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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717013/mechanisms-of-carbon-dioxide-acquisition-and-co2-sensing-in-marine-diatoms-a-gateway-to-carbon-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Yusuke Matsuda, Brian M Hopkinson, Kensuke Nakajima, Christopher L Dupont, Yoshinori Tsuji
Diatoms are one of the most successful marine eukaryotic algal groups, responsible for up to 20% of the annual global CO2 fixation. The evolution of a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) allowed diatoms to overcome a number of serious constraints on photosynthesis in the marine environment, particularly low [CO2]aq in seawater relative to concentrations required by the CO2 fixing enzyme, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), which is partly due to the slow diffusion rate of CO2 in water and a limited CO2 formation rate from [Formula: see text] in seawater...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698977/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-targeted-therapeutics-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Aritro Nath, Jacqueline Wang, R Stephanie Huang
The advent of targeted therapeutics has greatly improved outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Despite increased efficacy and better clinical responses over cytotoxic chemotherapies, many patients receiving targeted drugs exhibit a poor initial response, develop drug resistance, or undergo relapse after initial success. This inter-individual variation in response has heightened the interest in studying pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) of cancer drugs. In this review, we discuss the influence of various germline and somatic factors on targeted drug response in CML...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664465/slc-and-abc-transporters-expression-localization-and-species-differences-at-the-blood-brain-and-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers
#3
Marilyn E Morris, Vivian Rodriguez-Cruz, Melanie A Felmlee
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) separate the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the systemic circulation and represent a barrier to the uptake of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics into the brain. For compounds whose passive diffusion is limited due to their ionization or hydrophilicity, membrane transporters can facilitate their uptake across the BBB or BCSFB. Members of the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding case (ABC) families are present on these barriers...
June 29, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638886/mechanisms-of-coix-seed-compositions-in-the-treatment-of-spleen-deficiency-and-wet-dampness-zheng
#4
Xiaochun Han, Xuming Ji, Haijun Zhao, Yanan Zhang, Guowei Liu, Yanfang Wang, Wenxiao Zhao, Shijun Wang
BACKGROUND: Coix seed has the functions of fortifying the spleen and inhibiting the dampness. However, it remains unclear which Coix seed compositions is responsible for these functions. Previous investigations have revealed that the main compositions of Coix seed are proteins, polysaccharides, oils and starches. The objectives of this study are to explore which is the most effective compositions in fortifying the spleen and examine how Coix seed works in regulating the water transport on the spleen deficiency and wet dampness (SDWD) rat model...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#5
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454689/identification-of-appropriate-reference-genes-for-qpcr-analyses-of-placental-expression-of-slc7a3-and-induction-of-slc5a1-in-porcine-endometrium
#6
Chelsie B Steinhauser, Theodore T Wing, Haijun Gao, Xilong Li, Robert C Burghardt, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Endometria and placentae undergo developmental changes that affect the stability of genes used as references for normalization of qPCR data. We identified genes that are stable within the porcine endometrium and placenta throughout pregnancy, and elucidated the temporal/spatial mRNA localization of the glucose and arginine transporters, solute carrier family (SLC) 5A1 and SLC7A3, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qPCR was performed for 10 genes within porcine endometria from Days 5, 11, and 15 of the estrous cycle and 11, 15, 25, 40, 60, and 85 of pregnancy; and chorioallantois from Days 30, 35, 45, 50, 60, and 85...
April 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447295/functional-expression-of-p-glycoprotein-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-understanding-transport-mechanisms-for-improved-cns-drug-delivery
#7
Wazir Abdullahi, Thomas P Davis, Patrick T Ronaldson
Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Physical and biochemical properties of the BBB have rendered treatment of CNS diseases, including those with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component, extremely difficult. Targeting endogenous BBB transporters from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (i.e., P-glycoprotein (P-gp)) or from the solute carrier (SLC) family (i.e., organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents)) has been suggested as a strategy that can improve delivery of drugs to the brain...
