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Athletic performance, gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910325/can-genetics-predict-sports-injury-the-association-of-the-genes-gdf5-ampd1-col5a1-and-igf2-on-soccer-player-injury-occurrence
#1
Kiah McCabe, Christopher Collins
Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players, including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players, were genetically tested...
March 5, 2018: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781940/alpha-actinin-3-r577x-polymorphism-influences-muscle-damage-and-hormonal-responses-after-a-soccer-game
#2
Daniel B Coelho, Eduardo M Pimenta, Izinara C Rosse, Christiano Veneroso, Guilherme De Azambuja Pussieldi, Lenice K Becker, Emerson C Oliveira, Maria R S Carvalho, Emerson Silami-Garcia
Coelho, DB, Pimenta, EM, Rosse, IC, Veneroso, C, Pussieldi, GDA, Becker, LK, De Oliveira, EC, Carvalho, MRS, and Silami-Garcia, E. Alpha-actinin-3 R577X polymorphism influences muscle damage and hormonal responses after a soccer game. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate indicators of muscle damage and hormonal responses after soccer matches and its relation to alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene expression (XX vs. RR/RX), considering that the R allele produces alpha-actinin-3 and provides greater muscle strength and power...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775483/ldha-gene-is-associated-with-pigeon-survivability-during-racing-competitions
#3
Sherif Ramadan, Takeshi Miyake, Junichi Yamaura, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Pigeon racing is a popular sport worldwide. Pigeons are under continuous selection to improve speed, spatial orientation, and endurance during long flights. However, numerous genetic and non-genetic factors affect survivability and homing ability, making such traits difficult for breeders to control. Polymorphisms in the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) likely affects pigeon racing and homing abilities, due to its role in physical and mental performance. Additionally, the adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 gene (ADCYAP1) has been associated with physiological and behavioral shifts that occur during avian migration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729690/prevalence-of-alpha-actinin-3-gene-actn3-r577x-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-insertion-deletion-gene-polymorphisms-in-national-and-amateur-turkish-athletes
#4
Onur Eroğlu, Rayif Zileli, M Ali Nalbant, Korkut Ulucan
Studies to date showed the importance of alpha- actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ID polymorphisms on determining athletic performance. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine polymorphisms given to Turkish athletes and compare them with sedentary individuals. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood by using commercially available DNA isolation kit (Macherey-Nagel, NucleoSpin®, Germany). For this study, a total of 84 volunteers (23 national athletes, 27 amateur athletes and 34 sedentary controls) was recruited...
April 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706347/the-effect-of-actn3-gene-doping-on-skeletal-muscle-performance
#5
Fleur C Garton, Peter J Houweling, Damjan Vukcevic, Lyra R Meehan, Fiona X Z Lee, Monkol Lek, Kelly N Roeszler, Marshall W Hogarth, Chrystal F Tiong, Diana Zannino, Nan Yang, Stephen Leslie, Paul Gregorevic, Stewart I Head, Jane T Seto, Kathryn N North
Loss of expression of ACTN3, due to homozygosity of the common null polymorphism (p.Arg577X), is underrepresented in elite sprint/power athletes and has been associated with reduced muscle mass and strength in humans and mice. To investigate ACTN3 gene dosage in performance and whether expression could enhance muscle force, we performed meta-analysis and expression studies. Our general meta-analysis using a Bayesian random effects model in elite sprint/power athlete cohorts demonstrated a consistent homozygous-group effect across studies (per allele OR = 1...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696446/photobiomodulation-effects-on-mrna-levels-from-genomic-and-chromosome-stabilization-genes-in-injured-muscle
#6
Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano, Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Adilson Fonseca Teixeira, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Muscle injuries are the most prevalent type of injury in sports. A great number of athletes have relapsed in muscle injuries not being treated properly. Photobiomodulation therapy is an inexpensive and safe technique with many benefits in muscle injury treatment. However, little has been explored about the infrared laser effects on DNA and telomeres in muscle injuries. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate photobiomodulation effects on mRNA relative levels from genes related to telomere and genomic stabilization in injured muscle...
