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Camillia K Lui, Nina Mulia
Aims: Alcohol problems are most prevalent in young adulthood and decrease thereafter, but some studies find that racial/ethnic minorities have elevated alcohol risk beyond the 20s. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in the transitions into and out of alcohol problems, and whether these are explained by heavy drinking (HD), socioeconomic disadvantages and adult role transitions from the 20s to 30s. Short summary: Racial/ethnic groups had similar risks for earlier onset and recurrence/persistence of alcohol problems, but Blacks were at significantly greater risk than Whites for later onset in the 30s...
March 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ye Sel Kim, In Sung Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Dasom Kim, Nam Joon Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether there was any secular change in cranial vault morphology among Koreans born between the 1930s and 1970s, a period of dramatic shift in Korea's socioeconomic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using three-dimensional MRI volumetry, we obtained the intracranial volume (ICV) and craniometric measurements of 115 healthy Koreans: 58 individuals (32 males and 26 females) born in the 1930s (1926-1936) and 57 (28 males and 29 females) born in the 1970s (1972-1979)...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Lawrence R Lustig
: The American Otological Society (AOS) has been on the forefront of advancing the science of auditory and vestibular physiology, and art of ear medicine since its founding in 1868. For 150 years, through its publications, the AOS has provided a critical forum to debate these advances, highlighting treatment successes and failures, and served a place to celebrate its history. This historical review provides an overview of the publications of the AOS since its founding: the Transactions of the annual meeting from 1868 through 2006, Treatises on Otosclerosis (1928-1935), the History of the Society from the 100 and 125th anniversary, and the sponsored Society journals-American Journal of Otology (1879-1883, 1979-2000) and Otology & Neurotology (2001-present)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Mohammad H Derakhshan, Himanshu Pathak, Debbie Cook, Sally Dickinson, Stefan Siebert, Karl Gaffney
Objectives: There have been significant advances in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), with implications for service delivery. We evaluated the state of axSpA rheumatology services and how people with axSpA perceive their care. Methods: An online patient survey was emailed to all members of the National Ankylosing Spondylitis Society and advertised widely via social media. Separately, a Web-based questionnaire about axSpA services was sent to rheumatologists at all 172 acute hospital trusts in the UK...
February 23, 2018: Rheumatology
Robert Y Shih, Kelly K Koeller
Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are highly malignant undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors of neuroepithelial origin and have been defined as a category in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification since the first edition of the "Blue Book" in 1979. This category has evolved over time to reflect our ever-improving understanding of tumor biology and behavior. With the most recent update in 2016, many previous histologic diagnoses incorporate molecular parameters for the first time (genetically defined entities)...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Phillip S Naimo, Tyson A Fricke, Yves d'Udekem, Johann Brink, Robert G Weintraub, Christian P Brizard, Igor E Konstantinov
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative moderate or greater truncal valve (TV) insufficiency is one of the most important factors influencing mortality in children with truncus arteriosus. We therefore sought to determine the impact of TV insufficiency and concomitant TV surgery on children who underwent truncus arteriosus repair at a single institution. METHODS: We reviewed 180 patients who underwent truncus arteriosus repair between 1979 and 2016. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated TV insufficiency in 80 patients (mild: 33...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
D R Purohit, Ankit Awasthi, G D Koolwal, Sanjay Gehlot, Surender Kumar
Since 1979, consistent and untiring efforts of Dr. D.R. Purohit, Dr. Mahaveer Chand Jain and Dr. G. D. Koolwal against the odds have brought remarkable changes in the Psychiatric centre, Jodhpur.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Xiaoyu Guo, Chenghong Feng
As a typical test species, Asian Clam (Corbicula fluminea) is widely used in the identification and evaluation of freshwater toxicity. This study provides a summary of the research published from 1979 to 2018. The focus was on the bioaccumulation, morphological and behavioral changes, and biochemical index alterations of Corbicula fluminea to target pollutants (i.e., ammonia, metal(loid)s, and organic chemicals) in surface water and sediment. The applications on the evaluation of actual aquatic pollution, determination of toxicological mechanisms, prediction of toxicity, and bioremediation are also specifically discussed...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nicole Guertzgen, Karsten Hank
Exploiting unique German administrative data, we estimate the association between an expansion in maternity leave duration from two to six months in 1979 and mothers' postbirth long-term sickness absence over a period of three decades after childbirth. Adopting a difference-in-difference approach, we first assess the reform's labor market effects and, subsequently, prebirth and postbirth maternal long-term sickness absence, accounting for the potential role of the reform in mothers' selection into employment...
