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Brain tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028811/elevated-expression-of-hsp10-protein-inhibits-apoptosis-and-associates-with-poor-prognosis-of-astrocytoma
#1
Weibing Fan, Shuang-Shi Fan, Juan Feng, Desheng Xiao, Songqing Fan, Jiadi Luo
Astrocytoma is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor, with pretty lowly 5-year survival rate in patients. Although extended surgical removal of the tumor and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy executed, still there is large recurrence rate, mainly because diffuse glioma tumor cells ubiquitously infiltrate into normal parenchyma. So it becomes a priority to hunt novel molecular and signaling pathway targets to suppress astrocyma progression. HSP10, an important member of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) family, classically works as molecular chaperone folding or degradating of target proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028390/high-resolution-mass-spectra-processing-for-the-identification-of-different-pathological-tissue-types-of-brain-tumors
#2
E S Zhvansky, A A Sorokin, I A Popov, V A Shurkhay, A A Potapov, E N Nikolaev
The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the possibilities of identifying the different types of pathological tissue identification directly through tissue mass spectrometry. Glioblastoma parts dissected during neurosurgical operation were investigated. Tumor fragments were investigated by the immunohistochemistry method and were identified as necrotic tissue with necrotized vessels, necrotic tissue with tumor stain, tumor with necrosis (tumor tissue as major), tumor, necrotized tumor (necrotic tissues as major), parts of tumor cells, boundary brain tissue, and brain tissue hyperplasia...
August 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028093/mir-144-3p-serves-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-targeting-fzd7-and-predicts-the-prognosis-of-human-glioblastoma
#3
Z-X Cheng, Y-X Song, Z-Y Wang, Y Wang, Y Dong
OBJECTIVE: Previous research indicated that miR-144-3p was associated with the regulation of the carcinogenic processes, but the role of miR-144-3p in glioblastoma (GBM) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to analyze the role of miR-144-3p in GBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of miR-144-3p was measured in GBM tissues and adjacent non-malignant tissues using qRT-PCR. The correlation of miR-144-3p with clinicopathological features and prognosis was also analyzed...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023170/ampa-receptors-and-perampanel-behind-selected-epilepsies-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#4
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Angelo Labate, Marta Maschio, Stefano Meletti, Emilio Russo
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the major mediators of glutamate-mediated excitatory neurotransmission, and are critical for synchronization and spread of epileptic activity. Areas covered. AMPA receptor antagonists have been also developed as antiepileptic drugs and perampanel (PER) is the first highly selective, non-competitive AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist that is available on the market. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in patients aged ≥ 12 years...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020535/treatment-of-glioblastoma
#5
Joo Yeon Nam, John F de Groot
Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive form of primary brain tumor in adults and contributes to high social and medical burden as a result of its incurable nature and significant neurologic morbidity. Despite ongoing research, there has not been improvement in survival in glioblastoma. This review discusses recent advances in clinically significant molecular profiling, including IDH mutation status and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase ( MGMT) promoter methylation. We review updates in management of newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma, as well as common difficulties in management, such as pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse...
October 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993799/genetic-characterization-of-brain-metastases-in-the-era-of-targeted-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Catherine H Han, Priscilla K Brastianos
In the current era of molecularly targeted therapies and precision medicine, choice of cancer treatment has been increasingly tailored according to the molecular or genomic characterization of the cancer the individual has. Previously, the clinical observation of inadequate control of brain metastases was widely attributed to a lack of central nervous system (CNS) penetration of the anticancer drugs. However, more recent data have suggested that there are genetic explanations for such observations. Genomic analyses of brain metastases and matching primary tumor and other extracranial metastases have revealed that brain metastases can harbor potentially actionable driver mutations that are unique to them...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987190/clinical-neuropathology-of-brain-tumors
#7
Michal Bienkowski, Julia Furtner, Johannes A Hainfellner
Brain tumor typing is a major task in the daily practice of clinical neuropathologists. For more than 100 years, brain tumors have been classified on the basis of a histogenetic concept, with the definition of more than 120 brain tumor entities over time. In the past decades, biomedical research on brain tumors has led to the identification of clinically meaningful diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular markers. Taking this progress into account, the 2016 update of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system has incorporated for the first time molecular markers for definition of brain tumor entities...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987173/parasitic-and-fungal-infections
#8
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Jean Costa Nunez, Werner Stenzel
Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a plethora of infectious agents leading to a multitude of different disease courses and thus diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The prevalence of different pathogens is basically dependent on geographic and ethnic backgrounds, its infectious route frequently involving a third party, such as flies or domestic animals. The present review focuses on cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection, and Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis. Fungi produce a large variety of inflammatory conditions of the CNS with a variegated spectrum of signs and symptoms, which may involve the meninges and the brain parenchyma, where they produce cerebritis or abscesses and granulomatous lesions, respectively...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986230/machine-learning-and-neurosurgical-outcome-prediction-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Joeky T Senders, Patrick C Staples, Aditya V Karhade, Mark M Zaki, William B Gormley, Marike L D Broekman, Timothy R Smith, Omar Arnaout
OBJECTIVE: Accurate measurement of surgical outcomes is highly desirable to optimize surgical decision-making. An important element of surgical decision making is identification of the patient cohort that will benefit from surgery prior to the intervention. Machine learning (ML) enables computers to learn from previous data to make accurate predictions on new data. In this systematic review, we evaluate the potential of ML for neurosurgical outcome prediction. METHODS: A systematic search in the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to identify all potential relevant studies up to January 1, 2017...
