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Delirium in ICU

Gabrielė Linkaitė, Mantas Riauka, Ignė Bunevičiūtė, Saulius Vosylius
Introduction: Delirium not only compromises patient care, but is also associated with poorer outcomes: increased duration of mechanical ventilation, higher mortality, and greater long-term cognitive dysfunction. The PRE-DELIRIC model is a tool used to calculate the risk of the development of delirium. The classification of the patients into groups by risk allows efficient initiation of preventive measures. The goal of this study was to validate the PRE-DELIRIC model using the CAM-ICU (The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit) method for the diagnosis of delirium...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
J Tian, X Chen, D Liu
Delirium develops in most critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and is associated with longer hospital stay, increased rate of mortality and increased cost of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of delirium in non-ventilated ICU patients and demonstrate its clinical association with the hospital/ ICU length of stay and in-patient mortality. A total of 200 ICU patients (aged 18 years or over) who were admitted to the ICU with specific primary diagnoses were selected for the study and followed up until either hospital discharge or death...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Lisa Burry, Sangeeta Mehta, Marc M Perreault, Jay S Luxenberg, Najma Siddiqi, Brian Hutton, Dean A Fergusson, Chaim Bell, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest limited and cautious use of antipsychotics for treatment of delirium where nonpharmacological interventions have failed and symptoms remain distressing or dangerous, or both. It is unclear how well these recommendations are supported by current evidence. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to assess the efficacy of antipsychotics versus nonantipsychotics or placebo on the duration of delirium in hospitalised adults. Our secondary objectives were to compare the efficacy of: 1) antipsychotics versus nonantipsychotics or placebo on delirium severity and resolution, mortality, hospital length of stay, discharge disposition, health-related quality of life, and adverse effects; and 2) atypical vs...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
C C Torres-Contreras, A N Páez-Esteban, A Hinestrosa-Díaz Del Castillo, M K Rincón-Romero, A Amaris-Vega, J P Martínez-Patiño
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and the factors associated with delirium in intensive care unit patients. METHODS: A cohort study conducted on 134 patients in the intensive care unit at a clinic in Bucaramanga, Colombia., who were recruited in the first 24hours following admission and on whom the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), PRE-DELIRIC version in Spanish, and Confusion Assessment method for Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) were applied; the outcome was evaluated through daily monitoring with CAM-ICU...
June 13, 2018: Enfermería Intensiva
Ya-Fei Chang, Anne Chao, Po-Yuan Shih, Yen-Chun Hsu, Chen-Tse Lee, Yu-Wen Tien, Yu-Chang Yeh, Lee-Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Sedation with dexmedetomidine and propofol may cause hypotension or bradycardia. This study aimed to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on hemodynamics and clinical outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients after major abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to the dexmedetomidine or propofol group. Cardiac index was measured using a continuous noninvasive cardiac output monitor on the basis of chest bioreactance...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Chris Winkelman, Abdus Sattar, Hasina Momotaz, Kimberly D Johnson, Peter Morris, James R Rowbottom, John Daryl Thornton, Sheryl Feeney, Alan Levine
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the feasibility of a nurse-led mobility protocol and compare the effects of once- versus twice-daily episodes of early therapeutic mobility (ETM) and low- versus moderate-intensity ETM on serum biomarkers of inflammation and selected outcomes in critically ill adults. DESIGN: Randomized interventional study with repeated measures and blinded assessment of outcomes. SETTING: Four adult intensive care units (ICUs) in two academic medical centers...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Mohammad Arbabi, Fatemeh Shahhatami, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Mostafa Mohammadi, Padideh Ghaeli
Objective: Delirium is a brain dysfunction syndrome. In most cases, this syndrome is neither diagnosed accurately nor treated properly. The incidence of delirium by itself increases hospitalization period, mortality rate and the cost in health spectrum. If appropriate attempts are not made to treat this complication, the outcomes could become worse. Thus, the present study aimed at conducting a review on medications which are prescribed to treat delirium and establishing a general view on their advantages and disadvantages...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Katarzyna Kotfis, Annachiara Marra, Eugene Wesley Ely
Many patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience pain, that is a source of suffering and leaves a long-term imprint (chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder). Nearly 30% of patients experience pain at rest, the percentage increases to 50% during nursing procedures. Pain in ICU patients can be divided into four categories: continuous ICU treatment-related pain/discomfort, acute illness-related pain, intermittent procedural pain and pre-existing chronic pain present before ICU admission...
