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Brain tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451858/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-brain-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Alena Kopkova, Jiri Sana, Pavel Fadrus, Ondrej Slaby
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid that has many important functions and is in direct contact with the extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS). CSF serves as both the communication channel allowing the distribution of various substances among the CNS cells and the storage facility for the waste products these cells release. For these reasons, CSF is a potential source of diagnostic biomarkers of many CNS diseases, including brain tumors. Recent studies have revealed that CSF also contains circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs that have been described as biomarkers in many cancers...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449898/targeted-therapy-of-brain-metastases-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Rodica Di Lorenzo, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Brain metastases (BM) occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and 60-75% of patients with BM become symptomatic. Due to an aging population and advances in the treatment of primary cancers, patients are living longer and are more likely to experience complications from BM. The diagnosis of BM drastically worsens long-term survival rates, with multiple metastases being a poor prognostic factor. Until recently, the mainstay of treatment consisted of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), surgical resection, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or a combination of these modalities...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437794/drug-resistance-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer-brain-metastases-blame-the-barrier-or-the-brain
#3
Sheheryar Kabraji, Jing Ni, Nancy Lin, Shaozhen Xie, Eric P Winer, Jean J Zhao
The brain is the most common site of first metastasis for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with HER2-targeting drugs. However, the development of effective therapies for breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is limited by an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms governing drug sensitivity in the central nervous system. Pharmacodynamic data from patients and in vivo models suggest that inadequate drug penetration across the 'blood-tumor' barrier is not the whole story. Using HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases as a case study, we highlight recent data from orthotopic brain metastasis models that implicates brain-specific drug resistance mechanisms in BCBMs and suggests a translational research paradigm to guide drug development for treatment of BCBMs...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433020/radio-frequency-radiation-related-cancer-assessing-causation-in-the-occupational-military-setting
#4
Michael Peleg, Or Nativ, Elihu D Richter
BACKGROUND AND AIM: We reexamine whether radio frequency radiation (RFR) in the occupational and military settings is a human carcinogen. METHODS: We extended an analysis of an already-reported case series of patients with cancer previously exposed to whole-body prolonged RFR, mainly from communication equipment and radar. We focused on hematolymphatic (HL) cancers. We used analysis by percentage frequency (PF) of a cancer type, which is the proportion of a specific cancer type relative to the total number of cancer cases...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427894/clinical-characteristics-associated-with-the-intracranial-dissemination-of-gliomas
#5
Xu Cai, Jun-Jie Qin, Shu-Yu Hao, Huan Li, Chun Zeng, Sheng-Jun Sun, Lan-Bing Yu, Zhi-Xian Gao, Jian Xie
OBJECTIVES: Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the brain and the intracranial dissemination of gliomas is the late stage of the development of the tumor. However, there is little research in literature on the occurrence of intracranial dissemination of gliomas. In order to provide a reference for clinical work, we carried out this study on intracranial dissemination of glioma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 629 patients with gliomas received tumor resection by the same surgeon from August 2010 to September 2015 were included in this study...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427813/life-after-the-neurosurgical-ward-in-subsaharan-africa-neurosurgical-treatment-and-outpatient-outcomes-in-uganda
#6
Linda W Xu, Silvia D Vaca, Juliet Nalwanga, Christine Muhumuza, Daniel Vail, Benjamin J Lerman, Joel Kiryabwire Surg, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Michael Muhumuza, Michael M Haglund, Gerald Grant
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, neurosurgery in Uganda experienced increasing surgical volume and a new residency training program. While research has examined surgical capacity, minimal data exists on the patient population treated by neurosurgery and their eventual outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Patients admitted to Mulago National Referral Hospital neurosurgical ward over two years (2014 and 2015) were documented in a prospective database. 1167 were discharged with documented phone numbers, thus eligible for follow-up...
February 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414809/interference-with-psmb4-expression-exerts-an-anti-tumor-effect-by-decreasing-the-invasion-and-proliferation-of-human-glioblastoma-cells
#7
Yu-Chen Cheng, Wen-Chiuan Tsai, Yu-Chi Sung, Hsin-Han Chang, Ying Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Proteasome subunit beta type-4 (PSMB4) is an essential subunit that contributes to the assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. However, the role of PSMB4 in glioblastomas remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PSMB4 in GBM tumor progression. METHODS: We first analyzed the PSMB4 protein and mRNA expression in 80 clinical brain specimens and 77 datasets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database...