April 26, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686814/an-innovative-way-to-highlight-the-power-of-each-polymorphism-on-elite-athletes-phenotype-expression
#7
Valentina Contrò, Gabriella Schiera, Antonino Abbruzzo, Antonino Bianco, Alessandra Amato, Alessia Sacco, Alessandra Macchiarella, Antonio Palma, Patrizia Proia
The purpose of this study was to determine the probability of soccer players having the best genetic background that could increase performance, evaluating the polymorphism that are considered Performance Enhancing Polymorphism (PEPs) distributed on five genes: PPARα, PPARGC1A, NRF2, ACE e CKMM. Particularly, we investigated how each polymorphism works directly or through another polymorphism to distinguish elite athletes from non-athletic population. Sixty professional soccer players (age 22.5 ± 2.2) and sixty healthy volunteers (age 21...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547891/signatures-of-selection-on-standing-genetic-variation-underlie-athletic-and-navigational-performance-in-racing-pigeons
#8
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543920/the-relationship-between-ca-repeat-polymorphism-of-the-igf-1-gene-and-the-structure-of-motor-skills-in-young-athletes
#9
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2007-2009...
2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534260/two-genetic-variants-associated-with-plantar-fascial-disorders
#10
Stuart K Kim, John P A Ioannidis, Marwa A Ahmed, Andrew L Avins, John P Kleimeyer, Michael Fredericson, Jason L Dragoo
Plantar fascial disorder is comprised of plantar fasciitis and plantar fibromatosis. Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain, especially for athletes involved in running and jumping sports. Plantar fibromatosis is a rare fibrous hyperproliferation of the deep connective tissue of the foot. To identify genetic loci associated with plantar fascial disorders, a genome-wide association screen was performed using publically available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health including 21,624 cases of plantar fascial disorders and 80,879 controls...
April 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509641/caffeine-cyp1a2-genotype-and-endurance-performance-in-athletes
#11
Nanci Guest, Paul Corey, Jason Vescovi, Ahmed El-Sohemy
PURPOSE: Many studies have examined the effect of caffeine on exercise performance, but findings have not always been consistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. METHODS: Competitive male athletes (n=101; age: 25 ± 4 years) completed the time trial under three conditions: 0, 2 or 4 mg of caffeine per kg body mass, using a split-plot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472734/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-of-ckm-gene-rs8111989-polymorphism-with-sport-performance
#12
Chunyang Chen, Yan Sun, Hao Liang, Dan Yu, Songnian Hu
The muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) A/G variants (rs8111989) have been associated with skeletal muscle performance in humans; they are correlated with physical performance and contribute to differences in the maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) responses during power or endurance training. However, there is not enough definitive evidence to demonstrate whether the A and G allelic variants of the CKM gene rs8111989 are indeed genetic factors that can influence human physical performance. In our study, we identified 9 articles on CKM in a literature search, and conducted two meta-analyses on the CKM rs8111989 A/G allele or genotype differences between power or endurance athletes and general controls...
December 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461967/effects-of-lifelong-training-on-senescence-and-mobilization-of-t-lymphocytes-in-response-to-acute-exercise
#13
Luciele G Minuzzi, Luís Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, João Valente Dos Santos, Richard Simpson, António Martinho, Artur Paiva, Ana M Teixeira
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ageing has profound impact on the immune system, mainly on T-cells. However, it has been suggested that chronic exercise may delay immunosenescence. Master athletes represent an interesting sub-demographic group to test this theory since they maintain a high training frequency and load throughout life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lifelong training on the senescence and mobilization of T lymphocytes in response to acute exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen athletes who regularly participated in training and competitions for more than 20 years throughout their lives and a control group of 10 healthy individuals participated in this study...
