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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110410/neurophysiological-assessment-of-brain-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-patients-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Eric Azabou, Catherine Fischer, Jean Michel Guerit, Djillali Annane, François Mauguiere, Fréderic Lofaso, Tarek Sharshar
The aim of this review was to provide up-to-date information about the usefulness of clinical neurophysiology testing in the management of critically ill patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are non-invasive clinical neurophysiology tools that allow an objective assessment of the central nervous system's function at the bedside in intensive care unit (ICU). These tests are quite useful in diagnosing cerebral complications, and establishing the vital and functional prognosis in ICU...
January 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110235/relationship-between-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-the-proliferation-of-prolactinomas
#2
Nan Li Ya, ZhiQuan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Prolactinomas are the most common functional hormone-producing pituitary lesions, accounting for 30-40% of all pituitary tumors, while in autopsy series their incidence reaches 50%. However, patients with prolactinoma had a higher recurrence percentage and rate than patients with acromegaly or Cushing's disease. Furthermore, prolactinomas have the highest rate of recurrence post-surgery as compared with other pituitary adenomas. At present, this behavior of prolactinoma is largely unexplained, but may be related to definition of cure, or to more frequent microscopic tumor infiltration into normal pituitary tissue, which is not removed at surgery...
December 14, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110183/noncovalent-interaction-assisted-fullerene-for-the-transportation-of-some-brain-anticancer-drugs-a-theoretical-study
#3
Pabitra Narayan Samanta, Kalyan Kumar Das
The treatment of brain cancer like glioblastoma multiforme often uses chemotherapeutic drugs like temozolomide, procarbazine, carmustine, and lomustine. Fullerene loaded with these drugs help to cross the blood brain barriers. The adsorptions of the four drug molecules on the surface of the fullerene are studied mostly by using density functional theory (DFT) based method at the M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of calculations. In all four cases, the estimated interactions are noncovalent type and the average adsorption energy lies in between -5 and -11kcal/mol in the gas phase...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110119/interleukin-15-activates-akt-to-protect-astrocytes-from-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-cell-death
#4
Gilbert Aaron Lee, Yein-Gei Lai, Ray-Jade Chen, Nan-Shih Liao
Astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal survival under the condition of post-ischemic brain inflammation, but the relevant astrocyte-derived mediators of ischemic brain injury remain to be defined. IL-15 supports survival of multiple lymphocyte lineages in the peripheral immune system, but the role of IL-15 in inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is not well defined. Recent research has shown an increase of IL-15-expressing astrocytes in the ischemic brain. Since astrocytes promote neuron survival under cerebral ischemia by buffering excess extracellular glutamate and producing growth factors, recovery of astrocyte function could be of benefit for stroke therapy...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110112/verbal-memory-functioning-moderates-psychotherapy-treatment-response-for-ptsd-related-nightmares
#5
J Cobb Scott, Gerlinde Harb, Janeese A Brownlow, Jennifer Greene, Ruben C Gur, Richard J Ross
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive deficits in attention, executive control, and memory, although few studies have investigated the relevance of cognitive difficulties for treatment outcomes. We examined whether cognitive functioning and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were associated with response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD-related sleep problems. In a randomized controlled trial of Imagery Rehearsal (IR) added to components of CBT for Insomnia (IR + cCBT-I) compared to cCBT-I alone for PTSD-related recurrent nightmares, 94 U...
January 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110105/a-common-neural-hub-resolves-syntactic-and-non-syntactic-conflict-through-cooperation-with-task-specific-networks
#6
Nina S Hsu, Susanne M Jaeggi, Jared M Novick
Regions within the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) have simultaneously been implicated in syntactic processing and cognitive control. Accounts attempting to unify LIFG's function hypothesize that, during comprehension, cognitive control resolves conflict between incompatible representations of sentence meaning. Some studies demonstrate co-localized activity within LIFG for syntactic and non-syntactic conflict resolution, suggesting domain-generality, but others show non-overlapping activity, suggesting domain-specific cognitive control and/or regions that respond uniquely to syntax...