June 8, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Ben de Jong, Anne Sophie Schuppers, Arriette Kruisdijk-Gerritsen, Maurits Erwin Leo Arbouw, Hubertus Laurentius Antonius van den Oever, Arthur R H van Zanten
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to prevent nicotine withdrawal symptoms in ICU patients have yielded conflicting results. We performed a randomised controlled double-blind pilot study to assess the safety and efficacy of NRT in critically ill patients. Mechanically ventilated patients admitted to two medical-surgical intensive care units and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day before ICU admission were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomised to transdermal NRT (14 or 21 mg per day) or placebo until ICU discharge or day 30...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Katarzyna Kotfis, Aleksandra Szylińska, Mariusz Listewnik, Marta Strzelbicka, Mirosław Brykczyński, Iwona Rotter, Maciej Żukowski
Introduction: Postoperative delirium is a common complication of cardiac surgery associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and long-term cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to identify incidence and risk factors of delirium in elderly (≥65 years) and very elderly (≥80 years) patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected data from a register of the cardiac surgery department of a tertiary referral university hospital between 2014 and 2016...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Darren F Hight, Jamie Sleigh, Joel D Winders, Logan J Voss, Amy L Gaskell, Amy D Rodriguez, Paul S García
Background: Assessment of patients for delirium in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) is confounded by the residual effects of the varied anesthetic and analgesic regimens employed during surgery and by the physiological consequences of surgery such as pain. Nevertheless, delirium diagnosed at this early stage has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The last decade has seen the emergence of the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) score as a quick practical method of detecting delirium in clinical situations...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Clémence Louis, Thomas Godet, Gérald Chanques, Nathalie Bourguignon, Dominique Morand, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: Delirium during intensive care unit (ICU) stay is frequent and associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. International guidelines suggest its prevention. However, curative treatment remains unclearly established. Despite contradictory and ambiguous academic literature, international guidelines suggest the use of second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics over haloperidol. However, haloperidol remains the most widely used neuroleptic worldwide as a first-line treatment of agitation and/or delirium...
June 4, 2018: Trials
Sandra L Staveski, Rita H Pickler, Li Lin, Richard J Shaw, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Andrew Redington, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Descriptive self-report survey. SETTING: A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. PATIENT OR SUBJECTS: Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses)...
June 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Morgan Humphrey, Sonia Everhart, Desiree Kosmisky, William E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Sedation of mechanically ventilated patients should optimize comfort and safety while avoiding over-sedation and adverse outcomes. To our knowledge, characteristics associated with attaining target sedation are unknown. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate current sedation practice at a single center and explore which patient characteristics are associated with attaining target sedation. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective chart review of sedated, ventilated patients in a medical/surgical ICU...
May 29, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Rose Bruce, Cheryl Forry
In recent years, early progressive mobilization programs have become mainstays in intensive care units (ICUs). Significant evidence exists that early mobility programs decrease length of stay, reduce time on the ventilator, and decrease the development of delirium in ICU patients. Yet, current literature still describes many barriers to performing early mobility, such as the time required, staffing pressures, and increased workload. Our critical care leaders found that defining and implementing a dedicated mobility champion team member was successful in improving the effectiveness of our early mobility program...
July 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Henning R Stetefeld, Michael Schroeter
Myasthenic crisis is the life threatening maximal manifestation of myasthenia gravis. Severe dysphagia and respiratory insufficiency demand admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). At variance, the timely recognition and treatment of myasthenic exacerbation may prevent a manifesting crisis. This reviews deals with red flags that pronounce exacerbation and crisis. Myasthenic crisis is an important differential diagnosis of bulbar symptoms and dysphagia. We elaborate on a structured and comprehensive approach to myasthenic crisis on the ICU...
May 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Koen S Simons, Mark van den Boogaard, Eva Hendriksen, Jelle Gerretsen, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Peter Pickkers, Cornelis P C de Jager
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ICU-acquired delirium, but the association between inflammatory and brain-specific proteins and ICU delirium is poor. We investigated whether or not serial determinations of markers may improve this association. METHODS: Critically ill patients with a high risk of ICU delirium and with an ICU length of stay of at least 6 days were included in the study. Blood was drawn on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 after ICU admission and analyzed for different markers of inflammation and several brain proteins...
May 25, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Vimala Ramoo, Harlinna Abu, Vineya Rai, Surindar Kaur Surat Singh, Ayuni Asma' Baharudin, Mahmoud Danaee, Raveena Rajalachimi R Thinagaran
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess intensive care unit nurses' knowledge of intensive care unit delirium and delirium assessment before and after an educational intervention. In addition, nurses' perception on the usefulness of a delirium assessment tool and barriers against delirium assessment were assessed as secondary objectives. BACKGROUND: Early identification of delirium in intensive care units is crucial for patient care. Hence, nurses require adequate knowledge to enable appropriate evaluation of delirium using standardised practice and assessment tools...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Stavros Theologou, Konstantinos Giakoumidakis, Christos Charitos
Background: Delirium is a quite common complication in adult patients post-cardiac surgery. The purpose of our study was to identify perioperative characteristics and also focus on incidence factors that could predict delirium in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit (CICU) postoperatively. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 179 consecutive patients, who underwent open-heart surgical operation and were admitted to the CICU of a general tertiary hospital in Athens, Greece...
2018: Pragmatic and Observational Research
Marie O Collet, Jesús Caballero, Romain Sonneville, Fernando A Bozza, Peter Nydahl, Anna Schandl, Hilden Wøien, Giuseppe Citerio, Mark van den Boogaard, Johanna Hästbacka, Matthias Haenggi, Kirsten Colpaert, Louise Rose, Marija Barbateskovic, Theis Lange, Aksel Jensen, Martin B Krog, Ingrid Egerod, Helle L Nibro, Jørn Wetterslev, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. METHODS: All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use...
May 16, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
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