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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719501/evaluation-of-the-adequacy-of-the-2010-revised-world-health-organization-recommended-dosages-of-the-first-line-antituberculosis-drugs-for-children
#1
Hongmei Yang, Anthony Enimil, Fizza S Gillani, Sampson Antwi, Albert Dompreh, Antoinette Ortsin, Eugene Adu Awhireng, Maxwell Owusu, Lubbe Wiesner, Charles A Peloquin, Awewura Kwara
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommended increased dosages of the first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs for children in 2010. We examined the frequency of and factors associated with low plasma maximum concentration (Cmax) of each drug in children treated with the revised dosages. METHODS: Children on anti-TB therapy for at least 4 weeks underwent pharmacokinetic testing. Plasma Cmax below the lower limit of proposed reference range was considered low...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718995/a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-and-impact-of-urinary-incontinence-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Katherine B Frayman, Traci M Kazmerski, Susan M Sawyer
This systematic review synthesizes published articles investigating the prevalence, severity and impact of urinary incontinence (UI), a condition associated with cystic fibrosis (CF). References were identified through searching Medline, Embase and PubMed using the medical subject headings 'cystic fibrosis' AND 'urinary incontinence'. Articles were included if UI prevalence was investigated as an outcome. Twelve studies met selection criteria. The prevalence of UI ranged from 5% to 76%. Age and gender contributed to this variability...
July 18, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718841/development-of-an-immunosensor-for-pfhrp-2-as-a-biomarker-for-malaria-detection
#4
Aver Hemben, Jon Ashley, Ibtisam E Tothill
Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP 2) was selected in this work as the biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of malaria. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first developed to evaluate the immunoreagent's suitability for the sensor's development. A gold-based sensor with an integrated counter and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was first selected and characterised and then used to develop the immunosensor for PfHRP 2, which enables a low cost, easy to use, and sensitive biosensor for malaria diagnosis...
July 18, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718506/felbamate-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Li Li Shi, JianCheng Dong, HengJian Ni, JinSong Geng, Taixiang Wu
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 7, 2014) on 'Felbamate as an add-on therapy for refractory epilepsy'. Epilepsy is a chronic and disabling neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 1% of the population. Up to 30% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are resistant to currently available drugs. Felbamate is one of the second-generation antiepileptic drugs and we have assessed its effects as an add-on therapy to standard drugs in this review...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718007/-basic-principles-of-fracture-healing
#6
REVIEW
Valentin Rausch, Dominik Seybold, Matthias Königshausen, Manfred Köller, Thomas A Schildhauer, Jan Geßmann
BACKGROUND: In contrast to other tissues, bone has the remarkable ability to heal without scarring. After union of the fracture, the remodeled bone ideally does not differ from the original bone, especially in terms of biomechanical properties. The healing of a fracture resembles the embryonic development of bone. Depending on the biomechanical properties of the fracture, bone heals directly or indirectly, which refers to the formation of cartilage as a step before new bone appears...
July 17, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717847/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-and-cariogenic-differences-of-streptococcus-mutans-strains-through-pan-genome-and-comparative-genome-analysis
#7
Peiqi Meng, Chang Lu, Qian Zhang, Jiuxiang Lin, Feng Chen
Pan-genome refers to the sum of genes that can be found in a given bacterial species, including the core-genome and the dispensable genome. In this study, the genomes from 183 Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) isolates were analyzed from the pan-genome perspective. This analysis revealed that S. mutans has an "open" pan-genome, implying that there are plenty of new genes to be found as more genomes are sequenced. Additionally, S. mutans has a limited core-genome, which is composed of genes related to vital activities within the bacterium, such as metabolism and hereditary information storage or processing, occupying 35...
