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Brain tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227433/microprinted-tumor-spheroids-enable-anti-cancer-drug-screening
#1
Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana
Spheroids present a biologically relevant model of avascular tumors and a unique tool for discovery of anti-cancer drugs. Despite being used in research laboratories for several decades, spheroids are not routinely used for drug discovery primarily due to the difficulty of mass-producing uniformly-sized spheroids and intense labor involved in handling, drug treatment, and analyzing them. We overcome this barrier using a novel technology to robotically microprint spheroids in standard 384-well plates. An aqueous drop containing cancer cells is dispensed into a bath of a second, immiscible aqueous phase...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195514/blood-brain-barrier-on-a-chip-microphysiological-systems-that-capture-the-complexity-of-the-blood-central-nervous-system-interface
#3
Duc Tt Phan, R Hugh F Bender, Jillian W Andrejecsk, Agua Sobrino, Stephanie J Hachey, Steven C George, Christopher Cw Hughes
The blood-brain barrier is a dynamic and highly organized structure that strictly regulates the molecules allowed to cross the brain vasculature into the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier pathology has been associated with a number of central nervous system diseases, including vascular malformations, stroke/vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various neurological tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. There is a compelling need for representative models of this critical interface...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192888/computed-tomography-morphologic-features-of-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-brain-bone-metastasis
#4
Ki-Eun Hwang, Su-Jin Oh, Chul Park, Se-Jeong Jeon, Jeong-Mi Lee, Byong-Ki Cha, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Eun-Taik Jeong, Hak-Ryul Kim
Background/Aims: Brain and bone metastases are common in patients with lung cancer. The development of metastasis is associated with poor survival in lung cancer patients. Although tumor morphologic features on radiographs are routinely assessed for differentiation between benign and malignant lung nodules, they are not used to predict metastasis. We assessed morphologic features of pulmonary adenocarcinomas with brain/bone metastasis on computed tomography (CT) to identify related factors for metastasis...
February 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174598/review-on-the-role-of-the-human-polyomavirus-jc-in-the-development-of-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Serena Delbue, Manola Comar, Pasquale Ferrante
Almost one fifth of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, either bacteria or viruses, and this makes the possible association between infections and tumors a relevant research issue. We focused our attention on the human Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV), that is a small, naked DNA virus, belonging to the Polyomaviridae family. It is the recognized etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease, occurring in immunosuppressed individuals...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168425/the-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-levels-of-cerebral-cytokines-in-an-animal-model-of-mania-induced-by-dextroamphetamine
#6
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Roger B Varela, Camila O Arent, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Gustavo C Dal-Pont, André F Carvalho, Monica L Andersen, João Quevedo
Studies have suggested the involvement of inflammatory processes in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Preclinical evidences have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act as mood-stabilizing agents and protect the brain in models of mania and depression. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) and valproate (VPA) on behavioral changes, histone deacetylase activity, and the levels of cytokines in an animal model of mania induced by dextroamphetamine (d-AMPH)...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164772/clinical-and-environmental-correlates-of-serum-bdnf-a-descriptive-study-with-plausible-implications-for-ad-research
#7
Galit Weinstein, Sarah R Preis, Alexa S Beiser, Bernhard Kaess, Tai C Chen, Claudia Satizabal, Faisal Rahman, Emelia J Benjamin, Vasan S Ramachandran, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through neurotrophic effects on basal cholinergic neurons. Reduced serum levels of BDND are observed among AD patients and may predict AD risk. Nevertheless, knowledge about factors associated with its levels in blood is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and demographic correlated of serum BDNF levels . METHODS: BDNF was measured from serum collected between 1992-1996 and 1998-2001 in participants from the Original and Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Study, respectively...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161317/a-characterization-of-cancer-patients-in-inpatient-rehabilitation-facilities-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Jacqueline M Mix, Carl V Granger, Michael J LaMonte, Paulette Niewczyk, Margaret DiVita, Richard Goldstein, Jerome Yates, Jo L Freudenheim
OBJECTIVE: To identify the types of cancer patients admitted to inpatient medical rehabilitation and to describe their rehabilitation outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; SETTING: U.S. inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients diagnosed with malignant cancer for a cancer related impairment admitted to an IRF between October 2010 and September 2012 were identified from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR) database (n = 27,952)...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160777/curcumin-decreases-malignant-characteristics-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-induction-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Zachary C Gersey, Gregor A Rodriguez, Eric Barbarite, Anthony Sanchez, Winston M Walters, Kelechi C Ohaeto, Ricardo J Komotar, Regina M Graham
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of primary brain tumor in adults. Following standard treatment of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, patients are expected to survive 12-14 months. Theorized cause of disease recurrence in these patients is tumor cell repopulation through the proliferation of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells. Current research has revealed curcumin, the principal ingredient in turmeric, can modulate multiple signaling pathways important for cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival...
