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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454441/microrna-130b-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-by-inhibiting-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-in-human-glioma
#1
Peidong Li, Xinjun Wang, Qiao Shan, Yuehui Wu, Zhen Wang
Glioma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. MicroRNA (miR)-130b functions as a tumor-associated miR. The dysregulation of miR-130b is involved in numerous biological characteristics and properties of certain types of cancer. The present study revealed the function and possible molecular mechanism of miR-130b in glioma cells, reporting that the level of miR-130b was markedly higher, increasing progressively as the histologic grade of the glioma increased, compared with the level in normal tissues...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454124/influence-of-the-rehabilitation-outcome-on-returning-to-drive-after-neurological-impairment
#2
Urša Š Čižman, Gaj Vidmar, Petra Drnovšek
In traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke rehabilitation, the question of reintegration of the driver into traffic is faced very often. Driving is an important domain and for some patients, return to driving represents a crucial event for community inclusion. The aim of our study was to examine the utility of Glasgow Coma Scale within the first 24 h of injury and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at rehabilitation admission for predicting the return to driving. We included 72 patients after TBI or stroke...
June 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454069/cns-bioavailability-and-radiation-protection-of-normal-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-a-lipophilic-mn-porphyrin-based-superoxide-dismutase-mimic-mntnbuoe-2-pyp-5
#3
David Leu, Ivan Spasojevic, Huy Nguyen, Brian Deng, Artak Tovmasyan, Tin Weitner, Romulo S Sampaio, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Ting-Ting Huang
Although radiation therapy can be effective against cancer, potential damage to normal tissues limits the amount that can be safely administered. In central nervous system (CNS), radiation damage to normal tissues is presented, in part, as suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognitive functions. Mn porphyrin (MnP)-based redox active drugs have demonstrated differential effects on cancer and normal tissues in experimental animals that lead to protection of normal tissues and radio- and chemo-sensitization of cancers...
April 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454042/cortical-plasticity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-parkinson-s-disease-connecting-the-dots-in-a-multicomponent-network
#4
REVIEW
Roopa Rajan, Traian Popa, Angelo Quartarone, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Asha Kishore
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are motor complications following long term dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Impaired brain plasticity resulting in the creation of aberrant motor maps intended to encode normal voluntary movement is proposed to result in the development of dyskinesias. Traditionally, the various nodes in the motor network like the striato-cortical and the cerebello-thalamic loops were thought to function independent of each other with little communication among them. Anatomical evidence from primates revealed the existence of reciprocal loops between the basal ganglia and the cerebellum providing an anatomical basis for communication between the motor network loops...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453975/synaptic-plasticity-in-dendrites-complications-and-coping-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Bartlett W Mel, Jackie Schiller, Panayiota Poirazi
The elaborate morphology, nonlinear membrane mechanisms and spatiotemporally varying synaptic activation patterns of dendrites complicate the expression, compartmentalization and modulation of synaptic plasticity. To grapple with this complexity, we start with the observation that neurons in different brain areas face markedly different learning problems, and dendrites of different neuron types contribute to the cell's input-output function in markedly different ways. By committing to specific assumptions regarding a neuron's learning problem and its input-output function, specific inferences can be drawn regarding the synaptic plasticity mechanisms and outcomes that we 'ought' to expect for that neuron...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453941/probing-molecular-interactions-between-human-carbonic-anhydrases-hcas-and-a-novel-class-of-benzenesulfonamides
#6
Elvira Bruno, Maria Rosa Buemi, Anna Di Fiore, Laura De Luca, Stefania Ferro, Andrea Angeli, Roberto Cirilli, Daniele Sadutto, Vincenzo Alterio, Simona Maria Monti, Claudiu T Supuran, Giuseppina De Simone, Rosaria Gitto
On the basis of X-ray crystallographic studies of the complex of hCA II with 4-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (3) (PDB code 4Z1J), a novel series of 4-(1-aryl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamides (23-33) was designed. Specifically, our idea was to improve the selectivity toward druggable isoforms through the introduction of additional hydrophobic/hydrophilic functionalities. Among the synthesized and tested compounds, the (R,S)-4-(6,7-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1H-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (30) exhibited a remarkable inhibition for the brain-expressed hCA VII (Ki = 0...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453858/digenic-inheritance-of-prokr2-and-wdr11-mutations-in-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome
