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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539644/tropospheric-warming-over-the-past-two-decades
#1
Benjamin D Santer, Susan Solomon, Frank J Wentz, Qiang Fu, Stephen Po-Chedley, Carl Mears, Jeffrey F Painter, Céline Bonfils
Satellite temperature measurements do not support the recent claim of a "leveling off of warming" over the past two decades. Tropospheric warming trends over recent 20-year periods are always significantly larger (at the 10% level or better) than model estimates of 20-year trends arising from natural internal variability. Over the full 38-year period of the satellite record, the separation between observed warming and internal variability estimates is even clearer. In two out of three recent satellite datasets, the tropospheric warming from 1979 to 2016 is unprecedented relative to internally generated temperature trends on the 38-year timescale...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535172/invited-commentary-the-framingham-offspring-study-a-pioneering-investigation-into-familial-aggregation-of-cardiovascular-risk
#2
JoAnn E Manson, Shari S Bassuk
Launched in 1948, the Framingham Heart Study was a seminal prospective cohort study of 5,209 adult residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, that was designed to uncover the determinants and natural history of coronary heart disease. Data from this original cohort established the cardiac threat posed by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, and other factors. In the late 1960s, investigators conceived the innovative idea of assembling a second cohort that comprised the adult children of the original study population (and these children's spouses)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535168/invited-commentary-evolution-of-social-networks-health-and-the-role-of-epidemiology
#3
Allison E Aiello
Almost 40 years ago, Berkman and Syme demonstrated that social networks were related to the risk of early mortality (Am J Epidemiol. 1979;109(2):186-204). Their study was highly innovative because they directly measured and quantified social networks in a large prospective population-based survey with mortality follow-up. The results of the study showed robust network gradients, whereby those with fewer networks and weaker social ties had significantly higher mortality rates. The important influence of social networks that Berkman and Syme noted many years ago is likely to heighten in the future, as demographic characteristics shift and individuals become more inclined to socialize through online platforms instead of real-world interactions...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532966/bulimia-nervosa-purging-disorder
#4
Marigold Castillo, Eric Weiselberg
Bulimia nervosa was first described in 1979 by British psychiatrist Gerald Russell as a "chronic phase of anorexia nervosa" in which patients overeat and then use compensatory mechanisms, such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or prolonged periods of starvation. The characterization of bulimia nervosa continues to evolve with the introduction of the DSM-5 in 2013. In this article, the epidemiology and risk factors of bulimia nervosa are identified and reviewed, along with the medical complications and psychiatric comorbidities...
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531889/gender-specific-differences-in-peritoneal-dialysis
#5
Daniel Kitterer, Stephan Segerer, Niko Braun, M Dominik Alscher, Joerg Latus
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gender-specific differences between patients on renal replacement therapy have so far rarely been investigated. In the present study we aimed to describe gender-specific differences in a large cohort of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: Clinical information for all patients who started PD at our center has been collected since the start of the PD-program in 1979. We used Cox regression to examine associations between technique failure and gender...
May 25, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531825/oral-health-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-a-cohort-of-periodontitis-patients
#6
Anders Holmlund, Erik Lampa, Lars Lind
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine whether oral health is uniformly associated with three different cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF), which has not been studied previously. METHODS: A full mouth investigation was performed in 8999 individuals referred to a specialized periodontology clinic between 1979 and 2012. The number of deepened pockets (NDP), number of teeth (NT), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were investigated...
May 11, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520817/heat-in-the-southeastern-united-states-characteristics-trends-and-potential-health-impact
#7
Jeremy E Diem, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg
High summer temperatures in extratropical areas have an impact on the public's health, mainly through heat stress, high air pollution concentrations, and the transmission of tropical diseases. The purpose of this study is to examine the current characteristics of heat events and future projections of summer apparent temperature (AT)-and associated health concerns-throughout the southeastern United States. Synoptic climatology was used to assess the atmospheric characteristics of extreme heat days (EHDs) from 1979-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520705/disparities-in-diabetes-deaths-among-children-and-adolescents-united-states-2000-2014
#8
Sharon Saydah, Giuseppina Imperatore, Yiling Cheng, Linda S Geiss, Ann Albright
Diabetes is a common chronic disease of childhood affecting approximately 200,000 children and adolescents in the United States (1). Children and adolescents with diabetes are at increased risk for death from acute complications of diabetes, including hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (2,3); in 2012, CDC reported that during 1968-2009, diabetes mortality among U.S. persons aged ≤19 years declined by 61% (4). CDC observed disparities by race during 1979-2004, with black children and adolescents dying from diabetes at twice the rate of white children and adolescents (5)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506498/sweet-spot-matching-a-thin-layer-chromatography-based-countercurrent-solvent-system-selection-strategy
#9
Yang Liu, J Brent Friesen, Edyta M Grzelak, Qingfei Fan, Ting Tang, Kemal Durić, Birgit U Jaki, James B McAlpine, Scott G Franzblau, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli
TLC-based strategies were proposed in 1979 (Hostettmann et al.) and 2005 (Friesen & Pauli; GUESS method) to minimize the number of partitioning experiments required for countercurrent separation (CCS) solvent system selection. As semi-empirical approaches, both proposed that the K values defining the sweet spot of optimal CCS corresponded to a matching Rf value range from the silica gel TLC plate developed in the organic phase of a biphasic or a corresponding monophasic solvent system. Despite their simplicity, there has been an absence of theoretical support and a deficiency of reported experimental evidence...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501378/incremental-revisions-across-the-life-span-of-ophthalmic-devices-after-initial-food-and-drug-administration-premarket-approval-1979-2015
#10
Anand D Gopal, Vinay K Rathi, Christopher C Teng, Lucian Del Priore, Joseph S Ross
PURPOSE: To characterize the frequency, nature, and regulatory mechanisms by which ophthalmic devices are iteratively modified after initial Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Premarket Approval (PMA). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis using publicly available FDA data. PARTICIPANTS: Ophthalmic devices initially approved via the FDA's PMA pathway between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2015. METHODS: We used the FDA's PMA Database to identify and characterize initial approvals and subsequent postmarket modifications to Class III ophthalmic devices...
