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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748496/huperzine-a-alleviates-neuroinflammation-oxidative-stress-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Zhengrong Mei, Peiying Zheng, Xiangping Tan, Ying Wang, Bing Situ
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may trigger secondary injury cascades including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments targeting either primary or secondary injuries that result in long-term detrimental consequences. Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) that has been used treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of HupA in TBI and its possible mechanisms...
July 26, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743043/neurotrophy-and-immunomodulation-of-induced-neural-stem-cell-grafts-in-a-mouse-model-of-closed-head-injury
#2
Mou Gao, Hui Yao, Qin Dong, Yan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yihua Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Closed head injury (CHI) usually results in severe and permanent neurological impairments, which are caused by several intertwined phenomena, such as cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal loss, astroglial scarring and inflammation. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), similar to neural stem cells (NSCs), can accelerate neurological recovery in vivo and produce neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the effects of iNSC neurotrophy following CHI were not determined...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734536/evaluation-of-functional-outcome-after-nonsurgical-management-of-terrible-triad-injuries-of-the-elbow
#3
Farid Najd Mazhar, Davod Jafari, Alireza Mirzaei
BACKGROUND: Terrible triad (TT) is one of the severe injuries of the elbow that generally requires surgery. Nonsurgical treatment has recently been applied in selected cases of TT injury. Evaluation of the results of this treatment was the main aim of this study. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 10 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.6 months were evaluated. The inclusion criteria included a congruent joint after closed reduction, no indication for surgery of the coronoid and radial head fractures, no block in supination and pronation up to 60°, no intra-articular fragments, and a free and stable joint with ulnohumeral extension up to a minimum of 45°...
August 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730395/dynamic-hip-screw-and-fibular-strut-graft-for-fixation-of-fresh-femoral-neck-fracture-with-posterior-comminution
#4
Adham Elgeidi, Abed El Negery, M Serry Abdellatif, Nabil El Moghazy
INTRODUCTION: Posterior comminution of the femoral neck fracture is a major cause of delayed and non-union owing to the loss of the buttressing effect against the posterior rotation. When a femoral neck fracture with posterior comminution is anatomically reduced, only the anterior portions of the femoral neck fracture surfaces are brought into contact leaving a posterior defect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of fibular strut grafting and dynamic hip screw (DHS) for fresh femoral neck fractures with posterior comminution in young patient less than 50 years...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726717/mini-review-of-controlled-cortical-impact-a-well-suited-device-for-concussion-research
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, C Edward Dixon
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem which warrants additional research. Part of the effort to understand mTBI and concussion includes modeling in animals. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly employed and well-characterized model of experimental TBI that has been utilized for three decades. Today, several commercially available pneumatic- and electromagnetic-CCI devices exist as do a variety of standard and custom injury induction tips...
July 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#6
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713667/absent-congenital-cervical-pedicle-nearly-misdiagnosed-as-a-facet-dislocation-a-case-report
#7
Scott Safir, Jonathan Rasouli, Jeremy Steinberger, Branko Skovrlj, Amish Doshi, Konstantinos Margetis, Saadi Ghatan
BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal injury encompasses up to 1.5% of all pediatric injuries. Children, and more specifically infants, are a difficult subset of patients to obtain neurological exam in the setting of trauma, thus necessitating the use of cervical X-rays, CT scans, and MRI imaging. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy, 15-month-old boy had an unwitnessed fall down a flight of stairs and received a CT scan of the head and cervical spine in the emergency department due to cephalohematoma and mechanism of injury...
