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Organic synthesis

Rekha Seshadri, Sinead C Leahy, Graeme T Attwood, Koon Hoong Teh, Suzanne C Lambie, Adrian L Cookson, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Georgios A Pavlopoulos, Michalis Hadjithomas, Neha J Varghese, David Paez-Espino, Rechelle Perry, Gemma Henderson, Christopher J Creevey, Nicolas Terrapon, Pascal Lapebie, Elodie Drula, Vincent Lombard, Edward Rubin, Nikos C Kyrpides, Bernard Henrissat, Tanja Woyke, Natalia N Ivanova, William J Kelly
Productivity of ruminant livestock depends on the rumen microbiota, which ferment indigestible plant polysaccharides into nutrients used for growth. Understanding the functions carried out by the rumen microbiota is important for reducing greenhouse gas production by ruminants and for developing biofuels from lignocellulose. We present 410 cultured bacteria and archaea, together with their reference genomes, representing every cultivated rumen-associated archaeal and bacterial family. We evaluate polysaccharide degradation, short-chain fatty acid production and methanogenesis pathways, and assign specific taxa to functions...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Aurélie Fossey-Jouenne, Carine Vergne-Vaxelaire, Anne Zaparucha
Amino alcohols are versatile compounds with a wide range of applications. For instance, they have been used as chiral scaffolds in organic synthesis. Their synthesis by conventional organic chemistry often requires tedious multi-step synthesis processes, with difficult control of the stereochemical outcome. We present a protocol to enzymatically synthetize amino alcohols starting from the readily available L-lysine in 48 h. This protocol combines two chemical reactions that are very difficult to conduct by conventional organic synthesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yang Wang, Xueping Kong, Wei Xu, Fengrui Jiang, Bao Li, Lixin Wu
A series of triol ligand [CH3 C(CH2 OH)3 ] covalently decorated polyoxometalates (POMs), which could be ascribed to the primary complexes with structural formulas {M2 [Mo2 O4 (CH3 C(CH2 O)3 )2 ]3 }2- (M = Cu2+ , Co2+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ ), have been synthesized in organic solvents. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that the synthesized polyanionic clusters are comprised of three {Mo2 } units and two divalent transition-metal ions connecting to each other in an alternating style, where all {Mo2 } blocks were covalently decorated by two triol ligands in the trans conformation...
March 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Kang-Yu Wang, Wei-Can Liu, Mei-Ping Zhang, Ming-Zhu Zhao, Yan-Fang Wang, Li Li, Chun-Yu Sun, Ke-Xin Hu, Yue-Yi Cong, Yi Wang
The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hussaina Banu, N Renuka, S M Faheem, Raees Ismail, Vinita Singh, Zahra Saadatmand, Saad Sultan Khan, Kavya Narayanan, Alma Raheem, Kumpati Premkumar, Geetha Vasanthakumar
Recently, several attempts have been made to use the phytopharmaceuticals from plant extracts as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents for the biomimetic synthesis of various metal nanoparticles conjugated to the phytopharmaceuticals. These biogenic metal nanoparticles are non-toxic and can be used as contrast agents, drug delivery vehicles and photothermal agents for cancer therapy. Herein, we report the synthesis of both silver and gold nanoparticles using the pollen extract of Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm), characterization using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, quantitation of phytochemicals capping the nanoparticles using Folin - Ciocalteu's method, cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, cancer cell death analysis using fluorescent microscopy, and modulation of expression of the pro-apoptotic p53 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins...
March 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Beatriz Díez-Buitrago, Nerea Briz, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Valeri Pavlov
Enzymes are pivotal elements in bioanalysis due to their specificity and extremely high catalytic activity. The sensitivity of bioanalytical assays depends mainly on the capacity of an observer to detect the product(s) of a biocatalytic reaction. Both natural and artificial compounds have been traditionally used to evaluate enzymatic activities. The drawbacks of chromogenic and fluorogenic organic enzymatic substrates are their high cost and low stability, resulting in high background signals. We review here state of the art assays in the detection of enzymatic activities using recent advances in nanoscience...