January 31, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410648/status-epilepticus-behavioral-and-electroencephalography-seizure-correlates-in-kainate-experimental-models
#8
REVIEW
Shaunik Sharma, Sreekanth Puttachary, Achala Thippeswamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Various etiological factors, such as head injury, chemical intoxication, tumors, and gene mutation, can induce epileptogenesis. In animal models, status epilepticus (SE) triggers epileptogenesis. In humans, convulsive SE for >30 min can be a life-threatening medical emergency. The duration and severity of convulsive SE are highly variable in chemoconvulsant animal models. A continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) recording, and/or diligent direct observation, facilitates quantification of exact duration of different stages of convulsive seizures (Racine stages 3-5) to determine the severity of SE...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409944/comparative-study-between-spatio-temporal-models-for-brain-tumor-growth
#9
Ihab Elaff
Modeling of brain tumor growth simulator can estimate life expectancy for individual patients, estimate future effect of brain damages toward human senses and attitude and help in evaluating the efficiency of applied treatments. Brain tumor growth can be calculated based on Spatio-Temporal mathematical models namely the isotropic reaction-diffusion model and the anisotropic reaction-diffusion model where the second model produces more realistic results. Tumor normally grows in White Matter (WM) five times faster than in Gray Matter (GM) which makes brain tissues modeled as inhomogeneous-anisotropic material to assign different parameters to each tissue...
February 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406894/neurologic-illness-in-zambia-a-neurointensivist-s-experience
#10
Merritt W Brown, Katie Ellen Foy, Christopher Chanda, Jacqueline Mulundika, Igor J Koralnik, Omar K Siddiqi
INTRODUCTION: Management of critically ill patients in dedicated intensive care units (ICUs) is the standard of care in high income countries (HICs), but remains uncommon in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to determine the prevalence of neurologic disorders in the ICU of a LMIC and examine if resource appropriate specialized neurocritical care training could benefit these patients. METHODS: From February to March 2017, a trained neurocritical care intensivist recorded encounters in the sole ICU at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399357/anticancer-effects-of-bilberry-anthocyanins-compared-with-nutrananosphere-encapsulated-bilberry-anthocyanins
#11
Seth P Thibado, Jerry T Thornthwaite, Thomas K Ballard, Brandon T Goodman
Rapidly accumulating laboratory and clinical research evidence indicates that anthocyanins exhibit anticancer activity and the evaluation of bilberry anthocyanins as chemo-preventive agents is progressing. It has previously been demonstrated that anthocyanins upregulate tumor suppressor genes, induce apoptosis in cancer cells, repair and protect genomic DNA integrity, which is important in reducing age-associated oxidative stress, and improve neuronal and cognitive brain function. Bilberry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398750/effects-of-the-oral-ingestion-of-probiotics-on-brain-damage-in-a-transient-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#12
Kobra Akhoundzadeh, Abedin Vakili, Mahdi Shadnoush, Jafar Sadeghzadeh
Background: Probiotics are microorganisms that may influence brain function via altering brain neurochemistry. New research evidence suggests that probiotic bacteria might protect tissue damage through diminishing the production of free radicals and/or inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of probiotic bacteria on the prevention or reduction of brain damage in an experimental model of stroke in mice. Methods: In this study, 30 male BLC57 mice were randomly divided into 6 equal groups...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396048/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-traumatic-brain-injury-outcomes-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Tamar Rodney, Nicole Osier, Jessica Gill
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) triggers a cascade of secondary biological and physiological effects that are variable, depending on the severity, location, and complexity of the injury. Improved diagnosis and prognosis of brain injury may be possible by examining changes in protein biomarker concentrations and, determining their role in long-term outcomes may improve treatment. One promising direction for biomarker research surrounds pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which may have utility for predicting short and long-term prognosis after TBI, and may also be therapeutic targets in shaping neuronal recovery following a TBI...
