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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#1
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775486/peroxidasin-contributes-to-lung-host-defense-by-direct-binding-and-killing-of-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Ruizheng Shi, Zehong Cao, Hong Li, Jochen Graw, Guogang Zhang, Victor J Thannickal, Guangjie Cheng
Innate immune recognition is classically mediated by the interaction of host pattern-recognition receptors and pathogen-associated molecular patterns; this triggers a series of downstream signaling events that facilitate killing and elimination of invading pathogens. In this report, we provide the first evidence that PXDN (also known as vascular peroxidase-1) directly binds to gram-negative bacteria and mediates bactericidal activity, thus, contributing to lung host defense. PXDN contains five leucine-rich repeats and four immunoglobulin domains, which allows for its interaction with lipopolysaccharide, a membrane component of gram-negative bacteria...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#3
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774067/estrogen-receptors-orchestrate-cell-growth-and-differentiation-to-facilitate-liver-regeneration
#4
Ta-Lun Kao, Yu-Ping Kuan, Wei-Chung Cheng, Wei-Chun Chang, Long-Bin Jeng, Shuyuan Yeh, Wen-Lung Ma
Background and Aims: Improving liver regeneration (LR) capacity and thereby liver function reserve is a critical bridging strategy for managing liver failure patients. Since estrogen signaling may participate in LR, our aim was to characterize the roles of ERα and ERβ in LR. Methods: LR capacity and estradiol levels following 2/3rd partial hepatectomy (PHx) were compared in ERα-KO or ERβ-KO vs. wildtype mice. The ERα- or ERβ-related transcriptome and interactome were analyzed from regenerating livers, and then bioinformatics was used for pathway discovery and analysis of interactome-transcriptome relationships...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773689/risk-factors-for-lung-disease-progression-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Marieke van Horck, Kim van de Kant, Bjorn Winkens, Geertjan Wesseling, Vincent Gulmans, Han Hendriks, Chris van der Grinten, Quirijn Jӧbsis, Edward Dompeling
To identify potential risk factors for lung disease progression in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied the longitudinal data of all children with CF (aged ≥5 years) registered in the Dutch CF Registry (2009-2014). Lung disease progression was expressed as a decline in lung function (FEV1 %pred) and the pulmonary exacerbation rate (PEx). Potential risk factors at baseline included: sex, age, best FEV1%pred, best forced vital capacity (FVC)%pred, genotype, BMI z-score, pancreatic insufficiency, medication use (proton pump inhibitors [PPI], prophylactic antibiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids), CF-related diabetes, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa The data of 545 children were analysed...
May 17, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773606/optimising-experimental-research-in-respiratory-diseases-an-ers-statement
#6
Philippe Bonniaud, Aurélie Fabre, Nelly Frossard, Christophe Guignabert, Mark Inman, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Tania Maes, Wei Shi, Martin Stampfli, Stefan Uhlig, Eric White, Martin Witzenrath, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Bruno Crestani, Oliver Eickelberg, Heinz Fehrenbach, Andreas Guenther, Gisli Jenkins, Guy Joos, Antoine Magnan, Bernard Maitre, Ulrich A Maus, Petra Reinhold, Juanita H J Vernooy, Luca Richeldi, Martin Kolb
Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771418/long-non-coding-rna-snhg15-indicates-poor-prognosis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-invasion
#7
Y-Z Dong, X-M Meng, G-S Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of human long non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 15 (SNHG15) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and its prognostic significance, and to study the influencing mechanism of SNHG15 on biological functions in lung cancer cell lines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression levels of SNHG15 in 49 pairs of lung cancer tissues and para-carcinoma tissues were detected via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770169/dietary-total-antioxidant-capacity-and-dietary-polyphenol-intake-and-prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-polish-adults-a-nationwide-study
#8
Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko, Anna Waśkiewicz, Anna Maria Witkowska, Danuta Szcześniewska, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Krystyna Kozakiewicz, Wojciech Drygas
Specific classes and subclasses of polyphenols have been studied for their potential effects on noncommunicable diseases, but studies on association between dietary polyphenol intake (DPI) and dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) and MetS (metabolic syndrome) are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine associations between DTAC and DPI and the prevalence of MetS and its components in the Polish adult population. Subjects (5690) were participants of the Polish National Multicentre Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) performed in 2013-2014...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769380/pneumococcal-metabolic-adaptation-and-colonization-are-regulated-by-the-two-component-regulatory-system-08
