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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655194/predicting-indirect-effects-of-predator-prey-interactions
#1
Sarah E Gilman
Predicting the effects of climate change on species and communities remains a pre-eminent challenge for biologists. Critical among this is understanding the indirect effects of climate change, which arise when the direct, physiological effects of climate on one species change the outcome of its interaction with a second species, altering the success of the second species. A diverse array of approaches to predicting indirect effects exists from mechanistic models, which attempt to build-up from physiological changes to ecological consequences, to ecological models that focus solely on the ecological scale...
June 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655016/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-urinary-leakage-among-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Zhishun Liu, Yan Liu, Huanfang Xu, Liyun He, Yuelai Chen, Lixin Fu, Ning Li, Yonghui Lu, Tongsheng Su, Jianhua Sun, Jie Wang, Zenghui Yue, Wei Zhang, Jiping Zhao, Zhongyu Zhou, Jiani Wu, Kehua Zhou, Yanke Ai, Jing Zhou, Ran Pang, Yang Wang, Zongshi Qin, Shiyan Yan, Hongjiao Li, Lin Luo, Baoyan Liu
Importance: Electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region may be effective for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but evidence is limited. Objective: To assess the effect of electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture for women with SUI. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 12 hospitals in China and enrolling 504 women with SUI between October 2013 and May 2015, with data collection completed in December 2015...
June 27, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654759/taurine-reverses-sodium-fluoride-mediated-increase-in-inflammation-caspase-3-activity-and-oxidative-damage-along-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-rats
#3
Isaac A Adedara, Bolanle F Olabiyi, TeminiJesu D Ojuade, Umar F Idris, Esther M Onibiyo, Ebenezer O Farombi
Excessive exposure to fluoride is associated with male reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of taurine on fluoride-induced reproductive toxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated the influence of taurine on sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced functional changes along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. NaF was administered singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days...
June 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654652/alleviation-of-the-effects-of-saline-alkaline-stress-on-maize-seedlings-by-regulation-of-active-oxygen-metabolism-by-trichoderma-asperellum
#4
Jian Fu, Zhihua Liu, Zuotong Li, Yufeng Wang, Kejun Yang
This study investigated the influence of Trichoderma asperellum on active oxygen production in maize seedlings under saline-alkaline stress conditions. Two maize cultivars were tested: 'Jiangyu 417' ('JY417'), which can tolerate saline-alkaline stress; and, 'Xianyu 335' ('XY335'), which is sensitive to saline-alkaline stress. The seedlings were grown on natural saline-alkaline soil (pH 9.30) in plastic pots. To each liter of saline-alkaline soil, 200 mL of T. asperellum spore suspension was applied; three fungal suspensions were used, namely, 1 × 103, 1 × 106, and 1 × 109 spores/L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654566/prospective-state-and-trait-predictors-of-daily-medication-adherence-behavior-in-hiv
#5
Paul F Cook, Sarah J Schmiege, Whitney Starr, Jane M Carrington, Lucy Bradley-Springer
BACKGROUND: Many persons living with HIV (PLWH) are nonadherent to medication. Trait level measures that ask about predictors of adherence in the abstract may not adequately capture state level daily variability that more directly impacts adherence. OBJECTIVES: This preliminary study was designed to test six predictors of electronically monitored adherence at both the state and trait levels and to compare their relative effects. METHODS: Using a smartphone, 87 PLWH completed randomly cued daily surveys on thoughts, mood, stress, coping, social support, and treatment motivation...