February 4, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150132/nanomedicines-for-the-treatment-of-cns-diseases
#10
Jessica L Reynolds, Ram I Mahato
Targeting and delivering macromolecular therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) has been a major challenge. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle that must be overcome to allow compounds to reach their targets in the brain. Therefore, much effort has been channelled into improving transport of therapeutics across the BBB and into the CNS including the use of nanoparticles. In this thematic issue, several reviews and original research are presented that address "Nanomedicines for CNS Diseases...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123722/systematic-analysis-of-the-achaete-scute-complex-like-gene-signature-in-clinical-cancer-patients
#11
Chih-Yang Wang, Payam Shahi, John Ting Wei Huang, Nam Nhut Phan, Zhengda Sun, Yen-Chang Lin, Ming-Derg Lai, Zena Werb
The achaete-scute complex-like (ASCL) family, also referred to as 'achaete-scute complex homolog' or 'achaete-scute family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor', is critical for proper development of the nervous system and deregulation of ASCL plays a key role in psychiatric and neurological disorders. The ASCL family consists of five members, namely ASCL1, ASCL2, ASCL3, ASCL4 and ASCL5. The ASCL1 gene serves as a potential oncogene during lung cancer development. There is a correlation between increased ASCL2 expression and colon cancer development...
January 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120049/update-on-mechanism-and-therapeutic-implications-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-and-cerebral-hemodynamics-a-narrative-review
#12
Elisabetta Peppucci, Rina Di Bonaventura, Vincenzo Esposito, Jun Zhong, Gerardo Iacopino, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Massimiliano Visocchi
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is well known for its early role in the management of chronic pain, mainly failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), spasticity, and bowel and bladder dysfunction. In more recent years, SCS has been proposed for patients suffering from refractory angina or peripheral vasculopathies in order to gain symptom relief, thus indicating some hemodynamic effect on the peripheral circulation. Taking into account this scientific observation, since the late1980s, researchers have started to investigate the potential effect of SCS on cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation and its possible application in certain pathological settings dealing with vascular pattern dysfunction, such as ischemia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, and brain tumors...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114639/incidence-of-recurrence-in-posterior-circulation-childhood-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#13
Michael Y Uohara, Lauren A Beslow, Lori Billinghurst, Brianna M Jones, Sudha K Kessler, Daniel J Licht, Rebecca N Ichord
Importance: Childhood arterial ischemic stroke (CAIS) affects approximately 1.6 per 100 000 children per year, while stroke recurs in up to 20% of patients at 5 years. Factors determining the risk of recurrence are incompletely understood. Objective: To investigate the incidence of the recurrence of CAIS in the posterior and anterior circulations to determine if the risk differs between the 2 locations. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective analysis of CAIS was conducted among children enrolled in a single-center prospective consecutive cohort at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2015...
January 23, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113549/mri-based-bayesian-personalization-of-a-tumor-growth-model
#14
Matthieu Le, Herve Delingette, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Elizabeth Gerstner, Tracy Batchelor, Jan Unkelbach, Nicholas Ayache
The mathematical modeling of brain tumor growth has been the topic of numerous research studies. Most of this work focuses on the reaction-diffusion model, which suggests that the diffusion coefficient and the proliferation rate can be related to clinically relevant information. However, estimating the parameters of the reaction-diffusion model is difficult because of the lack of identifiability of the parameters, the uncertainty in the tumor segmentations, and the model approximation, which cannot perfectly capture the complex dynamics of the tumor evolution...