July 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717813/cut-off-points-for-muscle-mass-not-grip-strength-or-gait-speed-determine-variations-in-sarcopenia-prevalence
#8
F Masanés, X Rojano I Luque, A Salvà, J A Serra-Rexach, I Artaza, F Formiga, F Cuesta, A López Soto, D Ruiz, A J Cruz-Jentoft
OBJECTIVES: The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) has proposed different methods and cut-off points for the three parameters that define sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Although this facilitates clinical practice, it limits comparability between studies and leads to wide differences in published prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to assess how changes in cut-off points for muscle mass, gait speed and grip strength affected sarcopenia prevalence according to EWGSOP criteria...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717743/chronic-myeloid-leukemia-in-india
#9
REVIEW
Prasanth Ganesan, Lalit Kumar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the use of imatinib has brought a paradigm shift in the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In India, imatinib has been available for more than a decade and has been made accessible to all segments of the population because of patient assistance programs and cheaper generic versions. Despite improvements in survival, there are unique challenges in the Indian context. METHODS: We reviewed published data pertaining to CML in India for the period of 1990 to 2016, using PubMed advanced search with the terms chronic myeloid leukemia and India, and included studies that reported on epidemiology, monitoring for therapy, treatment outcomes, and resistance...
February 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717592/epas1-variants-in-high-altitude-tibetan-wolves-were-selectively-introgressed-into-highland-dogs
#10
Bridgett vonHoldt, Zhenxin Fan, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Robert K Wayne
BACKGROUND: Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. METHODS: Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717051/detection-of-markers-predictive-of-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycoplasma-genitalium-from-patients-attending-sexual-health-services-in-england
#11
Rachel Pitt, Helen Fifer, Neil Woodford, Sarah Alexander
OBJECTIVES: Resistance to both macrolides and fluoroquinolones has been reported in Mycoplasma genitalium; however, due to limited diagnostics, studies are often small and confined to specific geographical areas. This study sought to determine the rate of predicted resistance in M. genitalium-positive specimens referred for diagnostic testing. METHODS: Seventy-four M. genitalium-positive specimens, referred to the national reference laboratory (2010-2013) from 19 centres across England, were blinded and anonymised...
July 17, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716961/the-structural-basis-of-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-mouse
#12
Joanes Grandjean, Valerio Zerbi, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Markus Rudina
Translational neuroimaging requires approaches and techniques that can bridge between multiple different species and disease states. One candidate method, which offers insights into the brain's functional connectivity (FC), is resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI). In both humans and non-human primates, patterns of functional connectivity (often referred to as the functional connectome) have been related to the underlying structural connectivity (structural connectome). Given the recent rise in pre-clinical neuroimaging of mouse models it is an important question whether the mouse functional connectome conforms to the underlying structural connectivity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716786/online-versus-face-to-face-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Simon Bourne, Ruth DeVos, Malcolm North, Anoop Chauhan, Ben Green, Thomas Brown, Victoria Cornelius, Tom Wilkinson
OBJECTIVE: To obtain evidence whether the online pulmonary rehabilitation(PR) programme 'my-PR' is non-inferior to a conventional face-to-face PR in improving physical performance and symptom scores in patients with COPD. DESIGN: A two-arm parallel single-blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: The online arm carried out pulmonary rehabilitation in their own homes and the face to face arm in a local rehabilitation facility. PARTICIPANTS: 90 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), modified Medical Research Council score of 2 or greater referred for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), randomised in a 2:1 ratio to online (n=64) or face-to-face PR (n=26)...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716132/a-patient-safety-and-professional-perspective-on-non-conveyance-in-ambulance-care-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Remco H A Ebben, Lilian C M Vloet, Renate F Speijers, Nico W Tönjes, Jorik Loef, Thomas Pelgrim, Margreet Hoogeveen, Sivera A A Berben
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to describe non-conveyance in ambulance care from patient-safety and ambulance professional perspectives. The review specifically focussed at describing (1) ambulance non-conveyance rates, (2) characteristics of non-conveyed patients, (3) follow-up care after non-conveyance, (4) existing guidelines or protocols, and (5) influencing factors during the non-conveyance decision making process. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of included articles, in June 2016...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715783/development-of-land-use-regression-models-for-pm2-5-so2-no2-and-o3-in-nanjing-china