July 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363126/interaction-between-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-and-endo-and-xenobiotics
#8
Ivan Mihaljević, Marta Popović, Roko Žaja, Nikola Maraković, Goran Šinko, Tvrtko Smital
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) serve as uptake transporters of numerous endo- and xenobiotics. They have been in the focus of medical toxicological research for more than a decade due to their key role in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion due to their expression on basolateral membranes of various barrier tissues. OCTs belong to the SLC22A family within the SLC (Solute carrier) protein superfamily, with three co-orthologs identified in humans (OCT1, 2 and 3), and two Oct orthologs in zebrafish (Oct1 and Oct2)...
June 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343125/structural-modeling-of-human-organic-cation-transporters
#9
Tikam Chand Dakal, Rajender Kumar, Dindial Ramotar
Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) belong to solute carriers (SLC) 22 family of membrane proteins that play a central role in transportation of chemotherapeutic drugs for several clinical and pathological conditions, including cancer and diabetes. These transporters mediate drug transport; however, the precise mechanism of drug-binding and transport by them is not fully uncovered yet, partly due to unavailability of any crystal structure record. In this work, we performed a multi-phasic approach to compute the 3D structural models of seven human organic cation transporters (hOCTs) starting from primary protein sequence...
March 18, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339967/placental-transporter-localization-and-expression-in-the-human-the-importance-of-species-sex-and-gestational-age-differences%C3%A2
#10
Natasha Walker, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Michelle Bellingham, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
The placenta is a critical organ during pregnancy, essential for the provision of an optimal intrauterine environment, with fetal survival, growth, and development relying on correct placental function. It must allow nutritional compounds and relevant hormones to pass into the fetal bloodstream and metabolic waste products to be cleared. It also acts as a semipermeable barrier to potentially harmful chemicals, both endogenous and exogenous. Transporter proteins allow for bidirectional transport and are found in the syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta and endothelium of fetal capillaries...
April 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257821/tight-junction-protein-zo-1-controls-organic-cation-carnitine-transporter-octn2-slc22a5-in-a-protein-kinase-c-dependent-way
#11
Dominika Jurkiewicz, Katarzyna Michalec, Krzysztof Skowronek, Katarzyna A Nałęcz
OCTN2 (SLC22A5) is an organic cation/carnitine transporter belonging to the solute carrier transporters (SLC) family. OCTN2 is ubiquitously expressed and its presence was shown in various brain cells, including the endothelial cells forming blood-brain barrier, where it was mainly detected at abluminal membrane and in proximity of tight junctions (TJ). Since OCTN2 contains a PDZ-binding domain, the present study was focused on a possible role of transporter interaction with a TJ-associated protein ZO-1, containing PDZ domains and detected in rat Octn2 proteome...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214518/potentiating-slc-transporter-activity-emerging-drug-discovery-opportunities
#12
REVIEW
Marie-Laure Rives, Jonathan A Javitch, Alan D Wickenden
Maintaining the integrity of cellular membranes is critical to protecting metabolic activities and genetic information from the environment. Regulation of transport across membranes of essential chemicals, including water, nutrients, hormones and many drugs, is therefore key to cellular homeostasis and physiological processes. The two main transporter superfamilies are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that primarily function as efflux transporters, and the solute carrier (SLC) transporters. SLC transporters encompass 52 gene families with almost 400 different human transporter genes...
July 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178198/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-ileum-in-physiological-conditions-and-during-experimental-inflammation
#13
Sławomir Gonkowski, Maciej Rowniak, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is a member of the solute-linked carrier 30 (SLC 30) zinc transporter family. It is closely linked to the nervous system, where it takes part in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm to the synaptic vesicles. ZnT3 has also been observed in the enteric nervous system (ENS), but its reactions in response to pathological factors remain unknown. This study, based on the triple immunofluorescence technique, describes changes in ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) enteric neurons in the porcine ileum, caused by chemically-induced inflammation...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176814/eunag-a-new-ligand-inducible-fluorescent-reporter-to-detect-drug-transporter-activity-in-live-cells
#14
Johannes T-H Yeh, Kwangho Nam, Joshua T-H Yeh, Norbert Perrimon
The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of metabolites and toxic organic solutes are orchestrated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the organic solute carrier family (SLC) proteins. A large number of ABC and SLC transpoters exist; however, only a small number have been well characterized. To facilitate the analysis of these transporters, which is important for drug safety and physiological studies, we developed a sensitive genetically encoded bilirubin (BR)-inducible fluorescence sensor (eUnaG) to detect transporter-coupled influx/efflux of organic compounds...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025785/significance-of-oct1-expression-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Ewa Stefanko, Justyna Rybka, Bożena Jaźwiec, Olga Haus, Sylwia Stąpor, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Wróbel
Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is one of the membrane proteins in the large solute carrier (SLC) family. It participates in the transport of organic cations, i.e. nutrients, neurotransmitters, metabolites or drugs in an electrogenic manner and translocate various cationic cytostatics. Knowledge concerning the expression of drug transporters in tumor cells may help to develop cytotoxic agents that are targeted to specific tumors. OCT1 expression and its relationship to the proliferation of cancer cells, development of metastases and resistance to chemotherapy has been observed in solid tumors...
