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Jed F Fisher, Shahriar Mobashery
The practice of medicine was profoundly transformed by the introduction of the antibiotics (compounds isolated from Nature) and the antibacterials (compounds prepared by synthesis) for the control of bacterial infection. As a result of the extraordinary success of these compounds over decades of time, a timeless biological activity for these compounds has been presumed. This presumption is no longer. The inexorable acquisition of resistance mechanisms by bacteria is retransforming medical practice. Credible answers to this dilemma are far better recognized than they are being implemented...
January 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Samuel L Díaz-Muñoz, Amy Boddy, Gautam Dantas, Christopher M Waters, Judith L Bronstein
Biologists have taken the concept of organism largely for granted. However, advances in the study of chimerism, symbiosis, bacterial-eukaryote associations, and microbial behavior have prompted a redefinition of organisms as biological entities exhibiting low conflict and high cooperation among their parts. This expanded view identifies organisms in evolutionary time. However, the ecological processes, mechanisms, and traits that drive the formation of organisms remain poorly understood. Recognizing that organismality can be context-dependent, we advocate elucidating the ecological contexts under which entities do or do not act as organisms...
October 5, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Luca Schiesari, Gabriele Andreatta, Charalambos P Kyriacou, Michael B O'Connor, Rodolfo Costa
Diapause is an actively induced dormancy that has evolved in Metazoa to resist environmental stresses. In temperate regions, many diapausing insects overwinter at low temperatures by blocking embryonic, larval or adult development. Despite its Afro-tropical origin, Drosophila melanogaster migrated to temperate regions of Asia and Europe where females overwinter as adults by arresting gonadal development (reproductive diapause) at temperatures <13°C. Recent work in D. melanogaster has implicated the developmental hormones dILPs-2 and/or dILP3, and dILP5, homologues of vertebrate insulin/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), in reproductive arrest...
2016: PloS One
Lawrence Appel
With the exception of a few isolated populations, elevated blood pressure is a worldwide pandemic with staggering consequences for individuals, care givers, health care delivery systems, and insurers, including governments. It is well-recognized that the burden of hypertension and its adverse consequences is greater in low- and middle-income countries than economically developed countries. BP-related outcomes also differ by region, with a predominance of stroke in southeast Asian countries and a predominance of ischemic heart disease in the US and Western Europe...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Valeria Zonato, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou
couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward...
2016: PloS One
Xiaohua Xu, Jiin-Tarng Wang, Min Li, Yilun Liu
The replication licensing factor CDC6 recruits the MCM2-7 replicative helicase to the replication origin, where MCM2-7 is activated to initiate DNA replication. MCM2-7 is activated by both the CDC7-Dbf4 kinase (DDK) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), and via interactions with CDC45 and GINS, to form the CDC45-MCM2-7-GINS (CMG) helicase complex. TIMELESS (TIM) is important for the subsequent coupling of CMG activity to the DNA polymerases for efficient DNA synthesis. However, the mechanism by which TIM regulates CMG activity for proper replication fork progression remains unclear...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Minkyung Kim, Hoyeon Lee, Jin-Hoe Hur, Joonho Choe, Chunghun Lim
Light is one of the strongest environmental time cues for entraining endogenous circadian rhythms. Emerging evidence indicates that CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 1 (CRTC1) is a key player in this pathway, stimulating light-induced Period1 (Per1) transcription in mammalian clocks. Here, we demonstrate a light-independent role of Drosophila CRTC in sustaining circadian behaviors. Genomic deletion of the crtc locus causes long but poor locomotor rhythms in constant darkness. Overexpression or RNA interference-mediated depletion of CRTC in circadian pacemaker neurons similarly impairs the free-running behavioral rhythms, implying that Drosophila clocks are sensitive to the dosage of CRTC...
