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Yanhui Liao, Yi-Lang Tang, Wei Hao
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is an anesthetic commonly used in low-income countries and has recently been shown to be effective for treatment-resistant depression. However, the illicit manufacturing, trafficking, and nonmedical use of ketamine are increasing globally, and its illicit use poses major public health challenges in many countries. OBJECTIVES: To review the nonmedical use of ketamine in selected countries and its regulatory control. METHODS: We conducted a review of literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979-2016) and PubMed databases, supplemented by additional references identified by the authors...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
María Tormo Santamaría, Eva María Trescastro López, Pamela Pereyra Zamora, María Eugenia Galiana Sánchez, Josep Bernabeu-Mestre
La educación en alimentación y nutrición es una herramienta fundamental para garantizar la salud. En 1961, se puso en marcha el Programa de Educación en Alimentación y Nutrición (EDALNU), que ayudó a la población española a completar su transición alimentaria y nutricional. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las características de la red de promotores de salud que se desarrolló en el marco del programa.Recibieron formación relacionada con alimentación y nutrición 46.752 personas, el 94% de ellas mujeres...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Geneviève Van Maele-Fabry, Laurence Gamet-Payrastre, Dominique Lison
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). OBJECTIVE: (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. METHODS: Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications...
June 14, 2017: Environment International
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Andrea Poscia, Adele Anna Teleman, Davide Maged, Walter Ricciardi
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Richard E Burney
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a painful and disfiguring chronic inflammatory condition affecting both men and women. Medical treatments, such as antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents, are often ineffective. Over time, patients can suffer from recurrent abscesses, chronic purulent drainage, scarring, and contractures that can only be corrected by surgical excision. There is no agreement, however, on the best way for the surgeon to manage this condition. The purpose of this review is to describe the results of surgical treatment of this condition in a large cohort of patients managed by local excision of hidradenitis, healing by secondary intention and reoperation as needed...
June 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Jiangzhou Xia, Wenping Yuan, Ying-Ping Wang, Quanguo Zhang
Carbon allocation is one of the most important physiological processes to optimize the plant growth, which exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. However, it remains unclear how the carbon allocation pattern has changed at global scale and impacted terrestrial carbon uptake. Based on the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model, this study shows the increasing partitioning ratios to leaf and wood and reducing ratio to root globally from 1979 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pradeep M Sankaran, Pothalil A Sebastian
The genus Zoica Simon, 1898 comprises the smallest members of the family Lycosidae (Lehtinen & Hippa 1979; Framenau et al. 2009) and all the members are vagrant (Lehtinen & Hippa 1979). The genus was revised by Lehtinen & Hippa (1979) and currently has 12 described species (World Spider Catalog 2017). The species Zoica puellula (Simon, 1898) was based on an unspecified number of female specimens from Sri Lanka, and its original description (Simon 1898) is inadequate and lacks illustrations. The male and female genitalia of this species were subsequently illustrated several times (Roewer 1960; Lehtinen & Hippa 1979; Tikader & Malhotra 1980); however these illustrations are insufficient for proper identification and the internal female genitalia of this species have not been illustrated...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
Weixin Liu, Thomas Wesener, Sergei Golovatch, Mingyi Tian
Four new species of the chordeumatidan millipede genus Nepalella Shear, 1979, family Megalotylidae, are described from caves in southern China: N. troglodytes sp. nov., N. lobata sp. nov., N. jinfoshan sp. nov., and N. wangi sp. nov. Three of them (except N. lobata sp. nov.) are presumed troglobites. Additional locality records of two cave congeners, N. caeca Shear, 1999 and N. grandoides Golovatch, Geoffroy & Mauriès, 2006, are also provided. DNA-barcoding based on the COI mitochondrial gene is documented in this genus and for species of the order Chordeumatida outside Europe for the first time...
March 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Harry Smit
The following new notoaturine species from New Zealand are described in this paper: Paratryssaturus stewartensis n. sp., Planaturus pileatus n. sp., P. serratus n. sp., Taintaturus indentatus n. sp. and T. longipileatus n. sp. Paratryssaturus morimotoi (Imamura, 1979) is synonymized with P. minutus. A key is given for the genus Taintaturus Cook. Numerous new records are given, including the first for Stewart Island.
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
Martin Hauser, Norman E Woodley, Diego A Fachin
Thirteen new generic synonyms, nineteen species synonyms and forty-eight new combinations of African Stratiomyidae are proposed (senior synonym in parentheses):Arthronemina Lindner in James, 1980 syn. nov. (=Argyrobrithes Grünberg, 1915), Arthronema Lindner, 1966b syn. nov. (=Argyrobrithes Grünberg, 1915), Brachyphleps Lindner, 1965 syn. nov. (=Psapharomys Grünberg, 1915), Dinosargus Lindner, 1968 syn. nov. (=Gongrosargus Lindner, 1959), Dolichodema Kertész, 1916 syn. nov. (=Thorasena Macquart, 1838), Gobertina Bigot, 1879a syn...