September 2017: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712158/towards-a-harmonised-approach-to-reducing-quad-related-fatal-injuries-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-cross-sectional-comparative-analysis
#8
Rebbecca Lilley, Tony Lower, Gabrielle Davie
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the patterns of quad-related fatal injuries between Australia and New Zealand (NZ). METHOD: Fatal injuries from July 2007 to June 2012 involving a quad (quad bike or all-terrain vehicle) were identified from coronial files. Data described the socio-demographic, injury, vehicle and environment factors associated with incidents. Injury patterns were compared between countries. RESULTS: A total of 101 quad-related fatalities were identified: 69 in Australia and 32 in NZ (7...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704486/a-common-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-prey-handling-technique-for-marine-catfish-ariidae-in-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico
#9
Errol I Ronje, Kevin P Barry, Carrie Sinclair, Mark A Grace, Nélio Barros, Jason Allen, Brian Balmer, Anna Panike, Christina Toms, Keith D Mullin, Randall S Wells
Few accounts describe predator-prey interactions between common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Montagu 1821) and marine catfish (Ariopsis felis Linnaeus 1766, Bagre marinus Mitchill 1815). Over the course of 50,167 sightings of bottlenose dolphin groups in Mississippi Sound and along the Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico, severed catfish heads were found floating and exhibiting movements at the surface in close proximity to 13 dolphin groups that demonstrated feeding behavior. These observations prompted a multi-disciplinary approach to study the predator-prey relationship between bottlenose dolphins and marine catfish...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701108/repetitive-mild-closed-head-injury-alters-protein-expression-and-dendritic-complexity-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Jessica Nicole Saykally, Whitney A Ratliff, Kristen Keeley, Chaim G Pick, Ronald F Mervis, Bruce A Citron
World-wide head injuries are a growing problem. In the United States alone, 1.7 million people suffer a head injury each year. While most of these injuries are mild, head injury sufferers still sustain symptoms that can have major medical and economical impacts. Moreover, repetitive mild head injuries, like those observed in active military personnel and athletes, have demonstrated a more severe and long-term set of consequences. In an effort to better understand the delayed pathological changes following multiple mild head injuries, we used a mouse model of mild closed head injury (with no motor deficits observed by rotarod testing) and measured dendritic complexity at 30 days after injury and potentially related factors up to 60 days post injury...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690173/immediate-and-delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-neuroprotective-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Renana Baratz-Goldstein, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen, Aviya Elpaz, Vardit Rubovitch, Chaim G Pick
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death or chronic disability among people under-35-years-old. There is no effective pharmacological treatment currently existing for TBI. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is defined as the inhalation of pure oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized higher than 1atm. HBOT offers physiological and mechanical effects by inducing a state of increased pressure and hyperoxia. HBOT has been proposed as an effective treatment for moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet the exact therapeutic window and mechanism that underlies this effect is not completely understood...
July 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666047/acute-intraprosthetic-dissociation-of-a-dual-mobility-hip-in-the-united-states
#12
Mitchell R Klement, Elizabeth W Hubbard, Samuel S Wellman, Paul F Lachiewicz
After decades of use in Europe, dual-mobility (DM) components for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for use in the United States. DM-THAs are designed with an inner articulation between the femoral head and a larger polyethylene insert, and an outer articulation between the mobile polyethylene and a highly polished metal insert, to increase motion and minimize impingement. Intraprosthetic dissociation (IPD), defined as separation of the femoral head from the inner polyethylene articulation, is usually caused by polyethylene wear, and occurs 3 to 10 years after implantation...
May 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663119/minimal-traumatic-brain-injury-causes-persistent-changes-in-dna-methylation-at-bdnf-gene-promoters-in-rat-amygdala-a-possible-role-in-anxiety-like-behaviors
#13
Sneha Sagarkar, Tanmayi Bhamburkar, Gajanan Shelkar, Amit Choudhary, Dadasaheb M Kokare, Amul J Sakharkar
Minimal traumatic brain injury (MTBI) often transforms into chronic neuropsychiatric conditions including anxiety, the underlying mechanisms of which are largely unknown. In the present study, we employed the closed-head injury paradigm to induce MTBI in rats and examined whether DNA methylation can explain long-term changes in the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the amygdala as well as trauma-induced anxiety-like behaviors. The MTBI caused anxiety-like behaviors and altered the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) isoforms (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) and factors involved in DNA demethylation such as the growth arrest and DNA damage 45 (GADD45a and GADD45b)...
June 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659112/fall-related-hospitalisations-of-older-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-and-other-australians
#14
Caroline Lukaszyk, Lara A Harvey, Catherine Sherrington, Jacqueline Ct Close, Julieann Coombes, Rebecca J Mitchell, Robyn Moore, Rebecca Ivers
OBJECTIVES: To compare the socio-demographic characteristics and type of injury sustained, the use of hospital resources and rates of hospitalisation by injury type, and survival following fall injuries to older Aboriginal people and non-Indigenous Australian people hospitalised for fall-related injuries. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort data linkage study. Setting, participants: New South Wales residents aged 50 years or more admitted to a public or private NSW hospital for a fall-related injury during 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2012...
