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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653366/bufalin-inhibits-glioblastoma-growth-by-promoting-proteasomal-degradation-of-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit
#1
Yu-Long Lan, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Zhen-Long Yu, Hongjin Wang, Shuang Zou, Xiaochi Ma, Bo Zhang
Chansu is a traditional Chinese medicine that is generally recognized as a specific inhibitor of Na+ /K+ -ATPase. Bufalin, an active component of Chansu, is an endogenous steroid hormone with great potential as a cancer treatment. However, the mechanism by which it exerts its antitumor activity requires further research. Currently, the α1 subunit of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (ATP1A1) is known to exert important roles in tumorigenesis, and the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of Bufalin on the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α1 subunit was therefore investigated in this study to determine its role in glioblastoma treatments...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651960/targeting-brain-tumors-with-nanomedicines-overcoming-challenges-of-blood-brain-barrier
#2
Nagendra S Ningaraj, Polluru L Reddy, Divya Khaitan
This review elucidates ongoing research, which show improved delivery of anticancer drugs alone and/ or enclosed in carriers collectively called nanomedicines to cross the Blood brain barrier (BBB) / blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) to kill tumor cells and impact patient survival. We highlighted various advances in understanding the mechanism of BTB function that impact on anticancer therapeutics delivery. We discussed latest breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, including nanomedicines and delivering them across BTB for brain tumor management and treatment...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651950/roles-of-traf6-in-central-nervous-system
#3
Yang Dou, Xiaodi Tian, Jian Zhang, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) is an important binding protein of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and the toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) superfamily, which play an important role in innate immunity and acquired immunity. TRAFs family has 7 members (TRAF1-7), and TRAF6 has its special facture and biological function. TRAF6 has two special domains: C-terminal domain and N-terminal domain, which could integrate with multiple kinases and regulate signaling pathway function as E3 ubiquitin ligase...
April 11, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619963/national-cancer-institute-workshop-on-proton-therapy-for-children-considerations-regarding-brainstem-injury
#4
REVIEW
Daphne Haas-Kogan, Daniel Indelicato, Harald Paganetti, Natia Esiashvili, Anita Mahajan, Torunn Yock, Stella Flampouri, Shannon MacDonald, Maryam Fouladi, Kry Stephen, John Kalapurakal, Stephanie Terezakis, Hanne Kooy, David Grosshans, Mike Makrigiorgos, Kavita Mishra, Tina Young Poussaint, Kenneth Cohen, Thomas Fitzgerald, Vinai Gondi, Arthur Liu, Jeff Michalski, Dragan Mirkovic, Radhe Mohan, Stephanie Perkins, Kenneth Wong, Bhadrasain Vikram, Jeff Buchsbaum, Larry Kun
PURPOSE: Proton therapy can allow for superior avoidance of normal tissues. A widespread consensus has been reached that proton therapy should be used for patients with curable pediatric brain tumor to avoid critical central nervous system structures. Brainstem necrosis is a potentially devastating, but rare, complication of radiation. Recent reports of brainstem necrosis after proton therapy have raised concerns over the potential biological differences among radiation modalities. We have summarized findings from the National Cancer Institute Workshop on Proton Therapy for Children convened in May 2016 to examine brainstem injury...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619614/tnf%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-but-not-il-18-suppresses-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-directly-at-the-synapse
#5
G Aleph Prieto, Liqi Tong, Erica D Smith, Carl W Cotman
CNS inflammatory responses are linked to cognitive impairment in humans. Research in animal models supports this connection by showing that inflammatory cytokines suppress long-term potentiation (LTP), the best-known cellular correlate of memory. Cytokine-induced modulation of LTP has been previously studied in vivo or in brain slices, two experimental approaches containing multiple cell populations responsive to cytokines. In their target cells, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges...
April 4, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618054/influence-of-residual-disease-following-surgical-resection-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-on-clinical-neurocognitive-and-patient-reported-outcomes
#6
William A Hall, Stephanie L Pugh, Jeffrey S Wefel, Terri S Armstrong, Mark R Gilbert, David G Brachman, Maria Werner-Wasik, Merideth M Wendland, Paul D Brown, Samuel T Chao, Kevin S Roof, H Ian Robins, Minesh P Mehta, Walter J Curran, Benjamin Movsas
BACKGROUND: The influence of subtotal resection (STR) on neurocognitive function (NCF), quality of life, and symptom burden in glioblastoma is unknown. If bevacizumab preferentially benefits patients with STR is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine these uncertainties. METHODS: NCF and patient reported outcomes (PRO) were prospectively collected in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 and 0825. Changes in NCF and PRO measures from baseline to prespecified times were examined by Wilcoxon test, and mixed effects longitudinal modeling, to assess differences between patients who received STR vs gross-total resection...