March 19, 2018: Analyst
Sidónio C Freitas, Alejandra Correa-Uribe, M Cristina L Martins, Alejandro Pelaez-Vargas
Implant-based therapy is a mature approach to recover the health conditions of patients affected by edentulism. Thousands of dental implants are placed each year since their introduction in the 80s. However, implantology faces challenges that require more research strategies such as new support therapies for a world population with a continuous increase of life expectancy, to control periodontal status and new bioactive surfaces for implants. The present review is focused on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for dental implant materials as a nanoscale-processing approach to modify titanium surfaces...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
Yaron Caspi, Cees Dekker
Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by the well-studied fts genes, with FtsZ as the principal player. In many archaeal species, however, division is orchestrated differently. The Crenarchaeota phylum of archaea features the action of the three proteins, CdvABC. This Cdv system is a unique and less-well-studied division mechanism that merits closer inspection. In vivo , the three Cdv proteins form a composite band that contracts concomitantly with the septum formation. Of the three Cdv proteins, CdvA is the first to be recruited to the division site, while CdvB and CdvC are thought to participate in the active part of the Cdv division machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuntao Ji, Meixia Cao, Jia Liu, Yanfei Chen, Xiaoli Li, Jing Zhao, Changqing Qu
Aim: Adipogenesis is characterized by a strong interdependence between cell shape, cytoskeletal organization, and the onset of adipogenic gene expression. Here we investigated the role of the RhoA/ROCK pathway in adipogenesis. Result: High RhoA activity in the cell line C3H10T1/2 were generated (Named RhoA14V cells). Treatment of RhoA14V cells with Shield 1 following their differentiation into adipocytes resulted in the appearance of thick cortical actin filaments, and increased mRNA expression levels of RhoA, ROCK, p-MYPT1 and p-MLC, while PPARγ mRNA decreased...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sonia Salazar-Cerezo, Nancy Martínez-Montiel, Jenny García-Sánchez, Rocío Pérez-Y-Terrón, Rebeca D Martínez-Contreras
Gibberellins (GAs) are natural complex biomolecules initially identified as secondary metabolites in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi with strong implications in plant physiology. GAs have been identified in different fungal and bacterial species, in some cases related to virulence, but the full understanding of the role of these metabolites in the different organisms would need additional investigation. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding a common pathway for GA synthesis in fungi, bacteria and plant from the genes depicted as part of the GA production cluster to the enzymes responsible for the catalytic transformations and the biosynthetical routes involved...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Yuepeng Sun, Yuntao Guan, Dan Wang, Kai Liang, Guangxue Wu
Two lab-scale nitrifying sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with (SBBR_CN) or without the addition of organics (SBBR_N), were operated to investigate potential roles of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum sensing. AHLs of N-[(RS)-3-Hydroxybutyryl]-L-homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6 -HSL) and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8 -HSL) were detected in both reactors. C6 -HSL and C8 -HSL were also detected in batch experiments, especially with stimulated nitrite oxidizing bacteria activities...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shijie Li, Shiwei Hu, Wei Jiang, Yanping Liu, Yingtang Zhou, Yu Liu, Liuye Mo
A huge challenge in the field of pollutant removal is the scarcity of visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts that are efficient, stable, easily recyclable and capable of mineralizing organic pollutants. In this regard, a novel hierarchical architecture of Bi2 MoO6 nanosheets onto NiTiO3 nanofibers for tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) removal was rationally designed and fabricated via a facile approach. In this heterojunction system, highly homogeneous-distributed Bi2 MoO6 nanosheets were anchored on electrospun NiTiO3 nanofibers, endowing the heterojunction with compact interfacial contact...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
V K Sharma, R Mukhopadhyay
Ionic liquids (ILs) are a special class of low-temperature (typically < 100 °C) molten salts, which have huge upsurge interest in the field of chemical synthesis, catalysis, electrochemistry, pharmacology, and biotechnology, mainly due to their highly tunable nature and exceptional properties. However, practical uses of ILs are restricted mainly due to their adverse actions on organisms. Understanding interactions of ILs with biomembrane is prerequisite to assimilate the actions of these ionic compounds on the organism...