#15
Lei Huang, Can Zhang, Jun Bi
Ambient air pollution has been a global problem, especially in China. Comparing with other methods, Land Use Regression (LUR) models can obtain air pollutant concentration distribution at finer scale without the air pollution source data based on a few monitoring sites and predictors. However, limited LUR studies have been conducted on the basis of regular monitoring networks. Thus, we explored the applicability of conducting LUR models for four key air pollutants: PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and O3, on the basis of national monitoring networks which have good representation of areas with different characteristics in Nanjing, China...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715635/redox-potentials-from-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-and-explicit-entropy-calculations-application-to-transition-metals-in-aqueous-solution
#16
Miguel A Caro, Olga Lopez-Acevedo, Tomi Laurila
We present a complete methodology to consistently estimate redox potentials strictly from first principles, without any experimental input. The methodology is based on (i) ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, (ii) all-atom explicit solvation, (iii) the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model and (iv) the use of electrostatic potentials as references for the absolute electrochemical scale. We apply the approach presented to compute reduction potentials of the following redox couples: Cr(+2/+3), V(+2/+3), Ru(NH3)6(+2/+3), Sn(+2/+4), Cu(+1/+2), FcMeOH(0/+1) and Fe(+2/+3) (in aqueous solution) and Fc(0/+1) (in acetonitrile)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715533/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ankyloglossia-in-newborns-and-infants-a-review
#17
Jonathan Walsh, David Tunkel
Importance: The influence of tongue tie, or ankyloglossia, on breastfeeding is the subject of growing debate. Restriction of tongue mobility from the frenulum varies greatly among newborns and infants (hereinafter referred to as infants). Controversies about whether an infant has ankyloglossia and which infants need treatment are evident with wide variations in medical practice and a lack of high-quality clinical studies that provide guidance. Observations: Diagnosis and management of ankyloglossia in infants can be a source of confusion and frustration for clinicians and families...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715426/community-effectiveness-of-pyriproxyfen-as-a-dengue-vector-control-method-a-systematic-review
#18
Dorit Maoz, Tara Ward, Moody Samuel, Pie Müller, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger, Joao Toledo, Ross Boyce, Raman Velayudhan, Olaf Horstick
BACKGROUND: Vector control is the only widely utilised method for primary prevention and control of dengue. The use of pyriproxyfen may be promising, and autodissemination approach may reach hard to reach breeding places. It offers a unique mode of action (juvenile hormone mimic) and as an additional tool for the management of insecticide resistance among Aedes vectors. However, evidence of efficacy and community effectiveness (CE) remains limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to compile and analyse the existing literature for evidence on the CE of pyriproxyfen as a vector control method for reducing Ae...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713854/forced-migration-in-childhood-are-there-long-term-health-effects
#19
Jan M Saarela, Irma T Elo
Studies on the health of migrants have increased considerably in number in recent years, but little is still known about the long-term health effects associated with forced migration, and particularly for people who were forced to migrate as children. Data shortcomings together with the methodological challenges of studying migrant populations limit the ability to disentangle the roles of various factors that influence migrant health outcomes. Finland provides an unusual opportunity to study long-term health consequences associated with forced migration...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713046/a-90-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-glycolipids-from-dacryopinax-spathularia-in-beagle-dogs
#20
Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Kim A Henderson
The subchronic toxicity of glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia (herein referred to as "AM-1") was studied in male and female Beagle dogs administered AM-1 by oral capsule at doses of 150, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. AM-1 was well tolerated at all dosages and there were no test article-related effects on survival, clinical observations, neurological screening (functional observational battery) parameters, clinical pathology parameters, organ weights, macroscopic or microscopic evaluations. Test article-related changes were limited to minimal effects on food consumption and body weight changes in the 1000 mg/kg/day group females...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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