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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#1
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801927/mediating-burden-and-stress-over-time-caregivers-of-patients-with-primary-brain-tumor
#2
Maija Reblin, Brent Small, Heather Jim, Jason Weimer, Paula Sherwood
There is a growing literature on the effects of cancer caregiving on the well-being of informal family caregivers. However, there has been little longitudinal research on caregivers of patients with the complex, rapidly-changing disease of primary malignant brain tumor (PBT). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to model longitudinal relationships between caregiver burden, social support, and distress within caregivers of patients with PBT. METHODS: Caregiver participants were recruited from a neuro-oncology clinic...
August 11, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791407/long-non-coding-rna-meg3-inhibits-cell-growth-of-gliomas-by-targeting-mir-93-and-inactivating-pi3k-akt-pathway
#3
Ling Zhang, Xin Liang, Yuxiong Li
Gliomas are the most common cancers in the brain, accompanied with high morbility, occurrence, disability and mortality. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed as promoter or inhibitor in many cancer processes. Previous findings have indicated that lncRNA-maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is involved in tumorigenesis of several cancers, including glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of MEG3 in glioma remains elusive. In our study, MEG3 was found downregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues...
August 3, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790487/developing-therapies-for-brain-tumors-the-impact-of-the-johns-hopkins-hunterian-neurosurgical-research-laboratory
#4
Henry Brem, Eric W Sankey, Ann Liu, Antonella Mangraviti, Betty M Tyler
The Johns Hopkins Hunterian Neurosurgical Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine was created in 1904 by Harvey Cushing and William Halsted and has had a long history of fostering surgical training, encouraging basis science research, and facilitating translational application. Over the past 30 years, the laboratory has addressed the paucity of brain tumor therapies. Pre-clinical work from the laboratory led to the development of carmustine wafers with initial US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1996...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789707/checkpoint-inhibitors-in-melanoma-and-early-phase-development-in-solid-tumors-what-s-the-future
#5
EDITORIAL
Paolo A Ascierto, Grant A McArthur
Anti-programmed death (PD)-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1 checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the therapy of several cancers. Immunotherapy of cancer can offer long-term durable benefit to patients, is active regardless of tumour histology, has a unique immune-related safety profile, and can be used in combination with other cancer treatments. In addition, recent research has shown that immune-based therapy can be used as adjuvant therapy, that outcomes may be influenced by dose, and that clinical activity is observed in patients with brain metastases...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781988/multiple-response-regression-analysis-links-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-to-de-regulated-protein-expression-and-pathway-activity-in-lower-grade-glioma
#6
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, Visweswaran Ravikumar, James Y Chen, Max Wintermark, Scott N Hwang, Chad A Holder, Erich P Huang, Brenda Fevrier-Sullivan, John B Freymann, Arvind Rao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower grade gliomas (LGGs), lesions of WHO grades II and III, comprise 10-15% of primary brain tumors. In this first-of-a-kind study, we aim to carry out a radioproteomic characterization of LGGs using proteomics data from the TCGA and imaging data from the TCIA cohorts, to obtain an association between tumor MRI characteristics and protein measurements. The availability of linked imaging and molecular data permits the assessment of relationships between tumor genomic/proteomic measurements with phenotypic features...
May 2017: Oncoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777143/assessing-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-solid-tumors-a-practical-review-for-pathologists-and-proposal-for-a-standardized-method-from-the-international-immuno-oncology-biomarkers-working-group-part-2-tils-in-melanoma-gastrointestinal-tract-carcinomas-non
#7
Shona Hendry, Roberto Salgado, Thomas Gevaert, Prudence A Russell, Tom John, Bibhusal Thapa, Michael Christie, Koen van de Vijver, M V Estrada, Paula I Gonzalez-Ericsson, Melinda Sanders, Benjamin Solomon, Cinzia Solinas, Gert G G M Van den Eynden, Yves Allory, Matthias Preusser, Johannes Hainfellner, Giancarlo Pruneri, Andrea Vingiani, Sandra Demaria, Fraser Symmans, Paolo Nuciforo, Laura Comerma, E A Thompson, Sunil Lakhani, Seong-Rim Kim, Stuart Schnitt, Cecile Colpaert, Christos Sotiriou, Stefan J Scherer, Michail Ignatiadis, Sunil Badve, Robert H Pierce, Giuseppe Viale, Nicolas Sirtaine, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Tomohagu Sugie, Susan Fineberg, Soonmyung Paik, Ashok Srinivasan, Andrea Richardson, Yihong Wang, Ewa Chmielik, Jane Brock, Douglas B Johnson, Justin Balko, Stephan Wienert, Veerle Bossuyt, Stefan Michiels, Nils Ternes, Nicole Burchardi, Stephen J Luen, Peter Savas, Frederick Klauschen, Peter H Watson, Brad H Nelson, Carmen Criscitiello, Sandra O'Toole, Denis Larsimont, Roland de Wind, Giuseppe Curigliano, Fabrice André, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Mark van de Vijver, Federico Rojo, Giuseppe Floris, Shahinaz Bedri, Joseph Sparano, David Rimm, Torsten Nielsen, Zuzana Kos, Stephen Hewitt, Baljit Singh, Gelareh Farshid, Sibylle Loibl, Kimberly H Allison, Nadine Tung, Sylvia Adams, Karen Willard-Gallo, Hugo M Horlings, Leena Gandhi, Andre Moreira, Fred Hirsch, Maria V Dieci, Maria Urbanowicz, Iva Brcic, Konstanty Korski, Fabien Gaire, Hartmut Koeppen, Amy Lo, Jennifer Giltnane, Marlon C Rebelatto, Keith E Steele, Jiping Zha, Kenneth Emancipator, Jonathan W Juco, Carsten Denkert, Jorge Reis-Filho, Sherene Loi, Stephen B Fox
Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma...