March 30, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616106/data-mining-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-microarray-expression-reveals-a-novel-potential-subdivision-of-the-group-4-molecular-subgroup
#7
Rosa Angélica Castillo-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel Dávila-Borja, Sergio Juárez-Méndez
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of solid brain tumor in children. This type of embryonic tumor is highly heterogeneous and has been classified into 4 molecular subgroups based on their gene expression profiles: WNT, SHH, Group 3 (G3) and Group 4 (G4). WNT and SHH tumors exhibit the specific dysregulation of genes and pathways, whereas G3 and G4 tumors, two of the more frequent subtypes, are the least characterized. Thus, novel markers to aid in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of medulloblastoma are required...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610396/precision-oncogenomics-in-pediatrics-a-personal-reflection
#8
Cindy Campbell, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Cindy Campbell, a bereaved parent who lost her son to a rare pediatric brain tumor, shares her experience and frustration over the lack of treatment options and minimal research funding in pediatric oncology. She invites Dr. Jeffrey P. Greenfield to reflect on the situation and share his professional experiences pertaining to advances in oncogenomics and pediatric brain tumors. They share a passion for making this technology available to all pediatric brain tumor patients in the future and using data to inform treatment protocols and improve outcomes...
April 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607690/antitumor-and-immunomodulatory-activities-of-ganoderma-lucidum-polysaccharides-in-glioma-bearing-rats
#9
Chunhua Wang, Songsheng Shi, Quan Chen, Shuqian Lin, Rui Wang, Saizhen Wang, Chunmei Chen
Malignant gliomas are the most common brain tumors with high rates of recurrence and mortality. Novel approaches are in research, and immunotherapy emerges as a promising strategy. Recently, scientific attention has been focused on Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS), one of the critical bioactive components of G lucidum, which have been recognized as a promising natural source of immunomodulatory and anticancer compounds. It remains unknown whether the GL-PS have any immunomodulatory and anticancer effects on brain glioma...
March 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589147/-primary-vitreoretinal-lymphoma
#10
D Jaehne, S E Coupland
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) is the most common intraocular lymphoma. It is a high grade malignant B‑cell lymphoma, which is thought to arise in the retina. It often infiltrates the central nervous system (CNS) and is therefore associated with a poor prognosis. The PVRL must be differentiated from other forms of intraocular lymphoma, such as the low-grade B‑cell lymphoma that rarely arises in the choroid. The choroidal lymphomas do not spread to the brain, they can be treated with low-dose external beam radiotherapy and the patients have a good prognosis...
March 27, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584587/behavioral-effects-of-focal-irradiation-in-a-juvenile-murine-model
#11
Tyler C Alexander, Hannah Butcher, Kimberly Krager, Frederico Kiffer, Thomas Groves, Jing Wang, Gwendolyn Carter, Antiño R Allen
Chemotherapy has been successfully used to reduce radiation dose and volume for most pediatric patients. However, because of the failure of chemotherapeutic agents to cross the blood-brain barrier and the lack of response of some brain tumors to these agents, radiation therapy is still used to treat many childhood cancers with CNS involvement. In this study, we investigated the radiation effects on cognition and dendritic structure in the hippocampus in juvenile male mice. Twenty-one-day-old male C57BL/6 mice were irradiated using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP)...
March 27, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577351/a-new-way-to-treat-brain-tumors-targeting-proteins-coded-by-microcephaly-genes-brain-tumors-and-microcephaly-arise-from-opposing-derangements-regulating-progenitor-growth-drivers-of-microcephaly-could-be-attractive-brain-tumor-targets
#12
REVIEW
Patrick Y Lang, Timothy R Gershon
New targets for brain tumor therapies may be identified by mutations that cause hereditary microcephaly. Brain growth depends on the repeated proliferation of stem and progenitor cells. Microcephaly syndromes result from mutations that specifically impair the ability of brain progenitor or stem cells to proliferate, by inducing either premature differentiation or apoptosis. Brain tumors that derive from brain progenitor or stem cells may share many of the specific requirements of their cells of origin. These tumors may therefore be susceptible to disruptions of the protein products of genes that are mutated in microcephaly...
