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Organic synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922536/enantioselective-2-3-sigmatropic-rearrangements-metal-bound-or-free-ylides-as-reaction-intermediates
#1
Katharina J Hock, Rene M Koenigs
Out of bounds: Enantioselective rearrangement reactions are a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis. Recent advances are highlighted that led to the development of the first enantioselective Doyle-Kirmse reaction and enantioselective rearrangement reactions of iodonium ylides.
September 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922481/photo-induced-assembly-of-a-luminescent-tetraruthenium-square
#2
Baptiste Laramée-Milette, Francesco Nastasi, Fausto Puntoriero, Sebastiano Campagna, Garry S Hanan
Self-assembly is a powerful synthetic tool that has led to the development of one-, two- and three-dimensional architectures. From MOFs to molecular flasks, self-assembled materials have proven to be of great interest to the scientific community. Here we describe a strategy for the construction and de-construction of a supramolecular structure through unprecedented photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly. The combination of two approaches, a [n×1]-directional bonding strategy and a ligand photo-dissociation strategy, allows the photo-induced assembly of a polypyridyl Ru(II) precursor into a discrete molecular square...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921994/anisotropic-cracking-of-nanocrystal-superlattices
#3
Benjamin T Diroll, Xuedan Ma, Yaoting Wu, Christopher B Murray
The synthesis colloidal nanocrystals in non-polar organic solvents has led to exceptional size- and shape-control, enabling the formation of nanocrystal superlattices isostructural to atomic lattices built with nanocrystals rather than atoms. The long aliphatic ligands (e.g. oleic acid) used to achieve this control separate nanocrystals too far in the solid-state for most charge-transporting devices. Solid-state ligand exchange, which brings particles closer together and enhances conductivity, necessitates large changes in the total volume of the solid (compressive stress), which leads to film cracking...
September 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921973/evans-showell-type-polyoxometalates-constructing-high-dimensional-inorganic-organic-hybrid-compounds-with-copper-organic-coordination-complexes-synthesis-and-oxidation-catalysis
#4
Haiyan An, Yujiao Hou, Lin Wang, Yumeng Zhang, Wei Yang, ShenZhen Chang
Four new hybrid architectures containing a [Co2Mo10H4O38](6-) polyoxoanion, (en)[Cu3(ptz)4(H2O)4][Co2Mo10H4O38]·24H2O (1), (Hbim)2[{Cu(bim)2(H2O)2}2{Co2Mo10H4O38}]·5H2O (2), H2[Cu(dpdo)3(H2O)4][{Cu2(dpdo)3(H2O)4(CH3CN)}2{Co2Mo10H4O38}2]·9H2O (3), and (H2bpp)4[{Cu(H2O)2}{NaCo2Mo10H4O38}2]·10H2O (4), where ptz = 5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole, en = ethylenediamine, bim = benzimidazole, dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide, and bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, have been prepared and characterized through elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectroscopy, and powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
September 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921969/flow-electrolysis-cells-for-the-synthetic-organic-chemistry-laboratory
#5
Derek Pletcher, Robert A Green, Richard C D Brown
Electrosynthesis has much to offer to the synthetic organic chemist. But in order to be widely accepted as a routine procedure in an organic synthesis laboratory, electrosynthesis needs to be presented in a much more user-friendly way. The literature is largely based on electrolysis in a glass beaker or H-cells that often give poor performance for synthesis with a very slow rate of conversion and, often, low selectivity and reproducibility. Flow cells can lead to much improved performance. Electrolysis is participating in the trend toward continuous flow synthesis, and this has led to a number of innovations in flow cell design that make possible selective syntheses with high conversion of reactant to product with a single passage of the reactant solution through the cell...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921941/the-lactococcus-lactis-kf147-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-polyketide-synthase-system-confers-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-during-growth-on-plant-leaf-tissue-lysate
#6
Benjamin L Golomb, Annabelle O Yu, Laurynne C Coates, Maria L Marco
Strains of Lactococcus lactis isolated from plant tissues possess adaptations that support their survival and growth in plant-associated microbial habitats. We previously demonstrated that genes coding for a hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase (NRPS/PKS) system involved in production of an uncharacterized secondary metabolite are specifically induced in L. lactis KF147 during growth on plant tissues. Notably, this NRPS/PKS has only been identified in plant-isolated strains of L. lactis...