#7
Shana E McCormack, Dong Li, Yeon Joo Kim, Ji Young Lee, Soo-Hyun Kim, Robert Rapaport, Michael A Levine
Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS, ORPHA95496) is a congenital defect of the pituitary gland characterized by the triad of a very thin/interrupted pituitary stalk, an ectopic (or absent) posterior pituitary gland, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland. Complex genetic patterns of inheritance of this disorder are increasingly recognized. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify a genetic etiology of PSIS in an affected child...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453751/the-neurologic-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-nano-scale-a-tool-to-assess-neurologic-function-for-integration-into-the-response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-rano-criteria
#8
Lakshmi Nayak, Lisa M DeAngelis, Alba A Brandes, David M Peereboom, Evanthia Galanis, Nancy U Lin, Riccardo Soffietti, David R Macdonald, Marc Chamberlain, James Perry, Kurt Jaeckle, Minesh Mehta, Roger Stupp, Alona Muzikansky, Elena Pentsova, Timothy Cloughesy, Fabio M Iwamoto, Joerg-Christian Tonn, Michael A Vogelbaum, Patrick Y Wen, Martin J van den Bent, David A Reardon
Background.: The Macdonald criteria and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria define radiologic parameters to classify therapeutic outcome among patients with malignant glioma and specify that clinical status must be incorporated and prioritized for overall assessment. But neither provides specific parameters to do so. We hypothesized that a standardized metric to measure neurologic function will permit more effective overall response assessment in neuro-oncology. Methods...
May 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453662/mglur5-tunes-ngf-trka-signaling-to-orient-spiny-stellate-neuron-dendrites-toward-thalamocortical-axons-during-whisker-barrel-map-formation
#9
Jui-Yen Huang, Hui-Chen Lu
Neurons receive and integrate synaptic inputs at their dendrites, thus dendritic patterning shapes neural connectivity and behavior. Aberrant dendritogenesis is present in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down's syndrome and autism. Abnormal glutamatergic signaling has been observed in these diseases, as has dysfunction of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Deleting mGluR5 in cortical glutamatergic neurons disrupted their coordinated dendritic outgrowth toward thalamocortical axons and perturbed somatosensory circuits...
April 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453613/functional-characterization-of-the-human-speech-articulation-network
#10
Alexandra Basilakos, Kimberly G Smith, Paul Fillmore, Julius Fridriksson, Evelina Fedorenko
A number of brain regions have been implicated in articulation, but their precise computations remain debated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examine the degree of functional specificity of articulation-responsive brain regions to constrain hypotheses about their contributions to speech production. We find that articulation-responsive regions (1) are sensitive to articulatory complexity, but (2) are largely nonoverlapping with nearby domain-general regions that support diverse goal-directed behaviors...
April 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453609/invited-commentary-searching-for-the-perfect-measure-of-diastolic-dysfunction-a-futile-exercise
#11
Ambarish Pandey, Jarett D Berry
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common, recalcitrant to treatment, and associated with poor outcomes. Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is an independent predictor of HFpEF risk, associated clinical manifestations, and long-term outcomes. However, the usefulness of diastolic function assessment is limited by the heterogeneity in the existing definitions of DD. In this issue of the Journal, Rasmussen-Torvik et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;000(00):000-000) have highlighted this problem by evaluating the prevalence and concordance of 4 established definitions of DD in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453519/homozygous-arhgef2-mutation-causes-intellectual-disability-and-midbrain-hindbrain-malformation
#12
Ethiraj Ravindran, Hao Hu, Scott A Yuzwa, Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Nadine Kraemer, Olaf Ninnemann, Luciana Musante, Eugen Boltshauser, Detlev Schindler, Angela Hübner, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Hans-Hilger Ropers, Carmen Birchmeier, Freda D Miller, Thomas F Wienker, Christoph Hübner, Angela M Kaindl
Mid-hindbrain malformations can occur during embryogenesis through a disturbance of transient and localized gene expression patterns within these distinct brain structures. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARHGEF) family members are key for controlling the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPase, to modulate cytoskeleton dynamics, cell division, and cell migration. We identified, by means of whole exome sequencing, a homozygous frameshift mutation in the ARHGEF2 as a cause of intellectual disability, a midbrain-hindbrain malformation, and mild microcephaly in a consanguineous pedigree of Kurdish-Turkish descent...