March 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Garam Park, In-Hwan Oh, J M Sungil Park, Jinyong Jung, Chun-Yeol You, June-Seo Kim, Yonghwan Kim, Jong Hoon Jung, Namjung Hur, Younghak Kim, J-Y Kim, Chang Seop Hong, Ki-Yeon Kim
Two dimensional layered organic-inorganic halide perovskites offer a wide variety of novel functionality such as solar cell and optoelectronics and magnetism. Self-assembly of these materials using solution process (ex. spin coating) makes crystalline thin films synthesized at ambient environment. However, flexibility of organic layer also poses a structure stability issue in perovskite thin films against environment factors (ex. moisture). In this study, we investigate the effect of solvents and moisture on structure and property in the (C6 H5 (CH2 )2 NH3 )2 (Cu, Mn)Cl4 (Cu-PEA, Mn-PEA) perovskite thin films spin-coated on Si wafer using three solvents (H2 O, MeOH, MeOH + H2 O)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guanyu Chen, Darren Svirskis, Weiyue Lu, Man Ying, Yuan Huang, Jingyuan Wen
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue effective against a number of cancers. However, the full potential of this drug has not been realised, in part due to low oral bioavailability and frequent dosing requirements. This study reports the synthesis, in-vitro, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation of trimethyl chitosan (TMC) - CSKSSDYQC (CSK) peptide conjugates capable of enhancing the oral bioavailability of gemcitabine due to the ability to target intestinal goblet cells and promote intestinal cellular uptake. TMC was synthesized by a novel two-step methylation method to improve quanternization and yield...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ajeet K Sharma, Nabeel Ahmed, Edward P O'Brien
Ribosome profiling experiments have found greater than 100-fold variation in ribosome density along mRNA transcripts, indicating that individual codon elongation rates can vary to a similar degree. This wide range of elongation times, coupled with differences in codon usage between transcripts, suggests that the average codon translation-rate per gene can vary widely. Yet, ribosome run-off experiments have found that the average codon translation rate for different groups of transcripts in mouse stem cells is constant at 5...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Mahfuza Mubarak, Hyokyung Jeon, Md Shahinul Islam, Cheolho Yoon, Jong-Seong Bae, Seong-Ju Hwang, Won San Choi, Ha-Jin Lee
Herein, Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (MF-LDH) hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared by a one-step thermal method. After the thermal treatment of MF-LDH nanospheres at 400 °C, the MF-LDH was converted into the corresponding oxide, Mg/Fe layered double oxide (MF-LDO), which maintained the hollow nanosphere structure. The MF-LDO hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency for both As(V) and Cr(VI), showing 99% removal within 5 min and providing maximum removal capacities of 178...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hamid Reza Rajabi, Fatemeh Karimi, Hossein Kazemdehdashti, Leila Kavoshi
In this research, a sono-assisted chemical precipitation method was developed for a quick and efficient water-based synthesis of zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), in room temperature. ZnS QDs as pure and doped with some transition metal ions (such as Cu2+ , Mn2+ , Ag+ ) were prepared in the presence of l-cysteine, as capping agent. In comparison with the previous conventional methods, applying the ultrasonic irradiation provides a significant decrease in the reaction time. In comparison with previous reported conventional chemical QD synthesis methods, the required time for a complete synthesis in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations was significantly reduced to a period as short as 15 min, in a temperature of 40 °C...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yaxin Qin, Guiying Li, Yanpeng Gao, Lizhi Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Taicheng An
With the increased concentrations and kinds of refractory organic contaminants (ROCs) in aquatic environments, many previous reviews systematically summarized the applications of carbon-based materials in the adsorption and catalytic degradation of ROCs for their economically viable and environmentally friendly behavior. Interestingly, recent studies indicated that carbon-based materials in natural environment can also mediate the transformation of ROCs directly or indirectly due to their abundant persistent free radicals (PFRs)...
March 9, 2018: Water Research
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