September 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921698/reduced-graphene-oxide-disodium-terephthalate-hybrid-as-a-high-performance-anode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#7
Tengfei Cao, Wei Lv, Si-Wei Zhang, Jun Zhang, Qiaowei Lin, Xiangrong Chen, Yanbing He, Fei-Yu Kang, Quan-Hong Yang
As a promising candidate for large scale energy storage systems, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are experiencing a rapid development. Organic conjugated carboxylic acids anodes not only have tailorable electrochemical properties but also are easily accessible. However, the low stability and electrical conductivity hamper their practical applications. In this study, disodium terephthalate (Na2TP), the most favorable organic conjugated carboxylic acid anode material for SIB, was proposed to integrate with graphene oxide (GO) by an anti-solvent precipitation process, which ensures the uniform and tight coating of GO on Na2TP surface...
September 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921668/controlling-molecular-doping-in-organic-semiconductors
#8
REVIEW
Ian E Jacobs, Adam J Moulé
The field of organic electronics thrives on the hope of enabling low-cost, solution-processed electronic devices with mechanical, optoelectronic, and chemical properties not available from inorganic semiconductors. A key to the success of these aspirations is the ability to controllably dope organic semiconductors with high spatial resolution. Here, recent progress in molecular doping of organic semiconductors is summarized, with an emphasis on solution-processed p-type doped polymeric semiconductors. Highlighted topics include how solution-processing techniques can control the distribution, diffusion, and density of dopants within the organic semiconductor, and, in turn, affect the electronic properties of the material...
September 15, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#9
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920691/pyruvate-enolate-arylation-and-alkylation-obo-ester-protected-pyruvates-as-useful-reagents-in-organic-synthesis
#10
C Henrique Alves Esteves, Christopher J J Hall, Peter D Smith, Timothy J Donohoe
A protected pyruvate equivalent is described that allows arylation and arylation/alkylation reactions to be performed at the methyl group. Utilization of the OBO derivative of the pyruvate ester allowed the application of palladium catalyzed arylation reactions together with subsequent alkylation, under basic conditions. Moreover, the OBO protecting group could be easily removed in one step to provide access to a wide range of substituted pyruvate derivatives.
September 18, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920674/boosting-catalytic-performance-of-metal-organic-framework-by-increasing-the-defects-via-a-facile-and-green-approach
#11
Gan Ye, Dan Zhang, Xiangfu Li, Kunyue Leng, Wenjuan Zhang, Jun Ma, Yinyong Sun, Wei Xu, Shengqian Ma
The control of defects in crystalline materials has long been of significance since the defects are correlated with the performances of the materials. Yet such control remains a challenge for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are usually well crystallized under hydro/solvo-thermal conditions. In this contribution, we demonstrate for the first time how to increase the defects of MOF via a facile and green approach as exemplified in the context of solvent-free synthesis of UiO-66(Zr). Such increase of defects leads to drastic enhancement of catalysis performance when compared to UiO-66(Zr) prepared from conventional hydro/solvo-thermal synthesis...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920391/-progress-in-metabolic-engineering-of-%C3%AE-carotene-synthesis
#12
Yanyan Wang, Jianmin Xing, Hongge Chen
β-carotene is an important natural plant pigment and has various physiological functions in organisms. With the proposition of systematic biology and progress in carotenoids biosynthesis since the 1960s, metabolic engineering has played a significant role in enhancing carotenoid production. In this review, we present β-carotene's traditional production methods and metabolic engineering strategies for constructing β-carotene-producing strains. Meanwhile, main problems and corresponding solutions to improve β-carotene yield of engineered strains were further analyzed, for further efficient microbial production of β-carotene...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920389/-research-progress-in-multi-enzyme-regulation-of-genetically-engineered-bacteria-producing-lycopene
#13
Jiali Xu, Siyi Zuo, Chengjia Xie, Ling Jiang, Shuang Li, He Huang, Xian Xu
Lycopene plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis pathway of 2-methyl-derythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) and mevalonic acid (MVA). It is a representative product of isoprenoid family, and a typical product of multi-enzyme catalytic reaction in organism. In this paper, we first introduced the general regulation methods in multi-enzyme synthesis reaction, including the construction of multi gene co-expression plasmid, gene order regulation, promoter and ribosome binding site regulation, gene knockout and replacement, aiming at the optimization strategies of multi-enzyme catalytic reaction in lycopene synthesis pathway...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920010/exploring-step-by-step-assembly-of-nanoparticle-cytochrome-biohybrid-photoanodes
#14
Ee Taek Hwang, Katherine L Orchard, Daisuke Hojo, Joseph Beton, Colin W J Lockwood, Tadafumi Adschiri, Julea N Butt, Erwin Reisner, Lars J C Jeuken
Coupling light-harvesting semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) with redox enzymes has been shown to create artificial photosynthetic systems that hold promise for the synthesis of solar fuels. High quantum yields require efficient electron transfer from the nanoparticle to the redox protein, a property that can be difficult to control. Here, we have compared binding and electron transfer between dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals or CdS quantum dots and two decaheme cytochromes on photoanodes. The effect of NP surface chemistry was assessed by preparing NPs capped with amine or carboxylic acid functionalities...