July 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654245/effects-of-in-utero-pfos-exposure-on-transcriptome-lipidome-and-function-of-mouse-testis
#6
Keng Po Lai, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Hin Ting Wan, Jing Woei Li, Aman Yi-Man Wong, Ting-Fung Chan, Camille Oger, Jean-Marie Galano, Thierry Durand, Kin Sum Leung, Cherry C Leung, Rong Li, Chris Kong-Chu Wong
Transcriptomic and LC-MS/MS-based targeted lipidomic analyses were conducted to identify the effects of in utero PFOS exposure on neonatal testes and its relation to testicular dysfunction in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were orally administered 0.3 and 3 µg PFOS/g body weight until term. Neonatal testes (P1) were collected for the detection of PFOS, and were subjected to omics study. Integrated pathway analyses using DAVID, KEGG and IPA underlined the effects of PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and cell junction signaling in testes...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654221/high-salt-diet-impairs-memory-related-synaptic-plasticity-via-increased-oxidative-stress-and-suppressed-synaptic-protein-expression
#7
Qian Ge, Zhengjun Wang, Yuwei Wu, Qing Huo, Zhaoqiang Qian, Zhongmin Tian, Wei Ren, Xia Zhang, Jing Han
SCOPE: A high salt (HS) diet is detrimental to cognitive function, in addition to having a role in cardiovascular disorders. However, the method by which a HS diet impairs cognitive functions such as learning and memory remains open. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we found that mice on a 7 week HS diet demonstrated disturbed short-term memory in an object-place recognition task, and both 4 week and 7 week HS treatments impaired long-term memory, as evidenced in a fear conditioning test...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654094/inflammation-and-vascular-remodeling-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-contributes-to-vulnerability-to-stress
#8
J Pearson-Leary, D Eacret, R Chen, H Takano, B Nicholas, S Bhatnagar
During exposure to chronic stress, some individuals engage in active coping behaviors that promote resiliency to stress. Other individuals engage in passive coping that is associated with vulnerability to stress and with anxiety and depression. In an effort to identify novel molecular mechanisms that underlie vulnerability or resilience to stress, we used nonbiased analyses of microRNAs in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to identify those miRNAs differentially expressed in active (long-latency (LL)/resilient) or passive (short-latency (SL)/vulnerable) rats following chronic social defeat...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654077/protocol-for-the-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-mixed-cultures-of-neurons-and-glia-for-neurotoxicity-testing
#9
Francesca Pistollato, David Canovas-Jorda, Dimitra Zagoura, Anna Price
Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into various cell types that can be applied to human-based in vitro toxicity assays. One major advantage is that the reprogramming of somatic cells to produce human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) avoids the ethical and legislative issues related to the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). HiPSCs can be expanded and efficiently differentiated into different types of neuronal and glial cells, serving as test systems for toxicity testing and, in particular, for the assessment of different pathways involved in neurotoxicity...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654010/effects-of-pup-separation-on-stress-response-in-postpartum-female-rats
#10
Manu Kalyani, Phyllis Callahan, James M Janik, Haifei Shi
There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653809/a-prenatal-diagnosis-of-mosaic-trisomy-5-reveals-a-postnatal-complete-uniparental-disomy-of-chromosome-5-with-multiple-congenital-anomalies
#11
Andrew M Reittinger, Benjamin M Helm, Debra J Boles, Inder K Gadi, Samantha A Schrier Vergano
Mosaic trisomy 5 is a very rare condition in liveborns, with few cases reported in the last four decades. There are some reports of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 5 resulting in phenotypically normal offspring, suggesting a low level of mosaicism, but there are also reports associated with multiple congenital anomalies, cardiovascular malformations, and intrauterine growth restriction. We report an infant male diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 5 (5/15 cells) via amniocentesis. The patient was subsequently found to have uniparental disomy 5 (UPD5) by postnatal chromosome microarray, but high-resolution chromosome analysis on peripheral blood did not identify trisomy 5...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653725/hybrid-polymer-microfluidic-platform-to-mimic-varying-vascular-compliance-and-topology
#12
M L Rathod, J Ahn, N L Jeon, J Lee
Several cardiovascular pathologies and aging have been associated with alterations in the mechanical and structural properties of the vascular wall, leading to a reduction in arterial compliance and the development of constriction. In the past, rare efforts have been directed to understand the endothelial cell response to combined mechanical stimuli from fluid flow and substrate rigidity. Recent approaches using microfluidic platforms have limitations in precisely mimicking healthy and diseased vasculature conditions from altered topological and substrate compliance perspectives...
