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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017458/lifestyle-gene-gain-and-loss-and-transcriptional-remodeling-cause-divergence-in-the-transcriptomes-of-phytophthora-infestans-and-pythium-ultimum-during-potato-tuber-colonization
#1
Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Jolly Shrivastava, Howard S Judelson
BACKGROUND: How pathogen genomes evolve to support distinct lifestyles is not well-understood. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato blight agent, is a largely biotrophic pathogen that feeds from living host cells, which become necrotic only late in infection. The related oomycete Pythium ultimum grows saprophytically in soil and as a necrotroph in plants, causing massive tissue destruction. To learn what distinguishes their lifestyles, we compared their gene contents and expression patterns in media and a shared host, potato tuber...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016918/a-critical-view-on-abc-transporters-and-their-interacting-partners-in-auxin-transport
#2
Markus Geisler, Bibek Aryal, Martin di Donato, Pengchao Hao
Different subclasses of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in the transport of native variants of the phytohormone auxin. Here, the putative, individual roles of key members belonging to the ABCB, ABCD and ABCG families, respectively, are highlighted and the knowledge of their assumed expression and transport routes is reviewed and compared with their mutant phenotypes. Protein-protein interactions between ABC transporters and regulatory components during auxin transport are summarized and their importance is critically discussed...
July 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993692/dissecting-the-mycobacterial-cell-envelope-and-defining-the-composition-of-the-native-mycomembrane
#3
Laura Chiaradia, Cyril Lefebvre, Julien Parra, Julien Marcoux, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Gilles Etienne, Maryelle Tropis, Mamadou Daffé
The mycobacterial envelope is unique, containing the so-called mycomembrane (MM) composed of very-long chain fatty acids, mycolic acids (MA). Presently, the molecular composition of the MM remains unproven, due to the diversity of methods used for determining its composition. The plasma membranes (PM) and the native MM-containing cell walls (MMCW) of two rapid-growing mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium aurum and M. smegmatis, were isolated from their cell lysates by differential ultracentrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the two membranes were virtually pure...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972149/activity-of-the-purified-plant-abc-transporter-ntpdr1-is-stimulated-by-diterpenes-and-sesquiterpenes-involved-in-constitutive-and-induced-defenses
#4
Baptiste Pierman, Frederic Toussaint, Aurelie Bertin, Daniel Levy, Nicolas Smargiasso, Ewin De Pauw, Marc Boutry
Within the plant ABC transporter family, pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters play essential functions, such as in hormone transport or defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. NtPDR1 from Nicotiana tabacum has been shown to be involved in the constitutive defense against pathogens through the secretion of toxic cyclic diterpenes such as the antimicrobial substrates cembrene and sclareol from the leaf hairs (trichomes). However, direct evidence of an interaction between NtPDR1 and terpenes is lacking...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971357/alternative-splicing-expanding-diversity-in-major-abc-and-slc-drug-transporters
#5
Ji Eun Park, Gongmi Ryoo, Wooin Lee
Alternative splicing is an important mechanism of genetic regulation enhancing diversity and complexity of the transcriptome and proteome from the finite number of genes. Many reported cases demonstrate that alternative splicing events can lead to changes in the expression/function of proteins during disease development and progression. For pharmacogenes that can influence drug disposition and response, the role of alternative splicing has begun to receive increasing attention as an under-explored source of variable drug response...
October 2, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970576/functional-relationship-of-atabcg21-and-atabcg22-in-stomatal-regulation
#6
Takashi Kuromori, Eriko Sugimoto, Haruka Ohiraki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuo Shinozaki
Stomatal regulation is important for water transpiration from plants. Stomatal opening and closing are controlled by many transporter proteins in guard cells. AtABCG22 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is a stomatal regulator; however, the function of AtABCG22 has not yet been determined fully, although a mutant phenotype included a significant effect on stomatal status. Here, we further investigated the function of the AtABCG22 gene and its functional relationships with other subfamily genes...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963345/sequencing-of-chondroitin-sulfate-oligosaccharides-using-a-novel-exo-lyase-from-a-marine-bacterium-that-degrades-hyaluronan-and-chondroitin-sulfate-dermatan-sulfate
#7
Wenshuang Wang, Xiaojuan Cai, Naihan Han, Wenjun Han, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Fuchuan Li
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of chemically heterogeneous polysaccharides that play important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Due to the structural complexity of GAGs, their sophisticated chemical structures and biological functions have not been extensively studied. Lyases that cleave GAGs are important tools for structural analysis. Although various GAG lyases have been identified, exolytic lyases with unique enzymatic property are urgently needed for GAG sequencing. In this study, a putative exolytic GAG lyase from a marine bacterium was recombinantly expressed and characterized in detail...
