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Seema Patel
Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
E Gregoraszczuk, M Slupecka, J Wolinski, A Hejmej, B Bilinska, E Fiedor, N Piwnicka, A Rak
This study investigated the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on plasma adiponectin and steroid hormones levels, and the protein expression of adiponectin and its receptors, in the gonads and gonadal (periovarian and epididymal) white adipose tissue (WAT) of dams and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a HF diet (30% fat) or a standard breeding (BD) diet (5% fat) during pregnancy and lactation. At 21 days of lactation, mothers and both sexes of prepubertal offspring were killed by decapitation. Plasma adiponectin, testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E2) levels were analyzed by ELISA...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Richard S Legro, Allen R Kunselman, Christy M Stetter, Carol L Gnatuk, Stephanie J Estes, Eleanor Brindle, Hubert W Vesper, Julianne C Botelho, Peter A Lee, William C Dodson
CONTEXT: Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are thought to be at increased risk for developing stigmata of the syndrome, but the ontogeny during puberty is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To phenotype daughters (N = 76) of mothers with PCOS and daughters (N = 80) from control mothers for reproductive and metabolic parameters characteristic of PCOS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Matched Case/Control Study, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Non-Hispanic, Caucasian girls age 4-17 INTERVENTION: Obtain birth history, biometric, ovarian ultrasounds, whole body DXA scan for body composition, 2 hour glucose challenged salivary insulin levels and two timed urinary collections (12 hours overnight and 3 hours AM) for gonadotropins and sex steroids...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xiao Yang, Man-Man Xu, Jun Wang, Jun-Xia Xie
Estrogen is a steroid hormone produced mainly by the ovaries. It combines with the nuclear receptors to exert the biological effects influencing the metabolism of body. Elevated levels of estrogen are often associated with altered iron levels in mammals. Furthermore, the findings of estrogen response element (ERE) have demonstrated that estrogen affects iron metabolism directly in peripheral tissues. In this review, we will briefly summarize the effect of estrogen on iron metabolism in mammals, and discuss recent progress in the mechanisms of estrogen on some iron related proteins in order to provide guidance for clinical use of estrogen...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Laura T Pelegrina, Antonella Rr Cáceres, Fernando A Giuliani, Joana A Asensio, Fernanda Parborell, Myriam Raquel Laconi
Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, is one of the best characterized neurosteroids. In a dose that mimics serum levels during stress, allopregnanolone inhibits sexual receptivity and ovulation and induces a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of allopregnanolone on ovarian morphophysiology, serum and tissue levels of progesterone and estrogen, and enzymatic activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3α-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase in the ovary and in the medial basal hypothalamus on the morning of estrus...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Jaya Uppal, Stanislaw Sobotka, Arthur L Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Multiple causes outside the spine can mimic spinal back pain. Endometriosis is an important gynecological disorder, which commonly affects the lower region of the female pelvis and less frequently the spine and soft tissues. The lumbosacral trunk is vulnerable to pressure from any abdominal mass originating from the uterus and the ovaries. Therefore symptoms of endometriosis include severe reoccurring pain in the pelvic area as well as lower back and abdominal pain. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report on a 39 year old gymnast with cyclic sciatica and back pain, whose initial presentation initially led to a spinal fusion at L4/5 and L5/S1, but that procedure did not change her symptoms...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Chunjin Li, Lu Chen, Yun Zhao, Shuxiong Chen, Lulu Fu, Yanwen Jiang, Shan Gao, Zhuo Liu, Fengge Wang, Xiaoling Zhu, Jiahui Rao, Jing Zhang, Xu Zhou
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control...
October 21, 2016: Gene
Eun-Jung Park, Uiseok Jeong, Younghun Kim, Byoung-Seok Lee, Myung-Haing Cho, You-Seok Go
With the extensive application of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs), attention about their potential risks to human health is also rapidly raising, particularly in sensitive subgroups such as pregnant women and babies. In this study, we a single instilled intratracheally FeNPs (1, 2, and 4mg/kg) to the male and female parent mice, mated, then assessed reproductive toxicity according to the modified OECD TG 421. During the pre-mating period (14 days), two female parent mice died at 4mg/kg dose, and the body weight gain dose-dependently decreased in male and female parent mice exposed to FeNPs...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Research
Iva Petkovska, Eugene Duke, Diego R Martin, Zeenia Irani, Christopher P Geffre, Janiel M Cragun, James R Costello, Hina Arif-Tiwari, Ferenc Czeyda-Pommersheim, Unni Udayasankar, Bobby Kalb
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to test for: (a) correlation between the presence of a perifollicular T2-hypointense rim on MRI with the presence of perifollicular hemorrhage on histology; and (b) correlation between this finding and diminished ovarian viability after intra-operative detorsion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Our IRB-approved, retrospective study evaluated 780 patients between August 2012 and February 2016 with ovarian torsion as a diagnostic consideration on the emergency department note...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Zainab M Abdul-Rahman, Peter K Panegyres, Margareta Roeck, David Hawkins, Jude Bharath, Paul Grolman, Cliffe Neppe, David Palmer
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently discovered disease entity of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. It largely affects young women and is often associated with an ovarian teratoma. It is a serious yet treatable condition if diagnosed early. Its remedy involves immunotherapy and surgical removal of the teratoma of the ovaries. This case of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis involves an early surgical intervention with bilateral oophorectomy, despite negative imaging evidence of a teratoma...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