#9
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Stephanie Hirschmann, Viktor Kluger, Hermann Rath, Sebastian Böhm, Franziska Voss, Niamatullah Kakar, Lothar Petruschka, Uwe Völker, Reinhold Brückner, Ulrike Mäder, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae two-component regulatory systems (TCS) enable adaptation and ensure its maintenance in host environments. This study deciphers the impact of TCS08 on pneumococcal gene expression and its role in metabolic and pathophysiological processes. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR demonstrated a regulatory effect of TCS08 on genes involved mainly in environmental information processing, intermediary metabolism, and colonization by S. pneumoniae D39 and TIGR4. Striking examples are genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, genes of the arginine deiminase system, and the psa operon encoding the manganese ABC transport system...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769294/pulmonary-function-tests-as-outcomes-for-systemic-sclerosis-interstitial-lung-disease
#10
REVIEW
Melissa Caron, Sabrina Hoa, Marie Hudson, Kevin Schwartzman, Russell Steele
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We performed a systematic review to characterise the use and validation of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) as surrogate markers for systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) progression.Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant studies. Included studies either used at least one PFT measure as a longitudinal outcome for SSc-ILD progression ( i.e. outcome studies) and/or reported at least one classical measure of validity for the PFTs in SSc-ILD ( i...
June 30, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768688/ppar-%C3%AE-in-innate-and-adaptive-lung-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Samuel Philip Nobs, Manfred Kopf
The transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) is a key regulator of lung immunity exhibiting multiple cell type specific roles in controlling development and function of the lung immune system. It is strictly required for the generation of alveolar macrophages by controlling differentiation of fetal lung monocyte precursors. Furthermore, it plays an important role in lung allergic inflammation by licensing lung dendritic cell t helper 2 (Th2) priming capacity as well as acting as a master transcription factor for pathogenic Th2 cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768540/effect-of-melatonin-on-antioxidant-capacity-%C3%A4-nflammation-and-apoptotic-cell-death-in-lung-tissue-of-diabetic-rats
#12
Didem Onk, Oruç Alper Onk, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Mustafa Özkaraca, Selim Çomaklı, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Ufuk Kuyrukluyıldız, Süheyla Ünver
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of melatonin on antioxidant capacity, inflammation and apoptotic cell death (through expression of cleaved-caspase 3) in lung tissue samples of diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) was made up of healthy rats. Group 2 (diabetes group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days.Group 3 (diabetes plus melatonin group) received streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 5 days and then they received melatonin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day between 28thand 35thdays of the study...
April 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768275/predictive-factors-for-the-long-term-deterioration-of-pulmonary-function-in-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-anti-aminoacyl-trna-synthetase-antibodies
#13
Hideaki Yamakawa, Eri Hagiwara, Hideya Kitamura, Tae Iwasawa, Ryota Otoshi, Naoto Aiko, Takuma Katano, Ryota Shintani, Satoshi Ikeda, Ryo Okuda, Akimasa Sekine, Tomohisa Baba, Shinichiro Iso, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Shinji Sato, Takashi Ogura
BACKGROUND: Little has been reported on long-term pulmonary function trends among patients with interstitial lung disease associated with anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies (ARS-ILD). OBJECTIVES: To clarify the factors predictive of progression in ARS-ILD based on patients' initial clinical and radiological features. METHODS: The clinical courses of 88 patients with > 1 year of follow-up data on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were retrospectively analyzed...
May 16, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766487/inhaled-corticosteroids-for-bronchiectasis
#14
REVIEW
Nitin Kapur, Helen L Petsky, Scott Bell, John Kolbe, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is being increasingly diagnosed and recognised as an important contributor to chronic lung disease in both adults and children in high- and low-income countries. It is characterised by irreversible dilatation of airways and is generally associated with airway inflammation and chronic bacterial infection. Medical management largely aims to reduce morbidity by controlling the symptoms, reduce exacerbation frequency, improve quality of life and prevent the progression of bronchiectasis...