October 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985935/limitations-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-in-the-setting-of-focal-brain-lesions
#10
REVIEW
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Jay J Pillai
Methods of image acquisition and analysis for resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) are still evolving. Neurovascular uncoupling and susceptibility artifact are important confounds of rsfMR imaging in the setting of focal brain lesions such as brain tumors. This article reviews the detection of these confounds using rsfMR imaging metrics in the setting of focal brain lesions. In the near future, with the wide range of ongoing research in rsfMR imaging, these issues likely will be overcome and will open new windows into brain function and connectivity...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984519/surgical-management-of-incidentally-discovered-diffusely-infiltrating-low-grade-glioma
#11
Michael Opoku-Darko, Stefan T Lang, James Artindale, J Gregory Cairncross, Robert J Sevick, John J P Kelly
OBJECTIVE Occasionally, diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are identified as incidental findings in patients who have no signs or symptoms that can be ascribed to the tumors. The diagnosis of incidental, asymptomatic LGGs has become more frequent due to the vast increase in access to medical imaging technology. While management of these lesions remains controversial, early surgery has been suggested to improve outcome. The authors set out to identify and review the characteristics and surgical outcomes of patients who underwent surgical intervention for incidental LGG...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982489/palliative-care-in-neurology
#12
REVIEW
Maisha T Robinson, Robert G Holloway
Palliative medicine is a specialty that focuses on improving the quality of life for patients with serious or advanced medical conditions, and it is appropriate at any stage of disease, including at the time of diagnosis. Neurologic conditions tend to have high symptom burdens, variable disease courses, and poor prognoses that affect not only patients but also their families and caregivers. Patients with a variety of neurologic conditions such as Parkinson disease, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain tumors, stroke, and acute neurologic illnesses have substantial unmet needs that can be addressed through a combination of primary and specialty palliative care...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980887/accuracy-of-presurgical-functional-mr-imaging-for-language-mapping-of-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Hsu-Huei Weng, Kyle R Noll, Jason M Johnson, Sujit S Prabhu, Yuan-Hsiung Tsai, Sheng-Wei Chang, Yen-Chu Huang, Jiann-Der Lee, Jen-Tsung Yang, Cheng-Ta Yang, Ying-Huang Tsai, Chun-Yuh Yang, John D Hazle, Donald F Schomer, Ho-Ling Liu
Purpose To compare functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for language mapping (hereafter, language functional MR imaging) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in patients with brain tumors and to assess factors associated with its accuracy. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE and related databases were searched for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2016. Findings were pooled by using bivariate random-effects and hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic curve models...