January 18, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110102/transcriptional-profiling-reveals-protective-mechanisms-in-brains-of-long-lived-mice
#7
Christiane Frahm, Akash Srivastava, Silvio Schmidt, Jule Mueller, Marco Groth, Madlen Guenther, Yuanyuan Ji, Steffen Priebe, Matthias Platzer, Otto W Witte
The brain plays a central role in organismal aging but is itself most sensitive to aging-related functional impairments and pathologies. Insights into processes underlying brain aging are the basis to positively impact brain health. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we monitored cerebral gene expression in mice throughout their whole lifespan (2, 9, 15, 24, and 30 months). Differentially expressed genes were clustered in 6 characteristic temporal expression profiles, 3 of which revealed a distinct change between 24 and 30 months, the period when most mice die...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110085/encoding-preparation-and-implementation-of-novel-complex-verbal-instructions
#8
Carlos González-García, Juan E Arco, Ana F Palenciano, Javier Ramírez, María Ruz
Verbal instructions allow humans to acquire and implement complex novel rules in few seconds. A major question that remains elusive is how the brain represents this information prior to successful task execution. In this experiment, we studied the brain regions involved in representing categorical stimulus information during the encoding of novel instructions, their preparation and also their implementation, as well as the relation of the fidelity of these representations to observable behavior. To do so, we devised a novel instructions paradigm to delimitate these three stages...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109982/altered-glutamate-metabolism-contributes-to-antiepileptogenic-effects-in-the-progression-from-focal-seizure-to-generalized-seizure-by-low-frequency-stimulation-in-the-ventral-hippocampus
#9
Hong-Liu Sun, Wei Zhu, Yu-Rong Zhang, Xiao-Hong Pan, Jun-Ru Zhang, Xiang-Ming Chen, Yu-Xia Liu, Shu-Cui Li, Qiao-Yun Wang, Da-Ping Deng
As a promising method for treating intractable epilepsy, the inhibitory effect of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is well known, although its mechanisms remain unclear. Excessive levels of cerebral glutamate are considered a crucial factor for epilepsy. Therefore, we designed experiments to investigate the crucial parts of the glutamate cycle. We evaluated glutamine synthetase (GS, metabolizes glutamate), glutaminase (synthesizes glutamate), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, a γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] synthetase) in different regions of the brain, including the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 subregions of the hippocampus, and the cortex, using western blots, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme activity assays...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109973/sleep-loss-and-structural-plasticity
#10
REVIEW
Cassandra C Areal, Simon C Warby, Valérie Mongrain
Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109911/rho-kinase-inhibitor-prevents-acute-injury-against-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-enhancing-the-expression-and-function-of-gaba-receptors-in-rats
#11
Lin Huang, Qin Li, Ruiting Wen, Zhiying Yu, Na Li, Liping Ma, Wanyu Feng
Studies have shown hydroxyfasudil-mediated inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) has efficacy in rodent models of focal ischemia and in in vitro systems that recapitulate stroke conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of the ROCK inhibitor on stroke are not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the effects of hydroxyfasudil on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) induced acute ischemia-reperfusion injury to explore the mechanisms...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109888/improving-structural-brain-images-acquired-with-the-3d-flash-sequence
#12
Jinghua Wang, Lili He, Hairong Zheng, Zhong-Lin Lu
The three-dimension Fast Low Angle SHot Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3D FLASH) sequence has been widely adopted in medical diagnostic imaging because of its availability, simplicity, and high spatial resolution. To improve the quality of structural brain images acquired with the 3D FLASH sequence, we developed a parameter optimization scheme and image inhomogeneity correction methods. The optimal imaging parameters were determined by maximizing gray-matter and white-matter CNR efficiency. Compared to protocols based on published parameters, applying the proposed optimal imaging parameters increased CNR efficiency by >10%...
January 18, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109861/preoperative-rtms-language-mapping-in-speech-eloquent-brain-lesions-resected-under-general-anesthesia-a-pair-matched-cohort-study
#13
Philipp Hendrix, Sebastian Senger, Andreas Simgen, Christoph J Griessenauer, Joachim Oertel
OBJECTIVE: The value of preoperative rTMS language mapping for function preservation in surgery of speech eloquent lesions under general anesthesia remains to be determined. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 20 consecutive right-handed patients with a malignant, left-sided perisylvian language eloquent brain tumor. All patients were subjected to surgical resection under general anesthesia guided by preoperative rTMS language mapping (rTMS group, 2014 - 2016)...