September 28, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950264/an-abc-of-the-warning-signs-of-hereditary-angioedema
#8
Anete Sevciovic Grumach, Natasha Ferraroni, Maria Margarita Olivares, Maria Concepción López-Serrano, Anette Bygum
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency is a genetic disorder that clinically manifests with attacks of angioedema in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mainly in the extremities, abdomen, and upper airway. During attacks, vascular permeability is increased due to increased bradykinin (BK). This means that special therapies are needed for attacks that do not respond to traditional antiallergic therapies involving antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrine. The recurring attacks may disable patients and lead to frequent visits to emergency rooms where misdiagnoses are common...
September 27, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942792/evolutionary-trajectories-of-entomopathogenic-fungi-abc-transporters
#9
Bikash Baral
The ABC protein superfamily-also called traffic ATPases-are energy-dependent ubiquitous proteins, representing one of the crucial and the largest family in the fungal genomes. The ATP-binding cassette endows a characteristic 200-250 amino acids and is omnipresent in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Unlike in bacteria with nutrient import functions, ABC transporters in fungal entomopathogens serve as effective efflux pumps that are largely involved in the shuttle of metabolites across the biological membranes...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931644/ufm1-founder-mutation-in-the-roma-population-causes-recessive-variant-of-h-abc
#10
Eline M C Hamilton, Enrico Bertini, Luba Kalaydjieva, Bharti Morar, Dana Dojčáková, Judy Liu, Adeline Vanderver, Julian Curiel, Claudia M Persoon, Daria Diodato, Lorenzo Pinelli, Nathalie L van der Meij, Barbara Plecko, Susan Blaser, Nicole I Wolf, Quinten Waisfisz, Truus E M Abbink, Marjo S van der Knaap
OBJECTIVE: To identify the gene defect in patients with hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) who are negative for TUBB4A mutations. METHODS: We performed homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) to detect the disease-causing variant. We used a Taqman assay for population screening. We developed a luciferase reporter construct to investigate the effect of the promoter mutation on expression. RESULTS: Sixteen patients from 14 families from different countries fulfilling the MRI criteria for H-ABC exhibited a similar, severe clinical phenotype, including lack of development and a severe epileptic encephalopathy...
September 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927344/structural-elucidation-of-transmembrane-domain-zero-tmd0-of-ecdl-a-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-mrp-family-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-protein-revealed-by-atomistic-simulation
#11
Krishnendu Bera, Priyanka Rani, Gaurav Kishor, Shikha Agarwal, Antresh Kumar, Durg Vijay Singh
ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917834/hexameric-assembly-of-membrane-fusion-protein-yknx-of-the-sporulation-delaying-efflux-pump-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#12
Yongbin Xu, Inseong Jo, Lulu Wang, Jinli Chen, Shengdi Fan, Yuesheng Dong, Chunshan Quan, Nam-Chul Ha
Membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) play an essential role in the action of the drug efflux pumps and protein secretion systems in bacteria. The sporulation delaying protein (SDP) efflux pump YknWXYZ has been identified in diverse Bacillus species. The MFP YknX requires the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter YknYZ and the Yip1 family protein YknW to form a functional complex. To date, the crystal structure, molecular function and mechanism of action of YknX remain unknown. In this study, to characterize the structural and biochemical roles of YknX in the functional assembly of YknWXYZ from B...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911185/identification-of-a-new-gene-yecc-involved-in-threonine-export-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Yiran Xu, Yongfei Liu, Feiran Li, Guoqiang Cao, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Jianping Wen, Dawei Zhang
Threonine (Thr), an essential amino acid for mammals, has expanded its application to industries with fast-growing market demand. One factor that limits the production of L-threonine by microbial fermentation is the lack of an effective export system. This study proposes a method based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to determine potential Thr excretion proteins. Proteomics analysis revealed that an ABC family transport protein named YecC was upregulated in response to Thr addition...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900021/another-brick-in-the-wall-a-rhamnan-polysaccharide-trapped-inside-peptidoglycan-of-lactococcus-lactis
#14
Irina Sadovskaya, Evgeny Vinogradov, Pascal Courtin, Julija Armalyte, Mickael Meyrand, Efstathios Giaouris, Simon Palussière, Sylviane Furlan, Christine Péchoux, Stuart Ainsworth, Jennifer Mahony, Douwe van Sinderen, Saulius Kulakauskas, Yann Guérardel, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