May 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765585/a-study-of-the-effects-of-daily-physical-activity-on-memory-and-attention-capacities-in-college-students
#15
Dinh-Van Phan, Chien-Lung Chan, Ren-Hao Pan, Nan-Ping Yang, Hsiu-Chen Hsu, Hsien-Wei Ting, K Robert Lai
This study evaluated the relationship between daily physical activity (DPA) and memory capacity, as well as the association between daily activity and attention capacity, in college students in Taiwan. Participants (mean age = 20.79) wore wearable trackers for 106 days in order to collect DPA. These data were analyzed in association with their memory and attention capacities, as assessed using the spatial span test (SST) and the trail making test (TMT). The study showed significant negative correlations between memory capacity, time spent on the attention test (TSAT), calories burnt, and very active time duration (VATD) on the day before testing ( r = -0...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764948/inducible-lung-epithelial-resistance-requires-multisource-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-to-protect-against-viral-infections
#16
Carson T Kirkpatrick, Yongxing Wang, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Pooja Shivshankar, Jezreel Pantaleón García, Alexandria K Plumer, Vikram V Kulkarni, Hayden H Ware, Fahad Gulraiz, Miguel A Chavez Cavasos, Gabriela Martinez Zayes, Shradha Wali, Andrew P Rice, Hongbing Liu, James M Tour, William K A Sikkema, Ana S Cruz Solbes, Keith A Youker, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans
Viral pneumonias cause profound worldwide morbidity, necessitating novel strategies to prevent and treat these potentially lethal infections. Stimulation of intrinsic lung defenses via inhalation of synergistically acting Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists protects mice broadly against pneumonia, including otherwise-lethal viral infections, providing a potential opportunity to mitigate infectious threats. As intact lung epithelial TLR signaling is required for the inducible resistance and as these cells are the principal targets of many respiratory viruses, the capacity of lung epithelial cells to be therapeutically manipulated to function as autonomous antiviral effectors was investigated...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764546/-effect-of-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-of-lung-tissue-in-mice-with-acute-lung-injury
#17
Hongfu Yang, Ke Chao, Ming Liang, Rongqing Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of lung tissue in mice with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Forty female Balb/c mice were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, LPS model group, PDTC group, and PDTC+LPS group, with 10 mice in each group. The model of mice with ALI was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg LPS...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764507/aldolase-a-promotes-proliferation-and-g-1-s-transition-via-the-egfr-mapk-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Hailu Fu, Huijun Gao, Xiaoyu Qi, Lei Zhao, Donghua Wu, Yuxin Bai, Huimin Li, Xuan Liu, Jun Hu, Shujuan Shao
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that aldolase A (ALDOA) is overexpressed in clinical human lung squamous cell carcinoma and that ALDOA promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to explore the function of ALDOA in the modulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) proliferation and cell cycle progression and the potential mechanism. METHODS: ALDOA was knocked down by short hairpin RNA in H520 and H1299 cells...
May 8, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762835/microrna-520a-3p-inhibits-cell-growth-and-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#19
X Lv, C-Y Li, P Han, X-Y Xu
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that be involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miR-520a-3p in cell growth and metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mimics and inhibitor of miR-520a-3p were used to identify the effects of miR-520a-3p on cell proliferation and apoptosis using methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and flow-cytometric method, respectively...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761224/cardiopulmonary-factors-affecting-6-min-walk-distance-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#20
Naoki Mugii, Fujiko Someya
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies involve skeletal muscles and can be associated with interstitial lung disease and/or heart dysfunction, which may reduce exercise capacity. We aimed to clarify cardiopulmonary factors affecting the 6-min walk distance in patients who were able to walk without leg pain or fatigue. Twenty-three patients with inactive adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were evaluated for hemodynamic responses using noninvasive impedance cardiography during the 6-min walk test...
May 14, 2018: Rheumatology International
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