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Brain tumor research

Bang-Qing Wang, Bin Yang, Hua-Chao Yang, Jun-Yi Wang, Sen Hu, Yu-Shuai Gao, Xing-Yao Bu
As the most common and lethal of intracranial tumors, glioma accounts for 81% of all malignant brain tumors. Research data has identified the role of microRNAs (miRs) as functional suppressers in the progression of Glioma. The present study aimed to, ascertain as to whether microRNA-499a (miR-499a) influences cell proliferation and apoptosis through the MAPK signaling pathway by targeting Notch1 in glioma. Both glioma and adjacent tissues between 2012~2016, were obtained from People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Henan Provincial People's Hospital)...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Lourdes M DelRosso, Kenneth Martin, Oliviero Bruni, Raffaele Ferri
INTRODUCTION: For several years, pineal cysts have been considered an incidental finding on brain MRI's even though research and case reports have shown a possible association of pineal cysts with headaches and sleep disturbances. This pilot study aims to evaluate sleep disorders in school-age children with an incidental pineal cyst in an otherwise normal brain MRI. METHOD: Children aged 6-12 years, who were referred for evaluation of headaches, tics, or syncope, and had an incidental pineal cyst on an otherwise normal brain MRI were included and compared to a control group of children with the same referral reasons but with a normal MRI and to a cohort of normal controls...
May 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sung Hyun Noh, Kyung Hyun Kim, Dong Ah Shin, Jeong Yoon Park, Seong Yi, Sung Uk Kuh, Keung Nyun Kim, Dong Kyu Chin, Keun Su Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Yong Eun Cho
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Because of the scarcity of atypical spinal meningioma, there is a lack of research on this type of tumor or its associated metastases. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological behavior of atypical spinal meningioma and identify its prognostic factors by reviewing surgical and clinical outcomes of patients with these tumors. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective chart review was performed. PATIENT SAMPLE: We retrospectively reviewed the data from all patients who underwent spinal cord tumor excision between 1994 and 2017...
June 12, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Christina Amidei
Survival alone is no longer an adequate outcome for persons with brain tumors; the quality of the survivorship experience should be viewed with equal importance. Symptom management is a significant component of quality survivorship care. Regardless of their histology, brain tumors and therapies used to treat them produce symptoms that affect an individual's ability to function in everyday life. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment, distress, and sleep disturbance. Symptom-based interventions for persons with brain tumors focus on prevention, self-management and prescriptive interventions targeted to these problems...
June 13, 2018: Neuro-oncology
K Mardaleishvili, G Orkodashvili
Objective - to assess how rCBV maps correlate with irradiation treatment plans in patients with recurrent tumor in order to identify potential differences and optimize treatment planning. 11 patients with brain HGG have taken participation in this study. Study was conducted in Radiation Medicine Center and Scientific Research Institute of Clinical Medicine. All patients underwent DSC-MRI and routine MRI imaging prior to re-irradiation treatment planning, and underwent treatment as per routine clinical protocol...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Carlos Cabal Mirabal, Adolfo Fernández García, Manuel Lores Guevara, Evelio González, Leonardo Oramas Díaz
The potentials of the magnetic resonance (MR) methods in the research of biomedical systems have been demonstrated during the 70 years of its existence. It is presented that the Cuban experience in quantitative magnetic resonance associated with molecular, preclinical and clinical studies of significant diseases and drugs development. MR "in vitro" and "in vivo" studies of sickle cell disease, the diabetic foot ulcer, the brain tumor response and the magnetic nano-particle pharmacokinetics, are presented as example...
2018: Applied Magnetic Resonance
Francesca Graziano, C Caruso Bavisotto, A Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Everly Conway de Macario, Albert J L Macario, Francesco Cappello, Claudia Campanella, Rosario Maugeri, Domenico Gerardo Iacopino
The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada Phase III trial has validated as a current regimen for high-grade gliomas (HGG) a maximal safe surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide. However, it is essential to balance maximal tumor resection with preservation of the patient’s neurological functions. Important developments in the fields of pre-operative and intra-operative neuro-imaging and neuro-monitoring have ameliorated the survival rate and the quality of life for patients affected by HGG...
June 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
E Lin, T Scognamiglio, Y Zhao, T H Schwartz, C D Phillips
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Skull base chordomas often demonstrate variable MR imaging characteristics, and there has been limited prior research investigating the potential clinical relevance of this variability. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic implications of signal intensity on standard imaging techniques for the biologic behavior of skull base chordomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for 22 patients with pathologically confirmed skull base chordomas...
June 14, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Dianjun Qi, Shaohua Wu, Haishuang Lin, Mitchell A Kuss, Yuguo Lei, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev, Shaheen Ahmed, Chi Zhang, Hyung Joon Kim, Peng Jiang, Bin Duan
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an active and complex diffusion barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid, regulates nutrient transportation, and provides protection against various toxic compounds and pathogens. Creating an in vitro microphysiological BBB system, particularly with relevant human cell types, will significantly facilitate the research of neuro-pharmaceutical drug delivery, screening, and transport, as well as improve our understanding of pathologies that are due to BBB damage...