August 2, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774478/putting-glioblastoma-in-its-place-irf3-inhibits-invasion
#8
Siobhan S Pattwell, Eric C Holland
With an unsurpassed capacity for invasion into normal brain tissue, glioblastoma multiforme is the most lethal primary brain tumor. New research suggests that altering a subset of extracellular matrix factors, including interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and casein kinase (CK)2, may decrease the migratory potential of these aggressive tumors.
July 31, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770964/cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-glioblastoma-an-update
#9
H-S Xu, X-L Qin, H-L Zong, X-G He, L Cao
The glioblastoma includes brain tumors, which are very aggressive in nature and are among the most common brain tumors in adults. Latest therapeutic avenues involve combination approach. However, the observed median survival is still no more than 15 months. Moreover, there is a scarcity of accurate pre-clinical model systems, which in turn resulted in limited treatment options for this disease. Cancer stem cells are attractive avenues in anticancer research against glioblastoma. Most of the recent studies are focused towards the identification of novel markers for cancer stem cells...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758581/implications-of-pegylation-of-carbon-nanotubes-for-central-nervous-system-bioavailability
#10
Gisele Eva Bruch, Marcos F Cordeiro, Livia S Gomides, Carolina Peixoto, Arthur P Cordeiro, Lidiane Dal Bosco, Adelina P Santos, Daniela M Barros
In this mini-review we have compiled the most recent and comparable information to shed a light on the action of PEGylation in the biodistribution of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) in the Central Nervous System (CNS). It is well known that due to the complexity of the CNS and the severity of the outcome of changes in this system, this is one of the areas where there are more investments in research to develop new technologies and approaches for more effective and less invasive treatments. The CNS is highly protected against toxic and invasive microorganisms thanks to the blood brain barrier (BBB), but this protection also prevents the passage of potentially beneficial molecules for the treatment of neurological disorders, Nanotechnology attempts to develop nanocompounds that are biocompatible and non-immunogenic, and that are able to cross the BBB in therapeutic amounts without causing damage and to diffuse through nerve tissue...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755329/brain-tumor-related-epilepsy-a-current-review-of-the-etiologic-basis-and-diagnostic-and-treatment-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Politsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The relationship of brain tumors and seizures remains poorly understood. This article is an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, and diagnostic and treatment approaches of tumor-related epilepsy primarily with regard to glial-based tumors, the most commonly considered brain tumor in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past many years, several novel etiologic mechanisms to explain how tumors induce seizures have been developed, which this article reviews, including the roles of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, matrix metalloproteinases, isocitrate dehydrogenase, methylguanine methyltransferase, and functional network connectivity...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746860/integrating-rna-sequencing-into-neuro-oncology-practice
#12
REVIEW
David S Rogawski, Nicholas A Vitanza, Angela C Gauthier, Vijay Ramaswamy, Carl Koschmann
Malignant tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) cause substantial morbidity and mortality, yet efforts to optimize chemo- and radiotherapy have largely failed to improve dismal prognoses. Over the past decade, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as a powerful tool to comprehensively characterize the transcriptome of CNS tumor cells in one high-throughput step, leading to improved understanding of CNS tumor biology and suggesting new routes for targeted therapies. RNA-seq has been instrumental in improving the diagnostic classification of brain tumors, characterizing oncogenic fusion genes, and shedding light on intratumor heterogeneity...