March 26, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575026/ag-1031-induced-autophagic-cell-death-and-apoptosis-in-c6-glioma-cells-associated-with-notch-1-signaling-pathway
#13
Yan Wang, Hui Wang, Hui Ge, Zhuo Yang
Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor with high morbidity and poor prognosis. The effect of AG-1031, which is developed as an antineoplastic drug, on C6 glioma cells is still not clear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of AG-1031 on C6 cells, and tried to find out its potential mechanism on cytotoxicity of C6 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl) -2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that AG-1031 inhibited cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 3-methyadenine (3-MA) reduced this effect...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566179/breast-cancer-brain-metastasis-molecular-mechanisms-and-directions-for-treatment
#14
Rute Pedrosa, Dana A Mustafa, Riccardo Soffietti, Johan M Kros
The development of brain metastasis (BM) of breast cancer is usually a late event with deleterious effect on the prognosis. Treatment options for intracerebral seeding of breast cancer are limited and so far, non-specific. Molecular detailing of subsequent events of penetration, seeding and outgrowth in brain is highly relevant for developing therapeutic strategies to treat, or prevent, BM.We scrutinize recent literature for molecules and pathways that are operative in the formation of breast cancer BM. We also summarize current data on therapeutic efforts to specifically address BM of breast cancer...
March 16, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556302/tumor-suppressor-candidate-3-a-novel-grading-tool-and-predictor-of-clinical-malignancy-in-human-gliomas
#15
Jing Yuan, Xinshuang Yu, Aihua Wang, Yan Li, Fengjun Liu, Yao Wang, Shanmei Sun, Xiuyang Bing, Yiming Liu, Juan Du
For several years, the cause of autosomal recessive mental retardation has been attributed to the deletion or mutation of a gene named tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3). Previous research has identified that TUSC3 is a potential tumor suppressor gene in oral epidermoid carcinoma, lung cancer and esophageal cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previously published data has existed on the expression of TUSC3 in gliomas. The present study focused on the expression of TUSC3 in brain gliomas. Additionally, the present study sought to identify he association between TUSC3 expression and the typical clinical and pathological disease manifestations of gliomas...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554321/robotic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-diagnosed-with-either-space-or-mprage-sequence-cyber-space-a-single-center-prospective-randomized-trial
#16
Rami A El Shafie, Angela Paul, Denise Bernhardt, Kristin Lang, Thomas Welzel, Tanja Sprave, Adriane Hommertgen, Johannes Krisam, Daniela Schmitt, Sebastian Klüter, Kai Schubert, Christina Klose, Meinhard Kieser, Jürgen Debus, Stefan Rieken
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases (BM) is recommended in oligometastatic scenarios as a less toxic treatment alternative to whole-brain radiotherapy. Recent findings support SRS for patients with multiple (>3) BM. Furthermore, advances in MR imaging have facilitated the detection of very small BM, as advances in SRS technology have facilitated the highly conformal and simultaneous treatment of multiple target lesions. OBJECTIVE: To compare efficacy and toxicity of repeated frameless robotic SRS of up to 10 simultaneous BM through a single-center prospective randomized trial...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553850/mertk-mediates-stat3-kras-src-signaling-axis-for-glioma-stem-cell-maintenance
#17
Hyojin Eom, Neha Kaushik, Ki-Chun Yoo, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Munjin Kwon, Mi-Young Choi, Taeyoung Yoon, Seok-Gu Kang, Su-Jae Lee
Receptor tyrosine kinase Mer (MerTK) has been shown to be highly expressed in Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in comparison to its healthy counterpart and is implicated in brain tumorigenesis. Clarifying the underlying mechanism of MerTK induced invasiveness would result in novel strategies to improve patient's response to chemotherapeutics. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to examine the functional role of cancer stem sell (CSC) maintenance in MerTK associated invasiveness. In this article, we demonstrate that apart from GBM cells, MerTK is also upregulated in GBM stem-like cells and associated with an increased infiltrative potential of brain tumors in vivo...
March 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552415/detecting-brain-tumor-in-pathological-slides-using-hyperspectral-imaging
#18
Samuel Ortega, Himar Fabelo, Rafael Camacho, María de la Luz Plaza, Gustavo M Callicó, Roberto Sarmiento
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging technology for medical diagnosis. This research work presents a proof-of-concept on the use of HSI data to automatically detect human brain tumor tissue in pathological slides. The samples, consisting of hyperspectral cubes collected from 400 nm to 1000 nm, were acquired from ten different patients diagnosed with high-grade glioma. Based on the diagnosis provided by pathologists, a spectral library of normal and tumor tissues was created and processed using three different supervised classification algorithms...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548053/concepts-for-immunotherapies-in-gliomas
#19
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547090/prognostic-role-of-mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-in-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutant-glioma
#20
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, L Eric Huang
OBJECTIVE Gliomas are one of the most common types of primary brain tumors. Recent studies have supported the importance of key genetic alterations, including isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and 1p19q codeletion, in glioma prognosis. Mutant IDH produces 2-hydroxyglutarate from α-ketoglutarate, a key metabolite of the Krebs cycle. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is composed of MPC1 and MPC2 subunits and is functionally essential for the Krebs cycle. The authors sought to explore the impact of MPC1 and MPC2 expression on patient prognosis...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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