June 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653665/circulating-endocannabinoids-from-whence-do-they-come-and-where-are-they-going
#13
Cecilia J Hillard
The goal of this review is to summarize studies in which concentrations of circulating endocannabinoids in humans have been examined in relationship to physiological measurements and pathological status. The roles of endocannabinoids in the regulation of energy intake and storage have been well studied and the data obtained consistently support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling is associated with increased consumption and storage of energy. Physical exercise mobilizes endocannabinoids, which could contribute to refilling of energy stores and also to the analgesic and mood-elevating effects of exercise...
June 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652887/amphiphilic-nanoparticles-suppress-droplet-break-up-in-a-concentrated-emulsion-flowing-through-a-narrow-constriction
#14
Ya Gai, Minkyu Kim, Ming Pan, Sindy K Y Tang
This paper describes the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such geometry is often used in serial droplet interrogation and sorting processes in droplet microfluidics applications. When exposed to high viscous stresses, drops can undergo break-up and compromise their physical integrity. As these drops are used as micro-reactors, such compromise leads to a loss in the accuracy of droplet-based assays...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652748/pac1-receptor-adcyap1r1-genotype-and-problematic-alcohol-use-in-a-sample-of-young-women
#15
Wojciech Łukasz Dragan, Piotr M Czerski, Małgorzata Dragan
BACKGROUND: Recent studies revealed the role of the PAC1 (ADCYAP1R1) gene variability in vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in women. Due to the relatively high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder, we hypothesized about possible associations between PAC1 gene and problematic alcohol use. METHOD: The sample studied consisted of 491 women aged 18-28 years (mean age =21.76 years; SD =1.83) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to assess drinking problems...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652388/optimization-of-thermolytic-response-to-a1-adenosine-receptor-agonists-in-rats
#16
Isaac R Bailey, Bernard Laughlin, Lucille Moore, Lori K Bogren, Zeinab Barati, Kelly L Drew
Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States and currently, therapeutic hypothermia, now called targeted temperature management (TTM), is the only recent treatment modality proven to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity for this condition. Shivering and subsequent metabolic stress, however, limits application and benefit of TTM. Stimulating CNS A1 adenosine receptors inhibits shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis in rats and induces a hibernation-like response in hibernating species...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652316/the-modified-jo-burg-technique-for-securing-intercostal-chest-drains
#17
Daniel J Ablett, L Navaratne, D Chua, C G Streets, N R M Tai
Insertion of an intercostal chest drain (ICD) is a common intervention in the management of either blunt or penetrating thoracic trauma. It is frequently performed by junior medical personnel as an emergency procedure during the initial resuscitation period and often within a stressful environment. Approximately one-fifth of all ICD insertions are associated with complications. In a retrospective review of over 1000 ICD insertions, 7% of the complications observed were due to inadequate fixation, resulting in dislodgement...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652137/subspecies-specific-response-to-acth-challenge-test-in-the-house-mouse-mus-musculus
#18
K Daniszová, O Mikula, M Macholán, I Pospíšilová, B Vošlajerová Bímová, Z Hiadlovská
Long term changes in hormonal levels of small and rare animal species can be effectively monitored by non-invasive methods such as immunoenzymatic analysis. These methods generally analyze metabolites instead of the hormone itself and thus do not invade the organism. However, they can be influenced by many factors, so before they are used, they need to be validated. For this purpose we used the "ACTH challenge" test based on stimulating the animal's adrenocortical activity and measuring the consequent increase of the level of its glucocorticoid ("stress") hormones...
June 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651995/-placement-of-tension-free-vaginal-tape-in-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-long-term-functional-outcomes-in-a-prospective-series
#19
Q Manach, M Bouquot, M Rouprêt, V Ambrogi, F Richard, M O Bitker, E Chartier-Kastler, V Phé
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term functional outcomes after retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) placement to treat female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: From September 1998 to September 2000, we prospectively enrolled all consecutive women in our center suffering SUI caused by urethral hypermobility. All women had a retropubic TVT inserted by the same surgeon. Patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and annually thereafter...
June 23, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651674/associations-among-prenatal-stress-maternal-antioxidant-intakes-in-pregnancy-and-child-temperament-at-age-30-months
#20
L R Lipton, K J Brunst, S Kannan, Y-M Ni, H B Ganguri, R J Wright, M Bosquet Enlow
Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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