July 8, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746336/discovery-of-novel-brain-permeable-and-g-protein-biased-beta-1-adrenergic-receptor-partial-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-neurocognitive-disorders
#13
Bitna Yi, Alam Jahangir, Andrew K Evans, Denise Briggs, Kristine Ravina, Jacqueline Ernest, Amir B Farimani, Wenchao Sun, Jayakumar Rajadas, Michael Green, Evan N Feinberg, Vijay S Pande, Mehrdad Shamloo
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) is a promising therapeutic target intrinsically involved in the cognitive deficits and pathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence indicates that ADRB1 plays an important role in regulating neuroinflammatory processes, and activation of ADRB1 may produce neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammatory diseases. Novel small molecule modulators of ADRB1, engineered to be highly brain permeable and functionally selective for the G protein with partial agonistic activity, could have tremendous value both as pharmacological tools and potential lead molecules for further preclinical development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739696/differences-in-extracellular-matrix-composition-and-its-role-in-invasion-in-primary-and-secondary-intracerebral-malignancies
#14
József Virga, Csaba Dávid Szemcsák, Judit Reményi-Puskár, Judit Tóth, Tibor Hortobágyi, Éva Csősz, Gábor Zahuczky, László Szivos, Lászlo Bognár, Almos Klekner
BACKGROUND/AIM: The most common malignant primary brain tumor is glioblastoma which infiltrates the peritumoral brain, while secondary brain metastases are well demarcated malignancies. Previous research has proved the pivotal role of the changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in cancer cell invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression of 40 ECM molecules was determined using qRT-PCR in 54 fresh-frozen glioblastoma and brain metastasis samples. Seventy-two samples were used to determine the levels of 20 ECM proteins...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736864/brain-tumor-segmentation-using-holistically-nested-neural-networks-in-mri-images
#15
Ying Zhuge, Andra V Krauze, Holly Ning, Jason Y Cheng, Barbara C Arora, Kevin Camphausen, Robert W Miller
PURPOSE: Gliomas are rapidly progressive, neurologically devastating, largely fatal brain tumors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique employed in the diagnosis and management of gliomas in clinical practice. MRI is also the standard imaging modality used to delineate the brain tumor target as part of treatment planning for the administration of radiation therapy. Despite more than 20 years of research and development, computational brain tumor segmentation in MRI images remains a challenging task...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735437/prospective-and-retrospective-study-of-videoconference-telemedicine-follow-up-after-elective-neurosurgery-results-of-a-pilot-program
#16
Melissa Reider-Demer, Pushpa Raja, Neil Martin, Mariel Schwinger, Diana Babayan
Existing literature suggests that use of telemedicine during postoperative appointments can increase access to care and is valued by patients and providers alike. While research examining the clinical equivalency of telemedicine visits for postoperative care has been growing, few studies have reported on telemedicine follow-up after neurosurgery. This study examined if a videoconferencing visit could substitute for an in-person clinic visit for elective neurosurgical cases in the USA. This was a single-center prospective study of patients who underwent elective neurosurgical procedures (aneurysm clipping, resection of cavernous angiomas, resection of arterial venous malformation, microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm, and certain benign brain tumors) and were offered telemedicine follow-up care by an allied health professional during the first 90 days after neurosurgery...
July 22, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733441/molecular-screening-for-cancer-treatment-optimization-moscato-01-in-pediatric-patients-a-single-institutional-prospective-molecular-stratification-trial
#17
Anne Catherine Harttrampf, Ludovic Lacroix, Marc Deloger, Frederic Deschamps, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Auger, Philippe Vielh, Pascale Varlet, Zsofia Balogh, Samuel Abbou, Adrien Allorant, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Sabine Sarnacki, Louise Galmiche, Guillaume Meurice, Véronique Minard-Colin, Jacques Grill, Laurence Brugières, Christelle Dufour, Nathalie Gaspar, Stefan Michiels, Gilles Vassal, Jean-Charles Soria, Birgit Geoerger
This single institutional feasibility study prospectively characterized genomic alterations in recurrent or refractory solid tumors of pediatric patients in order to select a targeted therapy.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Following treatment failure patients with signed consent and aged above 6 months, underwent tumor biopsy or surgical resection of primary or metastatic tumor site.  These newly acquired samples were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization array, next generation sequencing for 75 target genes, whole exome and RNA sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725965/medulloblastoma-experimental-models-and-reality
#18
REVIEW
Julia E Neumann, Fredrik J Swartling, Ulrich Schüller
Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in childhood, but it may also affect infants, adolescents, and young adults. Recent advances in the understanding of the disease have shed light on molecular and clinical heterogeneity, which is now reflected in the updated WHO classification of brain tumors. At the same time, it is well accepted that preclinical research and clinical trials have to be subgroup-specific. Hence, valid models have to be generated specifically for every medulloblastoma subgroup to properly mimic molecular fingerprints, clinical features, and responsiveness to targeted therapies...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719459/coagulation-management-in-patients-undergoing-neurosurgical-procedures
#19
Chiara Robba, Rita Bertuetti, Frank Rasulo, Alessando Bertuccio, Basil Matta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711724/neurotrophic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-study
#20
Seline van den Ameele, Violette Coppens, Jeroen Schuermans, Peter De Boer, Maarten Timmers, Erik Fransen, Bernard Sabbe, Manuel Morrens
Altered neurotrophic signaling is thought to impair neuroplasticity in bipolar disorder (BD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is proposed as a neurotrophic marker in BD. However, the current evidence for its use in monitoring disease activity and illness progression is conflicting and an exploration of additional neurotrophic markers is needed. This prospective case-control study investigated mood-specific changes in potential neurotrophic markers and their association to inflammatory activity. Patients with BD were included during an acute mood episode, either depressive (n=35) or (hypo)manic (n=32)...
July 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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