October 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979229/expertise-affects-inter-observer-agreement-at-peripheral-locations-within-a-brain-tumor
#14
Emily M Crowe, William Alderson, Jonathan Rossiter, Christopher Kent
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a crucial tool for clinical brain tumor detection and delineation. Since the process of gross tumor volume delineation resides with clinicians, a better understanding of how they perform this task is required if improvements in life expectancy are to be made. Novice-expert comparison studies have been used to examine the effect of expertise on abnormality detection, but little research has investigated expertise-related differences in brain tumor delineation. In this study, undergraduate students (novices) and radiologists (experts) inspected a combination of T1 and T2 single and whole brain MRI scans, each containing a tumor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977847/an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-human-glioblastoma
#15
Samantha Semenkow, Shen Li, Ulf D Kahlert, Eric H Raabe, Jiadi Xu, Antje Arnold, Miroslaw Janowski, Byoung Chol Oh, Gerald Brandacher, Jeff W M Bulte, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
Orthotopic xenotransplantation studies represent the final stage in preclinical cancer research and could facilitate the implementation of precision medicine. To date, these xenografts have been tested in immunodeficient animals, but complete elimination of the adaptive immunity is a significant drawback. We present a method of efficient human glioblastoma (GBM) cell engraftment in adult mice with intact immune systems, mediated by a transient blockade of T-cell co-stimulation. Compared to transplants grown in immunodeficient hosts, the resulting tumors more accurately resemble the clinical pathophysiology of patient GBMs, which are characterized by blood-brain-barrier leakage and strong neo-vascularization...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975433/discrepancies-between-biomarkers-of-primary-breast-cancer-and-subsequent-brain-metastases-an-international-multicenter-study
#16
O Kaidar-Person, I Meattini, P Jain, P Bult, N Simone, I Kindts, R Steffens, C Weltens, P Navarria, Y Belkacemi, J Lopez-Guerra, L Livi, B G Baumert, B Vieites, D Limon, N Kurman, K Ko, J B Yu, V Chiang, P Poortmans, T Zagar
PURPOSE: Discordances between the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), expression between primary breast tumors and their subsequent brain metastases (BM) were investigated in breast cancer patients. METHODS: We collected retrospective data from 11 institutions in 8 countries in a predefined-standardized format. Receptor status (positive or negative) was determined according to institutional guidelines (immunohistochemically and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization)...
October 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970242/initial-investigation-into-microbleeds-and-white-matter-signal-changes-following-radiotherapy-for-low-grade-and-benign-brain-tumors-using-ultra-high-field-mri-techniques
#17
J-G Belliveau, G S Bauman, K Y Tay, D Ho, R S Menon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External beam radiation therapy is a common treatment for many brain neoplasms. While external beam radiation therapy adheres to dose limits to protect the uninvolved brain, areas of high dose to normal tissue still occur. Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy can have adverse effects such as microbleeds and radiation necrosis, but few studies exist of patients treated without chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients were treated for low-grade or benign neoplasms with external beam radiation therapy only and scanned within 12-36 months following treatment with a 7T MR imaging scanner...
September 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969482/parent-reports-of-children-s-working-memory-coping-and-emotional-behavioral-adjustment-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-patients-a-pilot-study
#18
Leandra Desjardins, Jennifer C Thigpen, Molly Kobritz, Alexandra H Bettis, Meredith A Gruhn, Megan Ichinose, Kristen Hoskinson, Claire Fraley, Allison Vreeland, Colleen McNally, Bruce E Compas
Neurocognitive problems in childhood survivors of brain tumors are well documented. Further, research has shown that problems in cognitive functioning may be associated with impairment in the use of complex strategies needed to cope with stress, including secondary control coping strategies (e.g., acceptance and cognitive reappraisal) which have been associated with fewer adjustment problems. The present study measured cognitive function, coping strategies, and adjustment in children ages 6-16 years at the time of brain tumor diagnosis and at two follow-up time-points up to 1 year post-diagnosis...
October 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969057/the-construction-of-the-multifunctional-targeting-ursolic-acids-liposomes-and-its-apoptosis-effects-to-c6-glioma-stem-cells
#19
Xue Ying, Yahua Wang, Haolun Xu, Xia Li, Helu Yan, Hui Tang, Chen Wen, Yingchun Li
Brain gliomas, one of the most fatal tumors to human, severely threat the health and life of human. They are capable of extremely strong invasion ability. And invasive glioma cells could rapidly penetrate into normal brain tissues and break them. We prepared a kind of functional liposomes, which could be transported acrossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and afterwards induce the apoptosis of glioma stem cells. In this research, we chose ursolic acids (UA) as an anti-cancer drug to inhibit the growth of C6 glioma cells, while epigallocatechin 3-gallate(EGCG) as the agent that could induce the apoptosis of C6 glioma stem cells...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962173/tetramethylpyrazine-reduces-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-associated-with-enhancement-of-peripheral-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-effects-for-treating-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Aimin Wang, Guangbin Zhu, Ping Qian, Tao Zhu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a diverse group of intracranial injuries resulting from external mechanical insults to the brain. While basic and clinical research for TBI has been conducted for decades, it has not identified cost-effective medical interventions for treating TBI. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which is derived from the Chinese herb, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort (Chuan Xiong), has been clinically used for treating ischemic brain injury for years. However, whether TMP could provide effective benefits for improving the outcomes following TBI is unknown...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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