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Organic synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108369/jaburetox-affects-gene-expression-and-enzyme-activities-in-rhodnius-prolixus-a-chagas-disease-vector
#1
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Monique Siebra Krug, Valquiria Broll, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Rafael Real-Guerra, Fernanda Stanisçuaski, Celia R Carlini
Jaburetox, a recombinant peptide of ∼11kDa derived from one of the Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease isoforms, is toxic and lethal to insects belonging to different orders when administered orally or via injection. Previous findings indicated that Jaburetox acts on insects in a complex fashion, inhibiting diuresis and the transmembrane potential of Malpighian tubules, interfering with muscle contractility and affecting the immune system. In vitro, Jaburetox forms ionic channels and alters permeability of artificial lipid membranes...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107902/electrolyzing-synthesis-of-boron-doped-graphene-quantum-dots-for-fluorescence-determination-of-fe-3-ions-in-water-samples
#2
Li Chen, Chuanli Wu, Pan Du, Xiaowei Feng, Ping Wu, Chenxin Cai
This work reports a facile electrolyzing method to synthesize boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) and uses the BGQDs as a fluorescent probe to determine Fe(3+) ion levels in water samples. The BGQDs were produced by oxidizing graphite in an aqueous borax solution at pH 7; then, the borate solution was filtered with BGQDs, and the borate was dialyzed from the filtrate, leaving a solution of BGQDs in water. The amount of the B in the BGQDs can be adjusted by changing the concentration of borax used for the electrolyte...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107656/synthesis-of-an-allergy-inducing-tetrasaccharide-4p-x
#4
Takashi Moriya, Naoki Nagahata, Rei Odaka, Hirohide Nakamura, Jun Yoshikawa, Katsumi Kurashima, Tadao Saito
4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time...
November 27, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106987/constructing-ultraporous-covalent-organic-frameworks-in-seconds-via-an-organic-terracotta-process
#5
Suvendu Karak, Sharath Kandambeth, Bishnu P Biswal, Himadri Sekhar Sasmal, Sushil Kumar, Pradip Pachfule, Rahul Banerjee
Research on covalent organic frameworks (COFs) has recently gathered significant momentum by the virtue of their predictive design, controllable porosity and long range ordering. However, the lack of solvent free and easy-to-perform synthesis processes appears to be the bottleneck towards their greener fabrication, thereby limiting their possible potential applications. To alleviate such shortcomings, we demonstrate a simple route towards the rapid synthesis of highly crystalline and ultraporous COFs in seconds using a novel salt-mediated crystallization approach...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106984/pore-space-partition-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#6
Quan-Guo Zhai, Xianhui Bu, Xiang Zhao, Dong-Sheng Li, Pingyun Feng
Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have emerged as one of the favorite crystalline porous materials (CPM) because of their compositional and geometric tunability and many possible applications. In efforts to develop better MOFs for gas storage and separation, a number of strategies including creation of open metal sites and implantation of Lewis base sites have been used to tune host-guest interactions. In addition to these chemical factors, the geometric features such as pore size and shape, surface area, and pore volume also play important roles in sorption energetics and uptake capacity...
January 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106858/regulation-of-dna-replication-in-early-embryonic-cleavages
#7
REVIEW
Chames Kermi, Elena Lo Furno, Domenico Maiorano
Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes...
January 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106827/neuroprotective-strategy-in-retinal-degeneration-suppressing-er-stress-induced-cell-death-via-inhibition-of-the-mtor-signal
#8
REVIEW
Bin Fan, Ying-Jian Sun, Shu-Yan Liu, Lin Che, Guang-Yu Li
The retina is a specialized sensory organ, which is essential for light detection and visual formation in the human eye. Inherited retinal degenerations are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases that can eventually cause permanent vision loss. UPR (unfolded protein response) and ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress plays an important role in the pathological mechanism of retinal degenerative diseases. mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase, as a signaling hub, controls many cellular processes, covering protein synthesis, RNA translation, ER stress, and apoptosis...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106795/bio-based-aromatic-epoxy-monomers-for-thermoset-materials
#9
REVIEW
Feifei Ng, Guillaume Couture, Coralie Philippe, Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol
The synthesis of polymers from renewable resources is a burning issue that is actively investigated. Polyepoxide networks constitute a major class of thermosetting polymers and are extensively used as coatings, electronic materials, adhesives. Owing to their outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, chemical resistance, adhesion, and minimal shrinkage after curing, they are used in structural applications as well. Most of these thermosets are industrially manufactured from bisphenol A (BPA), a substance that was initially synthesized as a chemical estrogen...