April 27, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501016/role-of-climate-anomalies-on-decadal-variation-in-the-occurrence-of-wintertime-haze-in-the-yangtze-river-delta-china
#11
Jianming Xu, Luyu Chang, Fengxia Yan, JinHai He
The wintertime haze day (HD) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China shows a significant upward trend during the past decades due to the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Besides the enhanced anthropogenic emission, climate change also plays the important role in the long term HD variations. In this study, the significant decadal variation of wintertime HD during the period 1960-2012 in YRD is examined by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, featured as less HD occurrence before 1980 and more occurrence after 2000...
May 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#12
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499099/evidence-for-sex-convergence-in-prevalence-of-cannabis-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#13
Cath Chapman, Tim Slade, Wendy Swift, Katherine Keyes, Zoe Tonks, Maree Teesson
OBJECTIVE: Generally, cannabis use has been more prevalent in men than in women. However, emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence of cannabis use is converging among males and females from recent cohorts. This study aimed to systematically summarize published literature on birth cohort changes in male-to-female ratios in prevalence of cannabis use. METHOD: Twenty-two studies with a median sample size of 85,052 were identified for inclusion. Data were collected between 1979 and 2010, representing birth cohorts from 1936 to 1999...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496399/the-effect-of-wealth-shocks-on-loss-aversion-behavior-and-neural-correlates
#14
V S Chandrasekhar Pammi, Sergio Ruiz, Sangkyun Lee, Charles N Noussair, Ranganatha Sitaram
Kahneman and Tversky (1979) first demonstrated that when individuals decide whether or not to accept a gamble, potential losses receive more weight than possible gains in the decision. This phenomenon is referred to as loss aversion. We investigated how loss aversion in risky financial decisions is influenced by sudden changes to wealth, employing both behavioral and neurobiological measures. We implemented an fMRI experimental paradigm, based on that employed by Tom et al. (2007). There are two treatments, called RANDOM and CONTINGENT...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489687/consistently-high-level-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Haruki Momma, Susumu S Sawada, I-Min Lee, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Shin Terada, Motohiko Miyachi, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Cong Huang, Ryoichi Nagatomi, Steven N Blair
PURPOSE: Although the benefit of high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is widely accepted, whether consistently high CRF is necessary or transiently high CRF is sufficient is unclear. The present study was conducted to examine the hypothesis that consistently high level of CRF is more beneficial than transiently high CRF for the prevention of T2DM. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in nondiabetic 7158 males aged 20 to 60, enrolled from 1986 to 1987...
May 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480422/bioactive-components-of-gynura-divaricata-and-its-potential-use-in-health-food-and-medicine-a-mini-review
#16
Bing-Qing Xu, Yu-Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in medicine and functional food. It is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is usually used to cure bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, kink cough, rheumatism, diabetes, and so on. It has a long history for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the folk medicine. This review is aimed at gathering all information relating to G...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475250/iv-developments-in-the-analysis-of-longitudinal-data
#17
Kevin J Grimm, Pega Davoudzadeh, Nilam Ram
Longitudinal data analytic techniques include a complex array of statistical techniques from repeated-measures analysis of variance, mixed-effects models, and time-series analysis, to longitudinal latent variable models (e.g., growth models, dynamic factor models) and mixture models (longitudinal latent profile analysis, growth mixture models). In this article, we focus our attention on the rationales of longitudinal research laid out by Baltes and Nesselroade (1979) and discuss the advancements in the analysis of longitudinal data since their landmark paper...
June 2017: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474185/occurrence-and-distribution-of-yellow-grub-trematodes-clinostomum-complanatum-infection-in-taiwan
#18
Mao-Lin Wang, Hui-Yu Chen, Hsiu-Hui Shih
Digenetic trematodes of the genus Clinostomum are widely distributed in many species of freshwater fish and are known to cause the zoonotic disease Halzoun. Humans may become accidental hosts if they ingest raw freshwater fish containing metacercaria of Clinostomum complanatum, which causes pharyngitis or laryngitis. The yellow grub parasitizing cultivated ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was one of the most serious problems in fish farms from 1977 to 1979 in Taiwan. The present study revealed, for the first time, frequent occurrence of C...
May 4, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473741/fine-particulate-matter-and-total-mortality-in-cancer-prevention-study-cohort-reanalysis
#19
James E Enstrom
BACKGROUND: In 1997 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), largely because of its positive relationship to total mortality in the 1982 American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS II) cohort. Subsequently, EPA has used this relationship as the primary justification for many costly regulations, most recently the Clean Power Plan. An independent analysis of the CPS II data was conducted in order to test the validity of this relationship...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473731/a-disability-act-the-vaccine-damage-payments-act-1979-and-the-british-government-s-response-to-the-pertussis-vaccine-scare
#20
Gareth Millward
The Vaccine Damage Payments Act 1979 provided a lump-sum social security benefit to children who had become severely disabled as a result of vaccination. It came in the wake of a scare over the safety of the whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine. Yet very little has been written about it. Existing literature focuses more on the public health and medical aspects of both the Act and the scare. This article uses material from the archives of disability organisations and official documents to show that this Act should be seen as part of the history of post-war British disability policy...
May 2017: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
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