(no author information available yet)
Adnexal masses (ie, masses of the ovary, fallopian tube, or surrounding tissues) commonly are encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists and often present diagnostic and management dilemmas. Most adnexal masses are detected incidentally on physical examination or at the time of pelvic imaging. Less commonly, a mass may present with symptoms of acute or intermittent pain. Management decisions often are influenced by the age and family history of the patient. Although most adnexal masses are benign, the main goal of the diagnostic evaluation is to exclude malignancy...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Adnexal masses (ie, masses of the ovary, fallopian tube, or surrounding tissues) commonly are encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists and often present diagnostic and management dilemmas. Most adnexal masses are detected incidentally on physical examination or at the time of pelvic imaging. Less commonly, a mass may present with symptoms of acute or intermittent pain. Management decisions often are influenced by the age and family history of the patient. Although most adnexal masses are benign, the main goal of the diagnostic evaluation is to exclude malignancy...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fan-Ching Chien, Yang-Hong Dai, Chiung Wen Kuo, Peilin Chen
Flexible polymer nanopillar substrates were used to systematically demonstrate cell alignment and migration guided by the directional formation of focal adhesions. The polymer nanopillar substrates were constructed to various height specifications to provide an extensive variation of flexibility; a rectangular arrangement created spatial confinement between adjacent nanopillars, providing less spacing in the horizontal and vertical directions. Three polymer nanopillar substrates with the diameter of 400 nm and the heights of 400, 800, and 1200 nm were fabricated...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Siliang Xu, Ping Duan, Jinping Li, Tristan Senkowski, Fengbiao Guo, Haibin Chen, Alberto Romero, Yugui Cui, Jiayin Liu, Shi-Wen Jiang
SET (SE Translocation) protein carries out multiple functions including those for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition, histone modification, DNA repair, and gene regulation. SET overexpression has been detected in brain neurons of patients suffering Alzheimer's disease, follicle theca cells of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients, and ovarian cancer cells, indicating that SET may play a pathological role for these disorders. SET transcript 2, produced by a specific promoter, represents a major transcript variant in different cell types...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sasha Kay, Daniel Skowronski, Brendan G Hunt
DNA methylation is accomplished in animals by two classes of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3 and DNMT1, which perform de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, respectively. Several studies of hymenopteran eusocial insects suggest that DNA methylation is capable of influencing developmental plasticity. However, fundamental questions remain about the patterning of DNA methylation during the course of insect development. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on transcripts from the single-copy orthologs of DNMT1 and DNMT3 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta...
October 24, 2016: Insect Science
M E Cielesh, B M McGrath, C J Scott, S T Norman, C P Stephen
Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide involved in the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction in many species. Recent studies have revealed kisspeptin within the ovaries of rats, Siberian hamsters and humans, indicating a local role in reproduction. However, the role of kisspeptin in the ovary is poorly understood in the bitch. This study investigated the presence and location of kisspeptin protein (KISS1) and kisspeptin receptors (KISS1R) in the canine ovary during different stages of the reproductive cycle (pre-pubertal, anoestrus and cycling) by means of immunohistochemical staining...
October 23, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Wen-Jing Shi, Pui-Chi Lo, Shirui Zhao, Roy C H Wong, Qiong Wang, Wing-Ping Fong, Dennis K P Ng
An efficient ferrocenyl BODIPY based dark quencher has been developed and employed to construct a FRET-based fluorescent probe that contains a biotin moiety as a potential directing ligand for cancer cells and a glutathione-cleavable disulfide linker connecting the quencher and a distyryl BODIPY fluorophore. This molecular probe is deactivated in the native form through FRET followed by intramolecular charge transfer due to the ferrocenyl unit. However, upon interaction with glutathione in phosphate buffered saline and inside cancer cells, the fluorescence emission is significantly increased due to detachment of the fluorophore from the quencher...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Guanglin Bian, Nicholas D Leigh, Wei Du, Lei Zhang, Li Li, Xuefang Cao
Immune cell-derived cytotoxic pathways have been implicated in antitumor immune responses. The goal of this study is to characterize how these cytotoxic pathways influence ovarian cancer development. We have utilized the TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mouse model which expresses the transforming SV40 TAg in the ovary, leading to spontaneous development of ovarian tumors that closely mimic human epithelial ovarian cancer. To test how perforin (Prf1), granzyme B (GzmB) and interferon-gamma (IFNg) impact tumor occurrence and progression, we bred the TgMISIIR-TAg transgene into Prf1(-/-), GzmB(-/-), and IFNgR1(-/-) mice...
2016: J Immunol Res Ther
Sharada Mahalingam, Liying Gao, Jacqueline Eisner, William Helferich, Jodi A Flaws
Isoliquiritigenin is a botanical estrogen used as a dietary supplement. Previous studies show that other botanical estrogens affect ovarian estradiol synthesis, but isoliquiritigenin's effects on the ovary are unknown. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that isoliquiritigenin inhibits ovarian antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis. Antral follicles from CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or isoliquiritigenin (0.6μM, 6 μM, 36 μM, and 100 μM) for 48-96hours. During culture, follicle diameters were measured daily to assess follicle growth...
October 20, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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