March 8, 2018: Demography
Christina Wraw, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Catharine R Gale
OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth. METHOD: Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLSY-79 (n = 4932). Offspring's IQ was measured with the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT). Mothers' IQ was measured with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, David M Goldfarb, Peter Schlattmann, Luregn J Schlapbach, Konrad Reinhart, Niranjan Kissoon
The incidence of sepsis is highest in neonates and children, yet the global burden of sepsis in these age groups has not been assessed. We reviewed available evidence from observational epidemiological studies to estimate the global burden and mortality of sepsis in neonates and children. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting population-based sepsis incidence in neonates and children, published between 1979 and 2016. Our search yielded 1270 studies, 23 of which met the inclusion criteria; 16 were from high-income countries and seven from middle-income countries...
March 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Christoph Seidel, Gedske Daugaard, Alexey Tryakin, Andrea Necchi, Gabriella Cohn Cedermark, Olof Ståhl, Marcus Hentrich, Margarida Brito, Costantine Albany, Fadi Taza, Arthur Gerl, Karin Oechsle, Carsten Bokemeyer
BACKGROUND: For metastatic germ cell tumour patients with intermediate prognosis (IPGCT) according to the IGCCCG classification 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 79% were described, but recent data suggest significant changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To compare the outcome of current IPGCT with former patients and to find new prognosticators a retrospective observational study was performed. Eligibility criteria were: age ≥16 years, diagnosed between 1979 and 2014...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Benedikt Grothe
In a series of seminal behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, Knudsen and Konishi studied the mechanisms of hearing. Their 1979 article showed how the barn owl utilizes unique anatomical features for creating a systematic internal representation of auditory space. This established the barn owl as a prime model for studying sensory systems.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Alissa C Deming, Kathleen M Colegrove, Padraig J Duignan, Ailsa J Hall, James F X Wellehan, Frances M D Gulland
Urogenital carcinoma is common in wild California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) along the west coast of the US. From 1979 to 1994, this cancer was observed in 18% (66/370) of necropsied subadult and adult sea lions at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California. A retrospective review of records from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 was performed to characterize prevalence and characteristics of cancer over this decade. Fourteen percent (263/1917) of necropsied sea lions had cancer, of which 90% (237/263) were urogenital carcinoma...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lidong Cao, Hong Zhang, Hongjun Zhang, Li Yang, Miaomiao Wu, Puguo Zhou, Qiliang Huang
The discovery of brassinolide in 1979, a milestone in brassinosteroids research, has sparked great interest of brassinolide analogs (BLs) in agricultural applications. Among these BLs, propionylbrassinolide has captured considerable attention because it shows plant growth regulating activity with an excellent durability. Two impurities of propionylbrassinolide were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the chemical structures were confirmed. For simultaneous separation and determination of propionylbrassinolide and impurities, an efficient analytical method based on HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Patrick Welsch, Nurcan Üçeyler, Petra Klose, Brian Walitt, Winfried Häuser
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a clinically defined chronic condition of unknown etiology characterized by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Drug therapy, for example, with serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), focuses on reducing key symptoms and improving quality of life. This review updates and extends the 2013 version of this systematic review...
February 28, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
H Robert Outten, Timothy Lee, Rui Costa-Lopes, Michael T Schmitt, Jorge Vala
Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the "majority" group), or fake projections for 2060-that resembled current figures (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Stephen R Lankton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Chenjing Fan, Pål Graff, Per Vihlborg, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Lena Andersson
INTRODUCTION: Work-related exposure to silica is a global health hazard that causes diseases such as silicosis. Some studies have also reported that silica exposure is linked to elevated cardiovascular disease mortality. However, these diagnoses have not been investigated in detail and there have been few studies on morbidity. The aim of this study is to examine morbidity and mortality from different cardiovascular diseases among silica-exposed Swedish foundry workers. METHODS: Historical and contemporary measurements (1968-2006) of respiratory silica exposure were matched to job categories, individual foundries, and 4 time periods (1968-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2006) using a mixed model...
2018: PloS One
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