May 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Hector H Garcia, Oscar H Del Brutto
Antiparasitic agents against Taenia solium cysticercosis have been in use since 1979, although its use has been questioned on the basis that cysts would die naturally and thus treatment-induced inflammation is unnecessary. In addition, isolated reports have also questioned whether neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a cause of epilepsy. After more than three and a half decades, a large body of evidence is available. Little if any doubt exists about NCC as a cause of seizures - NCC is consistently associated with seizures when appropriate groups are compared, and in a large subset of cases, seizure semiology correlates with the anatomical location of lesions...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Matthew E Rossheim, Dennis L Thombs
BACKGROUND: Producers of supersized alcopops have ignored requests from a number of state attorneys general to reduce the alcohol concentration in these products. To the contrary, new flavor options have since been released that contain even greater alcohol content so that some alcopop products now contain 5.5 standard alcoholic drinks in a single-serving can. Though alcohol content of supersized alcopops has risen, little attention has been paid to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level consumers can expect to achieve from drinking these products...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Andrea L DiCarlo, Radia Tamarat, Carmen I Rios, Marc Benderitter, Christine W Czarniecki, Theresa C Allio, Francesca Macchiarini, Bert W Maidment, Jean-Rene Jourdain
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over the possibility of a radiological or nuclear incident occurring somewhere in the world. Intelligence agencies frequently report that terrorist groups and rogue nations are seeking to obtain radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction. In addition, there exists the real possibility that safety of nuclear power reactors could be compromised by natural (such as the tsunami and subsequent Fukushima accident in Japan in March, 2011) or accidental (Three Mile Island, 1979 and Chernobyl, 1986) events...
June 12, 2017: Radiation Research
Margarita Ostrowski de Núñez
Austrodiplostomum compactum from Nannopterum brasilianus, and its metacercaria from Geophagus sp. and Oreochromis mossambicus captured (1979) at its type locality Valencia Lake, Venezuela, by the author, is redescribed. The adult is characterized by its large body size, and an oral sucker smaller than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult, and the small genital primordia occupy 4.1-7.3% of body length. Experimental infections in chickens with metacercariae of Diplostomulum mordax from brains of Odonthestes bonariensis, captured (2015) at Dique Paso de las Piedras, near Bahia Blanca City, Buenos Aires Province, resulted in 10 adults 5 days post exposure...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
Rabbab Oun, Edward Rowan
Since its approval in 1979 cisplatin has become one of the most extensively used chemotherapeutics in the clinic and although cell resistance and toxicity hinder its efficacy it continues to be a gold standard regimen. Cisplatin's side effects primarily include nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is generally not defined as a side effect of cisplatin. However, over the past decade there has been a surge in the amount of clinical cases reporting a vast array of cardio-toxic events occurring during or shortly after cisplatin infusion, these range from angina to cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jessica Looze
Although the relationship between motherhood and women's labor market exits has received a great deal of popular and empirical attention in recent years, far less is known about the relationship between motherhood and women's job changes. In this paper, I use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) (NLSY79) and Cox regression models to examine how motherhood influences the types of job changes and employment exits women make and how this varies by racial-ethnic group. I find preschool-age children are largely immobilizing for white women, as they discourage these women from making the types of voluntary job changes that are often associated with wage growth...
July 2017: Social Science Research
Ramsey Affifi
This paper describes some likely semiotic consequences of genetic engineering on what Gregory Bateson has called "the mental ecology" (1979) of future humans, consequences that are less often raised in discussions surrounding the safety of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). The effects are as follows: an increased 1) habituation to the presence of GMOs in the environment, 2) normalization of empirically false assumptions grounding genetic reductionism, 3) acceptance that humans are capable and entitled to decide what constitutes an evolutionary improvement for a species, 4) perception that the main source of creativity and problem solving in the biosphere is anthropogenic...
2017: Biosemiotics
Alex C Liber, Kenneth E Warner
Survey data find Americans' self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence dropping steadily. However, the accuracy of national surveys has been questioned, given declining response rates and increasing stigmatization of smoking. Using data from two repeated cross-sectional nationally-representative health surveys (National Survey on Drug Use and Health [NSDUH], 1979-2014, and National Health Interview Survey [NHIS], 1965-2015), we determine if self-reported cigarette consumption has changed over time as a proportion of federally taxed cigarette sales...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Nigel G J Richards, Millie M Georgiadis
Although the fundamental properties of DNA as first proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 provided a basic understanding of how duplex DNA was organized and might be replicated, it was not until the first crystal structures of DNA (Z-DNA in 1979, B-DNA in 1980, and A-DNA in 1982) that the true complexity of the molecule began to be appreciated. Many crystal structures of oligonucleotides have since shed light on the helical forms that "Watson-Crick" DNA can adopt, their associated groove widths, and the properties of the nucleobase pairs and their interactions in all three helical forms...
June 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jennifer C Gander, Xuemei Sui, James R Hébert, Carl J Lavie, Linda J Hazlett, Bo Cai, Steven N Blair
The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was developed to quantify a patient's coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Non-exercise estimated CRF (e-CRF) may provide a clinically practical method for describing cardiorespiratory fitness. We computed e-CRF and tested its association with the FRS and CHD. Male participants (n = 29,854) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) who completed a baseline examination between 1979-2002 were followed for 12 years to determine incident CHD defined by self-report of myocardial infarction, revascularization, or CHD mortality...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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