August 2017: ChemElectroChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920009/raman-under-water-nonlinear-and-nearfield-approaches-for-electrochemical-surface-science
#15
REVIEW
Natalia Martín Sabanés, Katrin F Domke
Electrochemistry is re-gaining attention among scientists because the complex interplay between electronic and chemical interfacial processes lies at the bottom of a broad range of important research disciplines like alternative energy conversion or green catalysis and synthesis. While rapid progress has been made in recent years regarding novel technological applications, the community increasingly recognizes that the understanding of the molecular processes that govern macroscopic device properties is still rather limited - which hinders a systematic and more complete exploration of novel material and functionality space...
August 2017: ChemElectroChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919544/increased-level-of-interleukin-6-associates-with-increased-90-day-and-1-year-mortality-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#16
Johannes Remmler, Christoph Schneider, Theresa Treuner-Kaueroff, Michael Bartels, Daniel Seehofer, Markus Scholz, Thomas Berg, Thorsten Kaiser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Organ allocation for liver transplantation is based on prognosis, using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) or MELD-Na score. These scores do not consider systemic inflammation and septic complications. Blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to the MELD score, associates with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease, whereas levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) have not been systematically studied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 474 patients with end-stage liver disease (63...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919473/atorvastatin-alters-gene-expression-and-cholesterol-synthesis-in-primary-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-hepatocytes
#17
Aziz A Al-Habsi, Andrey Massarsky, Thomas W Moon
The liver is a key metabolic organ contributing significantly to both lipid and cholesterol homeostasis in vertebrates. This study examines whether the human pharmaceutical atorvastatin (ATV), which is designed to lower cholesterol biosynthesis, could disrupt lipid dynamics in fish. The study investigates the effects of ATV at a physiologically relevant exposure regimen (concentration and duration) on gene transcripts and the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other lipid and non-lipid molecules in primary rainbow trout hepatocytes...
September 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918375/synthesis-of-fluorescent-dendrimers-with-aggregation-induced-emission-features-through-a-one-pot-multi-component-reaction-and-their-utilization-for-biological-imaging
#18
Weihua Luo, Ruming Jiang, Meiying Liu, Qing Wan, Jianwen Tian, Yuanqing Wen, Qian-Yong Cao, Junfeng Hui, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Hyperbranched polymers have attracted wide research attention owing to their unique topological structure, physicochemical properties and great potential for applications such asadditives, drug delivery, catalysts and nanotechnology. Among these, the polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimers are some of the most important dendrimers. However, the synthesis and biomedical applications of fluorescent PAMAM dendrimers have received only limited attention. In this work, we present a rather effective and convenient approach for synthesis of fluorescent PAMAM dendrimers with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties through a one-pot catalyst-free Mannich reaction under rather mild experimental conditions (e...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918301/mathematical-fundamentals-for-the-noise-immunity-of-the-genetic-code
#19
Elena Fimmel, Lutz Strüngmann
Symmetry is one of the essential and most visible patterns that can be seen in nature. Starting from the left-right symmetry of the human body, all types of symmetry can be found in crystals, plants, animals and nature as a whole. Similarly, principals of symmetry are also some of the fundamental and most useful tools in modern mathematical natural science that play a major role in theory and applications. As a consequence, it is not surprising that the desire to understand the origin of life, based on the genetic code, forces us to involve symmetry as a mathematical concept...
September 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#20
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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