January 26, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394454/integrated-beam-orientation-and-scanning-spot-optimization-in-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-unilateral-head-and-neck-tumors
#14
Wenbo Gu, Daniel O'Connor, Dan Nguyen, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Lei Dong, Ke Sheng
PURPOSE: Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) is the state-of-the-art method of delivering proton radiotherapy. Previous research has been mainly focused on optimization of scanning spots with manually selected beam angles. Due to the computational complexity, the potential benefit of simultaneously optimizing beam orientations and spot pattern could not be realized. In this study, we developed a novel integrated beam orientation optimization (BOO) and scanning-spot optimization algorithm for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT)...
February 2, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385923/high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-past-present-and-future-in-neurosurgery
#15
Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui, Brian Fiani
Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it...
February 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383196/glioblastoma-research-us-and-international-networking-achievements
#16
REVIEW
David A Groneberg, Anna-Maria Addicks, Michael H Bendels, David Quarcoo, Jenny Jaque, Dörthe Brüggmann
Being the most aggressive type of brain tumor, glioblastoma is estimated to be diagnosed in about 12,400 new cases in 2017. The diagnosis is dramatic to patients and relatives and leaves open many unanswered questions for them. One is the big question why there is no cure as in other tumors. This review illustrates the US and global research efforts that have been made over the past century. It demonstrates the great magnitude of energy invested by US clinicians and scientists but undoubtedly, more research is needed and funding by NIH and other sources should be continued on the same level...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383012/homogenous-and-microbeam-x-ray-radiation-induces-proteomic-changes-in-the-brains-of-irradiated-rats-and-in-the-brains-of-nonirradiated-cage-mate-rats
#17
Richard Smith, Jiaxi Wang, Colin Seymour, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Jennifer Fazzari, Elisabeth Schültke, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, Jean Laissue, Christian Schroll, Carmel Mothersill
To evaluate microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), for brain tumor treatment, the bystander effect in nonirradiated companion animals was investigated. Adult rats were irradiated with 35 or 350 Gy at the European Synchrotron Research Facility using homogenous irradiation (HR) or MRT to the right brain hemisphere. The irradiated rats were housed with nonirradiated rats. After 48 hours, all rats were euthanized and the frontal lobe proteome was analyzed using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteome changes were determined by analysis of variance (P < ...
January 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378533/an-advanced-glioma-cell-invasion-assay-based-on-organotypic-brain-slice-cultures
#18
Tanja Eisemann, Barbara Costa, Jens Strelau, Michel Mittelbronn, Peter Angel, Heike Peterziel
BACKGROUND: The poor prognosis for glioblastoma patients is caused by the diffuse infiltrative growth pattern of the tumor. Therefore, the molecular and cellular processes underlying cell migration continue to be a major focus of glioblastoma research. Emerging evidence supports the concept that the tumor microenvironment has a profound influence on the functional properties of tumor cells. Accordingly, substantial effort must be devoted to move from traditional two-dimensional migration assays to three-dimensional systems that more faithfully recapitulate the complex in vivo tumor microenvironment...
January 30, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374996/bone-mineral-density-is-compromised-in-very-long-term-survivors-of-irradiated-childhood-brain-tumor
#19
Tiina M Remes, Pekka M Arikoski, Päivi M Lähteenmäki, Mikko O Arola, Tytti M-L Pokka, V Pekka Riikonen, Kirsti H Sirkiä, Heikki M J Rantala, Arja H Harila-Saari, Marja K Ojaniemi
INTRODUCTION: The increase in the number of childhood brain tumor survivors warrants detailed research to increase our knowledge regarding the possible physical and psychosocial adverse outcomes of tumor and tumor therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current bone health by measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) in irradiated, adult long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a national cohort of 74 adult survivors of childhood brain tumors treated with irradiation in Finland between 1970 and 2008...
January 27, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364211/pet-and-mri-guided-irradiation-of-a-glioblastoma-rat-model-using-a-micro-irradiator
#20
Julie Bolcaen, Benedicte Descamps, Tom Boterberg, Christian Vanhove, Ingeborg Goethals
For decades, small animal radiation research was mostly performed using fairly crude experimental setups applying simple single-beam techniques without the ability to target a specific or well-delineated tumor volume. The delivery of radiation was achieved using fixed radiation sources or linear accelerators producing megavoltage (MV) X-rays. These devices are unable to achieve sub-millimeter precision required for small animals. Furthermore, the high doses delivered to healthy surrounding tissue hamper response assessment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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