December 26, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981419/the-novel-membrane-bound-proteins-mfsd1-and-mfsd3-are-putative-slc-transporters-affected-by-altered-nutrient-intake
#16
Emelie Perland, Sofie V Hellsten, Emilia Lekholm, Mikaela M Eriksson, Vasiliki Arapi, Robert Fredriksson
Membrane-bound solute carriers (SLCs) are essential as they maintain several physiological functions, such as nutrient uptake, ion transport and waste removal. The SLC family comprise about 400 transporters, and we have identified two new putative family members, major facilitator superfamily domain containing 1 (MFSD1) and 3 (MFSD3). They cluster phylogenetically with SLCs of MFS type, and both proteins are conserved in chordates, while MFSD1 is also found in fruit fly. Based on homology modelling, we predict 12 transmembrane regions, a common feature for MFS transporters...
February 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872146/organic-anion-transporter-2-oat2-an-enigmatic-human-solute-carrier
#17
Hong Shen, Yurong Lai, A David Rodrigues
As a member of the solute carrier 22A (SLC22A) family, OAT2 (SLC22A7) is emerging as an important drug transporter because of its expression in both the liver and kidney, two major eliminating organs, and its ability to transport not only a wide variety of xenobiotics, but also numerous physiologically important endogenous compounds, like creatinine and guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). However, OAT2 has received relatively little attention when compared to other OATs and solute carriers (SLCs) like organic cation transporters, sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide, multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins, and organic anion-transporting polypeptides...
November 21, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812757/counter-flow-suggests-transport-of-dantrolene-and-5-oh-dantrolene-by-the-organic-anion-transporters-2-oat2-and-3-oat3
#18
Birgitta C Burckhardt, Maja Henjakovic, Yohannes Hagos, Gerhard Burckhardt
Dantrolene is the only available drug for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia, a life-threatening inborn sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in skeletal muscles to volatile anesthetics. Dantrolene is metabolized in the liver to 5-OH dantrolene. Both compounds are zwitterions or net negatively charged. Here, we investigated interactions of dantrolene and 5-OH dantrolene with solute carrier (SLC) family members occurring in skeletal muscle cells, hepatocytes, and renal proximal tubule cells. SLC22A8 (organic anion transporter 3, OAT3) was very sensitive to both compounds exhibiting IC50 values of 0...
November 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796869/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-as-an-active-substance-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-esophagus
#19
Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Krystyna Makowska, Ewa Bejer-Olenska, Sławomir Gonkowski
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), a member of the SLC 30 zinc transporter family, is involved in the transport of zinc ions from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles or intracellular organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the percentage of ZnT3-like immunoreactive (ZnT3-LI) neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine esophagus and denotation of their neurochemical coding. Routine double- and triple-immunofluorescence labeling of cervical, thoracic, and abdominal fragments of esophagus for ZnT3 with protein gene product (PGP 9...
March 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672436/slc-transporters-structure-function-and-drug-discovery
#20
Claire Colas, Peter Man-Un Ung, Avner Schlessinger
The human Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are important targets for drug development. Structure-based drug discovery for SLC transporters requires the description of their structure, dynamics, and mechanism of interaction with small molecule ligands and ions. The recent determination of atomic structures of human SLC transporters and their homologs, combined with improved computational power and prediction methods have led to an increased applicability of structure-based drug design methods for human SLC members...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
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