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Athletic performance, gene

Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Helios Pareja Galeano, Jose A Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jos J de Koning, Alejandro Lucia, Carl Foster
Despite some advances, how the millions of variations in the human genome influence athletic performance (especially in endurance events) remains largely unknown, and no single genetic test can really predict sports talent. However, there is experimental evidence coming from animal research that selecting for even a simple characteristic like running ability, can produce comparatively large and rapid changes in performance. That such selection has not been specifically documented in humans is more evidence of the limits of physiology-archeology than of the unlikelihood of selection for physical abilities...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Joan Riera, Franchek Drobnic, Josep Antoni Tur, Antoni Pons
n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
Giovanni Lombardi, Silvia Perego, Veronica Sansoni, Giuseppe Banfi
MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by specifically binding the target mRNA and by consequently inducing its degradation. miRNAs can be released into the circulation where they remain stable and they can be measured. Their changes reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures to specific environmental conditions. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs represents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with interventions such as exercise and diet...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Katarzyna A Szcześniak, Anna Ciecierska, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
V Gineviciene, A Jakaitiene, M O Aksenov, A V Aksenova, A M Druzhevskaya, I V Astratenkova, E S Egorova, L J Gabdrakhmanova, L Tubelis, V Kucinskas, A Utkus
The performance of professional strength and power athletes is influenced, at least partly, by genetic components. The main aim of this study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of ACE (I/D), ACTN3 (R577X) and PPARGC1A (Gly482Ser) gene polymorphisms with strength/power-oriented athletes' status in two cohorts of European athletes. A cohort of European Caucasians from Russia and Lithuania (161 athletes: by groups - weightlifters (87), powerlifters (60), throwers (14); by elite status - 'elite' (104), 'sub-elite' (57); and 1,202 controls) were genotyped for ACE, ACTN3 and PPARGC1A polymorphisms...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Jamie K Schnuck, Kyle L Sunderland, Matthew R Kuennen, Roger A Vaughan
PURPOSE: β-alanine is a common component of numerous sports supplements purported to improve athletic performance through enhanced carnosine biosynthesis and related intracellular buffering. To date, the effects of β-alanine on oxidative metabolism remain largely unexplored. This work investigated the effects of β-alanine on the expression of proteins which regulate cellular energetics. METHODS: C2C12 myocytes were cultured and differentiated under standard conditions followed by treatment with either β-alanine or isonitrogenous non-metabolizable control D-alanine at 800μM for 24 hours...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Vernon G Coffey, John A Hawley
Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Nitzan Dror, Alon Eliakim
The potential use genetic polymorphism, and in particularly polymorphism of hormone genes, as tool to predict athletic performance is currently very challenging. Recent studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF-I and myostatin may be beneficial for endurance and short distance running, and may even be associated with elite performance. Polymorphism in IGF-I receptor may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance running spectrum suggesting beneficial effects for endurance and prevent from success in power events...
June 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Ysabel Jacob, Ashley Cripps, Tess Evans, Paola T Chivers, Christopher Joyce, Ryan S Anderton
BACKGROUND: Natural genetic variation contributes towards athletic performance in various strength/power and endurance based sports. To date, no studies have explored the genetic predisposition towards skill and athletic performance in Australian Football (AF) players. METHODS: The present pilot study recruited 30 sub-elite AF players who completed tests of endurance, power and technical skill. Specific polymorphisms in nine genes were screened, and assessed for a possible association with athletic and skill traits...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ruoyu Yang, Xunzhang Shen, Yubin Wang, Sarah Voisin, Guang Cai, Yongnan Fu, Wangyu Xu, Nir Eynon, David J Bishop, Xu Yan
The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism (rs1815739) has been shown to influence athletic performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of this polymorphism in elite Chinese track and field athletes, and to explore its effects on athletes' level of competition and lower-extremity power. We compared the ACTN3 R577X genotypes and allele frequencies in 59 elite sprint/power athletes, 44 elite endurance athletes, and 50 healthy controls from Chinese Han origin. We then subcategorized the athletes into international-level and national-level, and investigated the effects of ACTN3 genotype on lower-extremity power...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Gregory A Panza, Beth A Taylor, Paul D Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examined studies published within the last 16 months that investigated the relationship between statins and physical activity. RECENT FINDINGS: These recent studies suggest that statins do not adversely affect cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, athletic performance, or physical activity adherence. One recent study comparing patients with statin-associated myalgia and nonstatin-using controls did report that statins are associated with a slowing of time to peak power output, increased abdominal adiposity, and insulin resistance...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Rana Fayazmilani, Neda Khaledi, Sareh Arjmand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Philipp Baumert, Mark J Lake, Claire E Stewart, Barry Drust, Robert M Erskine
Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation-contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Orkide Palabiyik, Aziz Karaca, Ebru Taştekin, Bilge Eren Yamasan, Burcu Tokuç, Tammam Sipahi, Selma Arzu Vardar
High-protein (HP) diets are commonly consumed by athletes despite their potential health hazard, which is postulated to enforce a negative effect on bone and renal health. However, its effects on heart have not been known yet. Aquaporin-7 (AQP7) is an aquaglyceroporin that facilitates glycerol and water transport. Glycerol is an important cardiac energy production substrate, especially during exercise, in conjunction with fatty acids and glucose. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is an insulin-sensitive glucose transporter in heart...
October 2016: Biochemical Genetics
Agnes Mägi, Eve Unt, Ele Prans, Liina Raus, Jaan Eha, Alar Veraksitš, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks
Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2) to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females) during a 5-year period...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
N Jones, J Kiely, B Suraci, D J Collins, D de Lorenzo, C Pickering, K A Grimaldi
Association studies have identified dozens of genetic variants linked to training responses and sport-related traits. However, no intervention studies utilizing the idea of personalised training based on athlete's genetic profile have been conducted. Here we propose an algorithm that allows achieving greater results in response to high- or low-intensity resistance training programs by predicting athlete's potential for the development of power and endurance qualities with the panel of 15 performance-associated gene polymorphisms...
June 2016: Biology of Sport
En-peng He, Yan-hong Li, Jian-dong Qian, Hua-wei Yan
OBJECTIVE: Discusses the distributive characters of the Creatine Kinase MM (CKMM) gene A/G Polymorphism in XinjiangUyghur, One hundred and fourtheen athletes and 441 general population of Uyghur were involved in the study. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used. RESULTS: (1) The CKMM gene A/G frequency in Uyghur general population was(AA, AG and GG) 0.497, 0.392 and 0.111, the result test by Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium and x² = 2...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Olivier Salamin, Laetitia Jaggi, Norbert Baume, Neil Robinson, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports...
2016: PloS One
Angelique Pasquinelli, Lucia Chico, Livia Pasquali, Costanza Bisordi, Annalisa Lo Gerfo, Monica Fabbrini, Lucia Petrozzi, Letizia Marconi, Elena Caldarazzo Ienco, Michelangelo Mancuso, Gabriele Siciliano
The role of exercise in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis is controversial and unclear. Exercise induces a pleiotropic adaptive response in skeletal muscle, largely through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant defense mechanisms. It has been suggested that a Gly482Ser substitution in PGC-1α has functional relevance in human disorders and in athletic performance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genotype distribution of PGC-1α Gly482Ser (1444 G > A) in ALS patients to evaluate whether or not the minor serine-encoding allele 482Ser is involved in oxidative stress responses during physical exercise...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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