2016: Scientific Reports
Abir Ganguly, Craig C Manahan, Deniz Top, Estella F Yee, Changfan Lin, Michael W Young, Walter Thiel, Brian R Crane
Cryptochrome (CRY) is the principal light sensor of the insect circadian clock. Photoreduction of the Drosophila CRY (dCRY) flavin cofactor to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ) restructures a C-terminal tail helix (CTT) that otherwise inhibits interactions with targets that include the clock protein Timeless (TIM). All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that flavin reduction destabilizes the CTT, which undergoes large-scale conformational changes (the CTT release) on short (25 ns) timescales. The CTT release correlates with the conformation and protonation state of conserved His378, which resides between the CTT and the flavin cofactor...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesca Di Cara, Kirst King-Jones
Biological clocks allow organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations, abundance of daylight, and nutrient availability. Many circadian-controlled physiological states are coordinated by the release of systemically acting hormones, including steroids and insulin [1-7]. Thus, hormones relay circadian outputs to target tissues, and disrupting these endocrine rhythms impairs human health by affecting sleep patterns, energy homeostasis, and immune functions [8-10]. It is largely unclear, however, whether circadian circuits control hormone levels indirectly via central timekeeping neurons or whether peripheral endocrine clocks can modulate hormone synthesis directly...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paul P Grabowski, Joseph Evans, Chris Daum, Shweta Deshpande, Kerrie W Barry, Megan Kennedy, Guillaume Ramstein, Shawn M Kaeppler, C Robin Buell, Yiwei Jiang, Michael D Casler
Flowering time is a major determinant of biomass yield in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a perennial bioenergy crop, because later flowering allows for an extended period of vegetative growth and increased biomass production. A better understanding of the genetic regulation of flowering time in switchgrass will aid the development of switchgrass varieties with increased biomass yields, particularly at northern latitudes, where late-flowering but southern-adapted varieties have high winter mortality. We use genotypes derived from recently published exome-capture sequencing, which mitigates challenges related to the large, highly repetitive and polyploid switchgrass genome, to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using flowering time data from a switchgrass association panel in an effort to characterize the genetic architecture and genes underlying flowering time regulation in switchgrass...
July 22, 2016: New Phytologist
Dalton S Amorim, Charles Morphy D Santos, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Alain Dubois, Silvio S Nihei, Otto M P Oliveira, Adrian Pont, Hojun Song, Vanessa K Verdade, Diego A Fachin, Bruna Klassa, Carlos José E Lamas, Sarah S Oliveira, Claudio J B De Carvalho, Cátia A Mello-Patiu, Eduardo Hajdu, Márcia S Couri, Vera C Silva, Renato S Capellari, Rafaela L Falaschi, Rodrigo M Feitosa, Lorenzo Prendini, José P Jr Pombal, Fernando Fernández, Rosana M Rocha, John E Lattke, Ulisses Caramaschi, Marcelo Duarte, Antonio Carlos Marques, Roberto E Reis, Olavi Kurina, Daniela M Takiya, Marcos Tavares, Daniel Silva Fernandes, Francisco Luís Franco, Fabiana Cuezzo, Dennis Paulson, Benoit Guénard, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Wolfgang Arthofer, Florian M Steiner, Brian L Fisher, Robert A Johnson, Thibaut Dominique Delsinne, David A Donoso, Pablo Ricardo Mulieri, Luciano Damián Patitucci, James M Carpenter, Lee Herman, David Grimaldi
Recently a new species of bombyliid fly, Marleyimyia xylocopae, was described by Marshall & Evenhuis (2015) based on two photographs taken during fieldwork in the Republic of South Africa. This species has no preserved holotype. The paper generated some buzz, especially among dipterists, because in most cases photographs taken in the field provide insufficient information for properly diagnosing and documenting species of Diptera.