April 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109958/optical-barcoding-for-single-clone-tracking-to-study-tumor-heterogeneity
#15
Malte Mohme, Cecile L Maire, Kristoffer Riecken, Svenja Zapf, Tim Aranyossy, Manfred Westphal, Katrin Lamszus, Boris Fehse
Intratumoral heterogeneity has been identified as one of the strongest drivers of treatment resistance and tumor recurrence. Therefore, investigating the complex clonal architecture of tumors over time has become a major challenge in cancer research. We developed a new fluorescent "optical barcoding" technique that allows fast tracking, identification, and quantification of live cell clones in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry (FC). We optically barcoded two cell lines derived from malignant glioma, an exemplary heterogeneous brain tumor...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104717/clinical-targeted-exome-based-sequencing-in-combination-with-genome-wide-copy-number-profiling-precision-medicine-analysis-of-203-pediatric-brain-tumors
#16
Shakti H Ramkissoon, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Jaeho Hwang, Lori A Ramkissoon, Noah F Greenwald, Steven E Schumacher, Ryan O'Rourke, Nathan Pinches, Patricia Ho, Hayley Malkin, Claire Sinai, Mariella Filbin, Ashley Plant, Wenya Linda Bi, Michael S Chang, Edward Yang, Karen D Wright, Peter E Manley, Matthew Ducar, Sanda Alexandrescu, Hart Lidov, Ivana Delalle, Liliana C Goumnerova, Alanna J Church, Katherine A Janeway, Marian H Harris, Laura E MacConaill, Rebecca D Folkerth, Neal I Lindeman, Charles D Stiles, Mark W Kieran, Azra H Ligon, Sandro Santagata, Adrian M Dubuc, Susan N Chi, Rameen Beroukhim, Keith L Ligon
BACKGROUND: Clinical genomics platforms are needed to identify targetable alterations, but implementation of these technologies and best practices in routine clinical pediatric oncology practice are not yet well established. METHODS: Profile is an institution-wide prospective clinical research initiative that uses targeted sequencing to identify targetable alterations in tumors. OncoPanel, a multiplexed targeted exome-sequencing platform that includes 300 cancer-causing genes, was used to assess single nucleotide variants and rearrangements/indels...
January 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100291/systematic-review-of-neuropsychological-rehabilitation-for-prospective-memory-deficits-as-a-consequence-of-acquired-brain-injury
#17
Steven Mahan, Rebecca Rous, Anna Adlam
OBJECTIVES: Prospective memory (PM) impairments are common following acquired brain injury (ABI). PM is the ability to keep a goal in mind for future action and interventions have the potential to increase independence. This review aimed to evaluate studies examining PM rehabilitation approaches in adults and children with ABI. METHODS: Relevant literature was identified using PsycARTICLES (1894 to present), PsycINFO (1880 to present), the Cochrane Library (1972 to present), MEDLINE PubMed, reference lists from relevant journal articles, and searches of key journals...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093680/the-international-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-registry-an-infrastructure-to-accelerate-collaborative-research-for-an-orphan-disease
#18
Joshua Baugh, Ute Bartels, James Leach, Blaise Jones, Brooklyn Chaney, Katherine E Warren, Jenavieve Kirkendall, Renee Doughman, Cynthia Hawkins, Lili Miles, Christine Fuller, Tim Hassall, Eric Bouffet, Adam Lane, Darren Hargrave, Jacques Grill, Lindsey M Hoffman, Chris Jones, Alex Towbin, Sharon A Savage, Michelle Monje, Xiao-Nan Li, David S Ziegler, Sophie Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Christof M Kramm, Dannis G van Vuurden, Maryam Fouladi
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), a rare, often fatal childhood brain tumor, remains a major therapeutic challenge. In 2012, investigators, funded by the DIPG Collaborative (a philanthropic partnership among 29 private foundations), launched the International DIPG Registry (IDIPGR) to advance understanding of DIPG. Comprised of comprehensive deidentified but linked clinical, imaging, histopathological, and genomic repositories, the IDIPGR uses standardized case report forms for uniform data collection; serial imaging and histopathology are centrally reviewed by IDIPGR neuro-radiologists and neuro-pathologists, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093049/efficient-variational-approach-to-multimodal-registration-of%C3%A2-anatomical%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-functional-intra-patient-tumorous-brain-data
#19
Alvar-Ginés Legaz-Aparicio, Rafael Verdú-Monedero, Jorge Larrey-Ruiz, Juan Morales-Sánchez, Fernando López-Mir, Valery Naranjo, Ángela Bernabéu
This paper addresses the functional localization of intra-patient images of the brain. Functional images of the brain (fMRI and PET) provide information about brain function and metabolism whereas anatomical images (MRI and CT) supply the localization of structures with high spatial resolution. The goal is to find the geometric correspondence between functional and anatomical images in order to complement and fuse the information provided by each imaging modality. The proposed approach is based on a variational formulation of the image registration problem in the frequency domain...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074274/glioma-experimental-models-and-reality
#20
REVIEW
Krissie Lenting, Roel Verhaak, Mark Ter Laan, Pieter Wesseling, William Leenders
In theory, in vitro and in vivo models for human gliomas have great potential to not only enhance our understanding of glioma biology, but also to facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies for these tumors. For reliable prediction and validation of the effects of different therapeutic modalities, however, glioma models need to comply with specific and more strict demands than other models of cancer, and these demands are directly related to the combination of genetic aberrations and the specific brain micro-environment gliomas grow in...
February 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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