January 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109833/a-novel-method-linking-neural-connectivity-to-behavioral-fluctuations-behavior-regressed-connectivity
#14
Antony D Passaro, Jean M Vettel, Jonathan McDaniel, Vernon Lawhern, Piotr J Franaszczuk, Stephen M Gordon
BACKGROUND: During an experimental session, behavioral performance fluctuates, yet most neuroimaging analyses of functional connectivity derive a single connectivity pattern. These conventional connectivity approaches assume that since the underlying behavior of the task remains constant, the connectivity pattern is also constant. NEW METHOD: We introduce a novel method, behavior-regressed connectivity (BRC), to directly examine behavioral fluctuations within an experimental session and capture their relationship to changes in functional connectivity...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109780/neuroimaging-studies-towards-understanding-the-central-effects-of-pharmacological-cannabis-products-on-patients-with-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109669/different-alterations-in-brain-functional-networks-according-to-direct-and-indirect-topological-connections-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Chang-Hyun Park, Seungyup Lee, Taewon Kim, Wang Yeon Won, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Schizophrenia displays connectivity deficits in the brain, but the literature has shown inconsistent findings about alterations in global efficiency of brain functional networks. We supposed that such inconsistency at the whole brain level may be due to a mixture of different portions of global efficiency at sub-brain levels. Accordingly, we considered measuring portions of global efficiency in two aspects: spatial portions by considering sub-brain networks and topological portions by considering contributions to global efficiency according to direct and indirect topological connections...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109298/neuroregenerative-potential-of-intravenous-g-csf-and-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-double-blind-cross-over-study
#17
Wee-Jin Rah, Young-Ho Lee, Jin-Hwa Moon, Hyun-Ju Jun, Hye-Ryeong Kang, Hani Koh, Hye Jung Eom, Ji Young Lee, Young Jun Lee, Ji Young Kim, Yun-Young Choi, Kyeongil Park, Mi Jung Kim, Seung-Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children with non-severe CP were enrolled in this study. G-CSF was administered for 5 days, then mPBMCs were collected by apheresis and cryopreserved. One month later (M1), recipients were randomized to receive either mPBMCs or a placebo infusion, and these treatment groups were switched at 7 months (M7) and observed for another 6 months (M13)...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109286/acetaminophen-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-antioxidant-activity
#18
Wei-Xing Zhao, Jun-Han Zhang, Jiang-Bei Cao, Wei Wang, Dong-Xin Wang, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Jun Yu, Yong-Yi Zhang, You-Zhi Zhang, Wei-Dong Mi
BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence has shown that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and other progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) has unappreciated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the impact of APAP on the cognitive sequelae of inflammatory and oxidative stress is unknown. The objective of this study is to explore whether APAP could have neuroprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive impairment in mice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109273/blocking-of-platelet-glycoprotein-receptor-ib-reduces-thrombo-inflammation-in-mice-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Michael K Schuhmann, Josua Guthmann, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a strong inflammatory response that includes T cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. Interaction of these immune cells with platelets and endothelial cells facilitates microvascular dysfunction and leads to secondary infarct growth. We recently showed that blocking of platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptor Ib improves stroke outcome without increasing the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Until now, it has been unclear whether GPIb only mediates thrombus formation or also contributes to the pathophysiology of local inflammation...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109199/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-dermatology-the-skin-the-brain-and-the-invisible
#20
REVIEW
Simon M Mueller, Samuel Hogg, Jannis Mueller, Shane McKie, Peter Itin, Julia Reinhardt, Christopher E M Griffiths, C Elise Kleyn
The skin and brain have a close bi-directional anatomical and functional connection. Historically, the skin-brain axis and the brain-skin axis have been well described. However, brain function in this context has only recently been demystified with the introduction of functional neuroimaging in dermatology. Functional neuroimaging, especially functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), allows indirect visualisation of brain function. This review looks back to the beginnings of functional neuroimaging in dermatology, summarises the currently available dermatology-related fMRI-studies and discusses the potential future role of fMRI as a stratifying tool in clinical dermatology and in the development of novel therapies...
January 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
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