Polysaccharides are ubiquitous components of the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall. In Lactococcus lactis, a polysaccharide pellicle (PSP) forms a layer at the cell surface. The PSP structure varies among lactococcal strains; in L. lactis MG1363, the PSP is composed of repeating hexasaccharide phosphate units. Here, we report the presence of an additional neutral polysaccharide in L. lactis MG1363 that is a rhamnan composed of α-l-Rha trisaccharide repeating units. This rhamnan is still present in mutants devoid of the PSP, indicating that its synthesis can occur independently of PSP synthesis...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894714/quantification-of-cdr1-gene-expression-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-glabrata-strains-using-real-time-pcr
#15
Shadi Shahrokhi, Fatemeh Noorbakhsh, Sassan Rezaie
BACKGROUND: The opportunistic fungi, particularly Candida glabrata has been known as main etiologic agents of life-threating infections in some patients. Although fluconazole is the most effective antifungal agent against candidiasis, C. glabrata, fluconazole-resistant strains have been increased recently overexpression or mutations of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family membrane proteins such as; Cg CDR1, Cg CDR2 are responsible for fluconazole resistance in a large proportion of candidiasis cases...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893612/tyrphostin-rg14620-selectively-reverses-abcg2-mediated-multidrug-resistance-in-cancer-cell-lines
#16
Chung-Pu Wu, Sung-Han Hsiao, Megumi Murakami, Ming-Jie Lu, Yan-Qing Li, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Suresh V Ambudkar, Yu-Shan Wu
The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. Numerous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have previously been shown capable of reversing MDR in ABCG2-overexpressing cancer cells. However, most of them are not transporter-specific due to the substantial overlapping substrate specificity among the transporters. In this study, we investigated the interaction between ABCG2 and tyrphostin RG14620, an EGFR inhibitor of the tyrphostin family, in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines...
November 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883813/a-structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-the-rumen-microbiome-influenced-by-various-diets-and-microenvironments
#17
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882701/diagnostic-value-of-histone-3-mutations-in-osteoclast-rich-bone-tumors
#18
Erik Nohr, Lik Hang Lee, Justin M Cates, Marco Perizzolo, Doha Itani
Differentiating osteoclast-rich lesions of bone (giant cell tumor of bone [GCTB], chondroblastoma [CBA], and aneurysmal bone cyst [ABC]) can be challenging, especially in small biopsies or fine needle aspirations. Mutations affecting codons 34 and 36 of either H3 Histone Family Member 3A (H3F3A) and/or 3B (H3F3B) are characteristically seen in GCTB and CBAs. We devised a simple assay to identify these mutations and evaluated its applicability for routine clinical diagnosis. 124 tissue specimens from 108 patients (43 GCTBs, 38 CBAs and 27 ABCs) were collected from the archives of the Calgary Laboratory Services/University of Calgary and Vanderbilt University Medical Center...
September 4, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880970/optimization-of-western-blotting-analysis-for-the-isolation-and-detection-of-membrane-xenobiotic-transporter-abcg2
#19
Małgorzata Szczygieł, Marcin Markiewicz, Milena Szafraniec, Roxana Zuziak, Krystyna Urbańska, Leszek Fiedor
All organisms are exposed to numerous stress factors, which include harmful xenobiotics. The diversity of these compounds is enormous, thus in the course of evolution diverse biological defense mechanisms at various levels of organization have developed. One of them engages an evolutionarily conserved family of transporters from the ABC superfamily, found in most species - from bacteria to humans. An important example of such a transporter is the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), a typical integral membrane protein...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880395/predictors-of-depressive-symptoms-among-psychiatric-nurses-who-suffered-from-workplace-violence
#20
Hsiu-Fen Hsieh, Hsiu-Hung Wang, Shu-Hua Shen, Yu-Chi Li
AIMS: We examined the possible factors that contributed to or prevented developing depressive symptoms among psychiatric nurses who suffered from workplace violence under Hill's ABC-X Model. BACKGROUND: Workplace violence-related depressive symptoms are some of the major causes leading to impaired quality of life of victims and a heavy burden on society. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. METHOD: All participants were recruited from psychiatric wards of six hospitals in Taiwan...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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