2018: Exercise Immunology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401200/actn3-genotype-in-professional-sport-climbers
#14
Michał Ginszt, Małgorzata Michalak-Wojnowska, Piotr Gawda, Magdalena Wojcierowska-Litwin, Iwona Korszeń-Pilecka, Małgorzata Kusztelak, Rafał Muda, Agata A Filip, Piotr Majcher
Ginszt, M, Michalak-Wojnowska, M, Gawda, P, Wojcierowska-Litwin, M, Korszeń-Pilecka, I, Kusztelak, M, Muda, R, Filip, AA, and Majcher, P. ACTN3 genotype in professional sport climbers. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1311-1315, 2018-The functional RR genotype of the alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) gene has been reported to be associated with elite sprint/power athlete status. Although large and rapidly increasing number of studies have investigated the associations between the ACTN3 genotypes and athletic performance in various sport disciplines, there is a lack of studies on the genetic predisposition in sport climbing, which was selected to be part of the next Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo 2020 with three subdisciplines ("lead climbing," "speed climbing," and "bouldering")...
May 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228018/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-locus-associated-with-rotator-cuff-injury
#15
Thomas R Roos, Andrew K Roos, Andrew L Avins, Marwa A Ahmed, John P Kleimeyer, Michael Fredericson, John P A Ioannidis, Jason L Dragoo, Stuart K Kim
Rotator cuff tears are common, especially in the fifth and sixth decades of life, but can also occur in the competitive athlete. Genetic differences may contribute to overall injury risk. Identifying genetic loci associated with rotator cuff injury could shed light on the etiology of this injury. We performed a genome-wide association screen using publically available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health including 8,357 cases of rotator cuff injury and 94,622 controls. We found rs71404070 to show a genome-wide significant association with rotator cuff injury with p = 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#16
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143595/why-nature-prevails-over-nurture-in-the-making-of-the-elite-athlete
#17
Evelina Georgiades, Vassilis Klissouras, Jamie Baulch, Guan Wang, Yannis Pitsiladis
While the influence of nature (genes) and nurture (environment) on elite sporting performance remains difficult to precisely determine, the dismissal of either as a contributing factor to performance is unwarranted. It is accepted that a complex interaction of a combination of innumerable factors may mold a talented athlete into a champion. The prevailing view today is that understanding elite human performance will require the deciphering of two major sources of individual differences, genes and the environment...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131365/gut-microbiota-and-body-composition-in-anorexia-nervosa-inpatients-in-comparison-to-athletes-overweight-obese-and-normal-weight-controls
#18
Sabrina Mörkl, Sonja Lackner, Wolfram Müller, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Karl Kashofer, Andreas Oberascher, Annamaria Painold, Anna Holl, Peter Holzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Harald Mangge, Sandra Holasek
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a heterogeneous eating disorder associated with alterations of body structure and the gut microbiome. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of a large female cohort including different BMI groups and activity levels along with body composition parameters. METHOD: 106 female participants were included in this cross-sectional study: AN patients (n = 18), athletes (n = 20), normal weight (n = 26), overweight (n = 22), and obese women (n = 20)...
December 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068603/differences-in-echocardiography-blood-pressure-stroke-volume-maximal-power-and-profile-of-genes-related-to-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-elite-road-cyclists
#19
Grażyna Janikowska, Aleksandra Żebrowska, Aleksandra Kochańska-Dziurowicz, Urszula Mazurek
BACKGROUND: Regular and moderate exercise is beneficial for improving the efficiency of the heart, but high-intensity physical activity may result in cardiac changes. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the identification of the differences in echocardiography and blood variables before exercise, as well as the genes associated with cardiac hypertrophy at rest and in response to graded exercise test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group was made up of 28 road cyclists...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045058/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-as-an-alternative-to-pcr-a-rapid-on-site-detection-of-gene-doping
#20
Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Innovation in medical research has been diverted at multiple occasions to enhance human performance. The predicted great progress in gene therapy has raised some concerns regarding its misuse in the world of sports (gene doping) for several years now. Even though there is no evidence that gene doping has ever been used in sports, the continuous improvement of gene therapy techniques increases the likelihood of abuse. Therefore, since 2004, efforts have been invested by the anti-doping community and WADA for the development of detection methods...
November 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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