April 28, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453486/cognitive-deficits-after-cerebral-ischemia-and-underlying-dysfunctional-plasticity-potential-targets-for-recovery-of-cognition
#13
Holly M Stradecki-Cohan, Charles H Cohan, Ami P Raval, Kunjan R Dave, Diego Reginensi, Rolando A Gittens, Mehdi Youbi, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Cerebral ischemia affects millions of people worldwide and survivors suffer from long-term functional and cognitive deficits. While stroke and cardiac arrest are typically considered when discussing ischemic brain injuries, there is much evidence that smaller ischemic insults underlie neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The "regenerative" capacity of the brain relies on several aspects of plasticity that are crucial for normal functioning; less affected brain areas may take over function previously performed by irreversibly damaged tissue...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453485/tau-oligomers-in-sera-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-aged-controls
#14
Michala Kolarova, Urmi Sengupta, Ales Bartos, Jan Ricny, Rakez Kayed
Although tau protein was long regarded as an intracellular protein with several functions inside the cell, new evidence has shown tau secretion into the extracellular space. The active secretion of tau could be a physiological response of neurons to increased intracellular amounts of tau during the progression of tau pathology. We looked for potential differences in the serum levels of toxic tau oligomers in regards to cognitive impairment of subjects. We detected tau oligomers in the serum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they were also present to some extent in the serum of healthy older subjects where the levels positively correlated with aging (Spearman r = 0...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453483/remyelination-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Junjun Sun, Hong Zhou, Feng Bai, Zhijun Zhang, Qingguo Ren
Myelin is a lipid-rich multilamellar membrane that wraps around long segments of neuronal axons and it increases the conduction of action potentials, transports the necessary trophic support to the neuronal axons, and reduces the energy consumed by the neuronal axons. Together with axons, myelin is a prerequisite for the higher functions of the central nervous system and complex forms of network integration. Myelin impairments have been suggested to lead to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive decline. Accumulating evidence, including brain imaging and postmortem and genetic association studies, has implicated myelin impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453467/prognostic-significance-of-mycn-gene-amplification-and-protein-expression-in-primary-brain-tumors-astrocytoma-and-meningioma
#17
Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Firouzeh Javan, Ali Zekri, Masoud Mehrazin, Parvin Mehdipour
BACKGROUND: Astrocytoma and meningioma are the most common primary brain tumors. MYCN as a member of MYC proto-oncogenes has recently appeared as an attractive therapeutic target. Functions of MYCN are critical for growth of nervous system and neural differentiation. OBJECTIVE: We examined MYCN amplification and protein expression in astrocytoma and meningioma cases. METHODS: In this study, we used real-time PCR, FISH assay and flowcytometry to analyze DNA amplification and protein expression of MYCN...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453285/pharmacological-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#18
Min Xie, Shibing Tang, Ke Li, Sheng Ding
Lost or damaged cells in tissues and organs can be replaced by transplanting therapeutically competent cells. This approach requires methods that effectively manipulate cellular identities and properties to generate sufficient numbers of desired cell types for transplantation. These cells can be generated by reprogramming readily available somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can replicate indefinitely and give rise to any somatic cell type. This reprogramming can be achieved with genetic methods, such as forced expression of pluripotency-inducing transcription factors (TFs), which can be further improved, or even avoided, with pharmacological agents...
April 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#19
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449556/role-of-sleep-disturbance-in-the-trajectory-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Dong Woo Kang, Chang Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
Sleep disturbances such as insomnia, hypersomnia, and circadian rhythm disturbance are common in normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To date, special attention has been paid to sleep disturbance in the clinical course of AD insofar as the interaction of sleep disturbance with the pathogenesis of AD may impact the clinical course and cognitive function of AD patients. This review covers the bidirectional relationship between sleep disturbance and AD pathogenesis; the associations between sleep disturbance and AD-specific neurotransmitters, brain structure, and aspects of sleep disturbance in each phase of AD; and the effects of sleep disturbance on the cognitive functions of patients in each phase of AD...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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