July 3, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656872/prospective-study-of-surgical-fixation-of-radial-head-fractures-using-cannulated-headless-compression-screws-for-simple-and-complex-radial-head-fractures
#15
Pang Hung Wu, Anushri Dixit, David Meng Kiat Tan, Liang Shen, Yu Han Chee
INTRODUCTION: Fixing the two-part Mason II radial head fracture using screws is becoming a popular practice. However, the screw fixation efficacy for three-part Mason III and IV fractures is controversial. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using a uniform technique of headless compression screw fixation in simple, isolated Mason II and complex three-part Mason III and IV radial head fractures in terms of functional outcome, treatment efficiency and assessment of complications with the procedure...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654066/a-mouse-model-of-single-and-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Bevan S Main, Stephanie S Sloley, Sonia Villapol, David N Zapple, Mark P Burns
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can result in the acute loss of brain function, including a period of confusion, a loss of consciousness (LOC), focal neurological deficits and even amnesia. Athletes participating in contact sports are at high risk of exposure to large number of mTBIs. In terms of the level of injury in a sporting athlete, a mTBI is defined as a mild injury that does not cause gross pathological changes, but does cause short-term neurological deficits that are spontaneously resolved. Despite previous attempts to model mTBI in mice and rats, many have reported gross adverse effects including skull fractures, intracerebral bleeding, axonal injury and neuronal cell death...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645497/an-association-between-polymorphisms-within-the-apoe-gene-and-concussion-aetiology-in-rugby-union-players
#17
Shameemah Abrahams, Sarah Mc Fie, Jon Patricios, Jason Suter, Michael Posthumus, Alison V September
OBJECTIVES: Concussion refers to changes in neurological function due to biomechanical forces transmitted to the head. The APOE ε4 allele is associated with brain injury severity. The objective was to determine if APOE gene variants are associated with concussion history and severity in rugby players. DESIGN: In total, 128 non-concussed controls and 160 previously concussed participants (all cases N=160; diagnosed N=139) were recruited from high school (junior, N=121), club (N=116) and professional rugby teams (N=51)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631816/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-to-improve-occupational-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
K Suresh Kumar, Selvaraj Samuelkamaleshkumar, Anand Viswanathan, Ashish S Macaden
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) could affect multiple facets of their daily functioning. Cognitive rehabilitation brings about clinically significant improvement in certain cognitive skills. However, it is uncertain if these improved cognitive skills lead to betterments in other key aspects of daily living. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI improves return to work, independence in daily activities, community integration and quality of life...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609131/a-comprehensive-reanalysis-of-the-distal-iliotibial-band-quantitative-anatomy-radiographic-markers-and-biomechanical-properties
#19
Jonathan A Godin, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Bradley M Kruckeberg, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Alexander R Vap, Andrew G Geeslin, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative anatomy of the distal iliotibial band (ITB) has previously been described. However, a comprehensive characterization of the quantitative anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical properties of the Kaplan fibers of the deep distal ITB has not yet been established. It is paramount to delineate these characteristics to fully understand the distal ITB's contribution to rotational knee stability. Purpose/Hypothesis: There were 2 distinct purposes for this study: (1) to perform a quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the distal ITB's attachment sites and their relationships to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks, and (2) to quantify the biomechanical properties of the deep (Kaplan) fibers of the distal ITB...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599608/a-brain-electrical-activity-eeg-based-biomarker-of-functional-impairment-in-traumatic-head-injury-a-multisite-validation-trial
#20
Daniel Hanley, Leslie S Prichep, Neeraj Badjatia, Jeff Bazarian, RIchard P Chiacchierini, Kenneth C Curley, John S Garrett, Elizabeth B Jones, Rosanne Naunheim, Brian J O'Neil, John O'Neill, Wright David, J Stephen Huff
The potential clinical utility of a novel quantitative EEG-based Brain Function Index (BFI) as a measure of the presence and severity of functional brain injury was studied as part of an independent prospective validation trial. The BFI was derived using EEG features associated with functional brain impairment reflecting current consensus on the physiology of concussive injury. 720 adult patients (18-85 years) evaluated within 72 hours of sustaining a closed head injury were enrolled at 11 US Emergency Departments...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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