January 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106754/advances-in-solid-state-transformations-of-coordination-bonds-from-the-ball-mill-to-the-aging-chamber
#10
REVIEW
Cristina Mottillo, Tomislav Friščić
Controlling the formation of coordination bonds is pivotal to the development of a plethora of functional metal-organic materials, ranging from coordination polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to metallodrugs. The interest in and commercialization of such materials has created a need for more efficient, environmentally-friendly routes for making coordination bonds. Solid-state coordination chemistry is a versatile greener alternative to conventional synthesis, offering quantitative yields, enhanced stoichiometric and topological selectivity, access to a wider range of precursors, as well as to molecules and materials not readily accessible in solution or solvothermally...
January 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106210/multi-step-continuous-flow-synthesis
#11
Joshua Britton, Colin L Raston
Organic chemistry is continually evolving to improve the syntheses of value added and bioactive compounds. Through this progression, a concomitant advancement in laboratory technology has occurred. Many researchers now choose to mediate transformations in continuous-flow systems given the many benefits over round bottom flasks. Furthermore, reaction scale up is often less problematic as this is addressed at the inception of the science. Although single-step transformations in continuous-flow systems are common, multi-step transformations are more valuable...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105813/generation-and-trapping-of-nitrosocarbonyl-intermediates
#12
Misal Giuseppe Memeo, Paolo Quadrelli
The nitrosocarbonyls (R-CONO) are highly reactive species and remarkable intermediates toward different synthetic targets. This review will cover a research area whose impact in current organic synthesis is constantly increasing in the chemical community. This review represents the first and comprehensive picture on the generation and trapping of nitrosocarbonyls and is solidly built on more than 380 papers. Six different classes of key starting materials such as hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy carbamates, N-hydroxyureas, nitrile oxides, and 1,2,4-oxadiazole-4-oxides were highlighted...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105805/towards-3d-chemical-imaging-of-ternary-cu-sn-pb-alloys-using-femtosecond-laser-ablation-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#13
Valentine Grimaudo, Pavel Moreno-Garcia, Andreas Riedo, Stefan Meyer, Marek Tulej, Maike Brigitte Neuland, Miklós Mohos, Christoph Gütz, Siegfried R R Waldvogel, Peter Wurz, Peter Broekmann
Femtosecond Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LIMS) has been applied to probe the spatial element composition of three ternary Cu-Sn-Pb model bronze alloys (lead bronzes: CuSn10Pb10, CuSn7Pb15 and CuSn5Pb20), which were recently identified as high performance cathode materials in the context of electro-organic synthesis (dehalogenation, deoxygenation) of pharmaceutically relevant building blocks. The quantitative and spatially resolved element analysis of such cathode materials will help understanding the observed profound differences in their electrochemical reactivity and stability...
January 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105792/synthesis-of-poly-phenyltriazolylcarboxylate-s-with-aggregation-induced-emission-characteristics-by-metal-free-1-3-dipolar-polycycloaddition-of-phenylpropiolate-and-azides
#14
Wei Yuan, Weiwen Chi, Ruimin Liu, Hongkun Li, Yongfang Li, Ben Zhong Tang
Two soluble poly(phenyltriazolylcarboxylate)s (PPTCs) with high molecular weights (M w up to 26 800) are synthesized by the metal-free 1,3-dipolar polycycloadditions of 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenyl diphenylpropiolate (1) and tetraphenylethene-containing diazides (2) in dimethylformamide at 150 °C for 12 h in high yields (up to 93%). The resultant polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and are thermally stable with 5% weight loss temperatures higher than 375 °C. The PPTCs are nonemissive in solutions, but become highly luminescent upon aggregation, showing a phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission...