2016: Zootaxa
E Reszka, M Przybek
Exploring the putative impact of circadian rhythms is a relatively novel approach to illuminating hormone-related female breast cancer etiology and prognosis. One of several proposed mechanisms underlying breast cancer risk among individuals exposed to light at night involves circadian gene alterations. Although in vitro and animal studies indicate a key role of circadian genes in breast tumor suppression, there is a paucity of data on the role of circadian genes in human breast cancer. This review summarizes recent findings of circadian gene expression and DNA methylation profile from human breast cancer studies in relation to hormonal status, clinicopathological features of tumors, and exposure to night shift work...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Deniz Top, Emily Harms, Sheyum Syed, Eliza L Adams, Lino Saez
The molecular clock relies on a delayed negative feedback loop of transcriptional regulation to generate oscillating gene expression. Although the principal components of the clock are present in all circadian neurons, different neuronal clusters have varying effects on rhythmic behavior, suggesting that the clocks they house are differently regulated. Combining biochemical and genetic techniques in Drosophila, we identify a phosphorylation program native to the master pacemaker neurons that regulates the timing of nuclear accumulation of the Period/Timeless repressor complex...
July 12, 2016: Cell Reports
Christopher Postzich, Katarina Blask, Christian Frings, Eva Walther
Emotion and its effects on other psychological phenomena are frequently studied by presenting emotional pictures for a short amount of time. However, the duration of exposure strongly differs across paradigms. In order to ensure the comparability of affective response elicitation across those paradigms, it is crucial to empirically validate emotional material not only with regard to the affective dimensions valence and arousal, but also with regard to varying presentation times. Despite this operational necessity for the temporal robustness of emotional material, there is only tentative empirical evidence on this issue...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Alexander J Bies, Daryn R Blanc-Goldhammer, Cooper R Boydston, Richard P Taylor, Margaret E Sereno
Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
John Webster
This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Mathias Wagner, Benjamin Vicinus, Sherieda T Muthra, Tereza A Richards, Roland Linder, Vilma Oliveira Frick, Andreas Groh, Claudia Rubie, Frank Weichert
BACKGROUND: The continuous growth of medical sciences literature indicates the need for automated text analysis. Scientific writing which is neither unitary, transcending social situation nor defined by a timeless idea is subject to constant change as it develops in response to evolving knowledge, aims at different goals, and embodies different assumptions about nature and communication. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether publication dates should be considered when performing text mining...
June 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Xiao Chen, Michael Rosbash
Circadian rhythms in metazoan eukaryotes are controlled by an endogenous molecular clock. It functions in many locations, including subsets of brain neurons (clock neurons) within the central nervous system. Although the molecular clock relies on transcription/translation feedback loops, posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role. Here, we show that the abundant Drosophila melanogaster microRNA mir-276a regulates molecular and behavioral rhythms by inhibiting expression of the important clock gene timeless (tim)...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yong Wang, Yunsheng Cheng, Gang Yu, Benli Jia, Zhihang Hu, Lijiu Zhang
As typical clock gene machinery, period (PER1, PER2, and PER3), cryptochrome (CRY1 and CRY2), and timeless (TIM), could control proliferation, cellular metabolism, and many key functions, such as recognition and repair of DNA damage, dysfunction of the circadian clock could result in tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, the expression levels of PER1, PER2, and PER3, as well as CRY1, CRY2, and TIM in the tumor tissue and apparently healthy mucosa from CRC patients were examined and compared via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Joanna Pawlak, Monika Wiłkość, Izabela Miechowicz, Małgorzata Maciukiewicz, Wanda Ciarkowska, Dorota Zaremba, Joanna Hauser
Genetic background and clinical picture of mood disorders (MD) are complex and may depend on many genes and their potential interactions as well as environmental factors. Therefore, clinical variations, or endophenotypes, were suggested for association studies. The aim of the study was to investigate association between the chronotype (CH) and quality of sleep characteristics with polymorphisms CLOCK, ARNTL, TIMELESS and PER3 genes in MD. We included a total sample of 111 inpatients and 126 healthy controls...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
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