical properties of each of the EAG channel subtypes, their function in neurons and the neurological diseases induced by EAG channel mutations. In contrast to the function of erg currents in the heart where they contribute to repolarization of the cardiac action potential, erg currents in neurons are involved in the maintenance of the resting potential, setting of action potential threshold and frequency accommodation...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333611/cognitive-dysfunction-after-generalized-tonic-clonic-status-epilepticus-in-adults
#11
K N Power, A Gramstad, N E Gilhus, K O Hufthammer, B A Engelsen
OBJECTIVES: Generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (GTC-SE) is considered a risk for cognitive impairment. Research with standardized tools is scarce and non-conclusive. We systematically assessed short-term and long-term cognitive function after GTC-SE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were tested after the clinical post-ictal phase of GTC-SE (timepoint 1) and again after 1 year (timepoint 2). Twenty controls were examined with the same tests...
January 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333483/how-heart-rate-variability-affects-emotion-regulation-brain-networks
#12
Mara Mather, Julian Thayer
Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart rate oscillations suggest that high amplitude physiological oscillations have a causal impact on emotional well-being...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333343/resounding-failure-to-replicate-links-between-developmental-language-disorder-and-cerebral-lateralisation
#13
Alexander C Wilson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Background: It has been suggested that failure to establish cerebral lateralisation may be related to developmental language disorder (DLD). There has been weak support for any link with handedness, but more consistent reports of associations with functional brain lateralisation for language. The consistency of lateralisation across different functions may also be important. We aimed to replicate previous findings of an association between DLD and reduced laterality on a quantitative measure of hand preference (reaching across the midline) and on language laterality assessed using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332985/civility-cloud-based-interactive-visualization-of-tractography-brain-connectome
#14
Danaële Puechmaille, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
Cloud based Interactive Visualization of Tractography Brain Connectome (CIVILITY) is an interactive visualization tool of brain connectome in the cloud. This application submits tasks to remote computing grids were the CIVILITY-tractography pipeline is deployed. The application will list the running tasks for the user and once a task is completed the brain connectome is visualized using Hierarchical Edge Bundling. The analysis pipeline uses FSL tools (bedpostx and probtrackx2) to generate a triangular matrix indicating the connectivity strength between different regions in the brain...
March 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332984/white-matter-fiber-based-analysis-of-t1w-t2w-ratio-map
#15
Haiwei Chen, Francois Budin, Jean Noel, Juan Carlos Prieto, John Gilmore, Jerod Rasmussen, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Martin Styner
Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332928/optical-coherence-tomography-for-precision-brain-imaging-neurosurgical-guidance-and-minimally-invasive-theranostics
#16
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332614/serelaxin-for-infant-heart-failure-in-congenital-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#17
Patrick O Myers, Alice Bordessoule, Cécile Tissot
Serelaxin has been studied in trials in adults with acute heart failure, but not in children. We report the first compassionate use of serelaxin in an infant. A 6-month-old girl with dilated cardiomyopathy was placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following cardiac arrest unresponsive to medical treatment. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning failed despite maximal ino-dilator therapy. During the 48-hour infusion of serelaxin, we observed marked improvement in brain natriuretic peptide, left ventricular systolic function, and dilatation...
January 15, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332564/mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-intracerebral-haemorrhagic-stroke
#18
Gloria Bedini, Anna Bersano, Elisa R Zanier, Francesca Pischiutta, Eugenio A Parati
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a relatively common fatal disease, with an overall global incidence estimated at 24.6 per 100,000 person-years. Given the high degree of morbidity and mortality associated with ICH, therapies that may have neuroprotective effects are of increasing interest to clinicians. In this last context, cell therapies offer the promise of improving the disease course which cannot be addressed adequately by existing treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to evaluate the protective effects and molecular mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on haemorrhagic brain following ICH...
January 10, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#19
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332256/dopamine-dependent-social-information-processing-in-non-human-primates
#20
Young-A Lee, Sarah Lionnet, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli...
January 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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