January 20, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105701/climate-change-and-alpine-stream-biology-progress-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#15
Scott Hotaling, Debra S Finn, J Joseph Giersch, David W Weisrock, Dean Jacobsen
In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities...
January 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103531/characterization-of-transcriptome-and-identification-of-biomineralization-genes-in-winged-pearl-oyster-pteria-penguin-mantle-tissue
#16
Haimei Li, Baosuo Liu, Guiju Huang, Sigang Fan, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
The winged pearl oyster Pteria penguin is a commercially important marine pearl oyster species, with pearls that are quite different from those of other pearl oysters. Among such species, mantle tissue is the main organ responsible for shell and pearl formation, a biomineralization process that is regulated by a series of genes, most of which remain unknown. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the transcriptome of P. penguin mantle tissue using the HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 93,204 unique transcripts were assembled from 51,580,076 quality reads, with a mean length of 608bp, and 40,974 unigenes were annotated...
January 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103428/aqueous-biphasic-systems-for-the-synthesis-of-formates-via-catalytic-co2-hydrogenation-integrated-reaction-and-catalyst-separation-for-co2-scrubbing-solutions
#17
Martin Scott, Beatriz Blas Molinos, Christian Westhues, Giancarlo Franciò, Walter Leitner
Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate-amine-adducts via metal-catalyzed CO2-hydrogenation. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis-Ru(dppm)2Cl2 as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The solvent pair methyl-isobutylcarbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repetitive use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated achieving high endurance with a total TON 150...
January 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103392/a-peroxygenase-from-chaetomium-globosum-catalyzes-the-selective-oxygenation-of-testosterone
#18
Jan Kiebist, Kai-Uwe Schmidtke, Jörg Zimmermann, Harald Kellner, Nico Jehmlich, René Ullrich, Daniel Zänder, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPO, EC 1.11.2.1) secreted by fungi open an efficient way to selectively oxyfunctionalize diverse organic substrates including less activated hydrocarbons by transferring peroxide-borne oxygen. Herein, we investigated a cell-free approach to incorporate epoxy and hydroxyl functionalities directly into the bulky molecule of testosterone by a novel unspecific peroxygenase that was produced by the ascomycetous fungus Chaetomium globosum in a complex medium rich in carbon and nitrogen...
January 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103286/mirnas-do-not-regulate-circadian-protein-synthesis-in-the-dinoflagellate-lingulodinium-polyedrum
#19
Steve Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Mathieu Beauchemin, David Morse
Dinoflagellates have been shown to express miRNA by bioinformatics and RNA blot (Northern) analyses. However, it is not yet known if miRNAs are able to alter gene expression in this class of organisms. We have assessed the possibility that miRNA may mediate circadian regulation of gene expression in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum using the Luciferin Binding Protein (LBP) as a specific example. LBP is a good candidate for regulation by miRNA since mRNA levels are constant over the daily cycle while protein synthesis is restricted by the circadian clock to a period of several hours at the start of the night phase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103106/low-temperature-alkaline-ph-hydrolysis-of-oxygen-free-titan-tholins-carbonates-impact
#20
Coralie Brassé, Arnaud Buch, Patrice Coll, François Raulin
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is one of the key planetary objects in the field of exobiology. Its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere is the site of important organic chemistry. This paper focuses on the organic aerosols produced in Titan's atmosphere that play an important role in atmospheric and surface processes and in organic chemistry as it applies to exobiological interests. To produce reliable laboratory analogues of these aerosols, we developed, tested, and optimized a device for the synthesis of clean tholins...
January 2017: Astrobiology
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