June 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laura Burgess, Margaret B Pulsifer, Julie A Grieco, Elliott R Weinstein, Sara Gallotto, Elizabeth Weyman, Shannon M MacDonald, Nancy J Tarbell, Beow Y Yeap, Torunn I Yock
PURPOSE: While cranial irradiation is often essential to attain a cure for pediatric brain tumors, it is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes, primarily manifested as declines in full-scale IQ (FSIQ). This decline results primarily from a decline in processing speed, a component of FSIQ. However, estimated IQ (EIQ) is frequently used in research and clinical settings but does not incorporate processing speed. We hypothesized that EIQ systematically underestimates neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pediatric brain tumor survivors...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Nuria Rodríguez de Dios, Felipe Couñago, José Luis López, Patricia Calvo, Mauricio Murcia, Mikel Rico, Carmen Vallejo, Javier Luna, Itziar Trueba, Cristina Cigarral, Nuria Farre, Rosa Maria Manero, Xavier Durán, Pilar Samper
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is part of the usual treatment in most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and response after treatment of the primary tumor. Clinical evidence suggests that radiation dose received by the hippocampus during whole brain radiotherapy might play a role in radiation-induced neurocognitive decline. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study is a multicenter phase III trial (NCT02397733) randomizing SCLC patients after informed consent, to receive standard PCI treatment or PCI with hippocampus avoidance (PCI-HA) by using intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Paul J Black, Deborah R Smith, Kunal Chaudhary, Eric P Xanthopoulos, Christine Chin, Catherine S Spina, Mark E Hwang, Mark Mayeda, Yi-Fang Wang, Eileen P Connolly, Tony J C Wang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng, Cheng-Chia Wu
PURPOSE: To implement Velocity-based image fusion and adaptive deformable registration to enable treatment planning for preclinical murine models of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL6 mice underwent 3 unique cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans: 2 in the prone position and a third supine. A single T1-weighted post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of a murine metastatic brain tumor model was selected for MRI-to-CBCT registration and gross tumor volume (GTV) identification...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Giada Toccaceli, Roberto Delfini, Claudio Colonnese, Antonino Raco, Simone Peschillo
Despite the progress achieved in recent years, the prognosis of patients with primary brain tumors remains poor. Research efforts have therefore focused on identifying more effective and minimally invasive treatment methods. MR guided transcranial focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a consolidated minimally invasive therapeutic technique, which has recently acquired a role also in the treatment of some non-oncological intracranial pathologies. In this article, we've reviewed the latest studies to take stock of the potential that this method can offer...
June 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Masafumi Saiki, Satoru Kitazono, Takahiro Yoshizawa, Yosuke Dotsu, Ryo Ariyasu, Junji Koyama, Tomoaki Sonoda, Ken Uchibori, Shingo Nishikawa, Noriko Yanagitani, Atsushi Horiike, Fumiyoshi Ohyanagi, Katsunori Oikado, Hironori Ninomiya, Kengo Takeuchi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Makoto Nishio
BACKGROUND: Rearranged during transfection (RET)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is relatively rare and the clinical and computed tomography (CT) image characteristics of patients with an advanced disease stage have not been well documented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified patients with advanced-stage RET-rearranged NSCLC treated in the Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, and analyzed the clinical and CT imaging characteristics...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Alessandra Sussulini, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis
Biochemical imbalances, provoked by aging or a secondary illness, might directly affect the brain, causing severe problems, such as loss of memory or alteration of behavior patterns. Brain disorders are usually classified as injuries (such as stroke, hematomas, and concussions), tumors, and neurodegenerative (such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) and mental (such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) diseases. As the pathophysiology of these illnesses is not completely established and multiple factors are involved, metallomics, a bioanalytical strategy that allows the detection of metal ions and metalloproteins in diverse biological matrices, is of extreme relevance in identifying which elements are affected by a disease and/or treatment...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lucas Treps
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and aggressive brain tumor. Despite aggressive standard care, GBM remains predominantly fatal; hence new innovative therapies are required. Recent research published in The Journal of Pathology has identified the CGKRK peptide as a promising tool to specifically target tumor vasculature from high grade glioma. This tumor vessel homing peptide was fused to the TNF superfamily member LIGHT/TNFSF14 and injected intravenously to murine orthotopic GBM models...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Alba Cañas, Montserrat Juncadella, Ruth Lau, Andreu Gabarrós, Mireia Hernández
The Supplementary Motor Area (SMA)-located in the superior and medial aspects of the superior frontal gyrus-is a preferential site of certain brain tumors and arteriovenous malformations, which often provoke the so-called SMA syndrome. The bulk of the literature studying this syndrome has focused on two of its most apparent symptoms: contralateral motor and speech deficits. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to working memory (WM) even though neuroimaging studies have implicated the SMA in this cognitive process...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kevin R Krull, Kristina K Hardy, Lisa S Kahalley, Ilse Schuitema, Shelli R Kesler
Recent research has demonstrated that survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for a myriad of late effects that affect physical and mental quality of life. We discuss the patterns and prevalence of neurocognitive problems commonly experienced by survivors of CNS tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the two most commonly researched cancer diagnoses. Research documenting the direct effects of tumor location and treatment type and intensity is presented, and patient characteristics that moderate outcomes (eg, age at diagnosis and sex) are discussed...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Hsiu-Chuan Yen, Chih-Lung Lin, Bing-Shian Chen, Chih-Wei Chen, Kuo-Chen Wei, Mei-Lin Yang, Jee-Ching Hsu, Yung-Hsing Hsu
Malignant astrocytoma is the most commonly occurring brain tumor in humans. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cancers. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found to exert tumor suppressive effect in basic research, but increased SOD2 protein level was associated with higher aggressiveness of human astrocytomas. However, studies reporting alterations of antioxidant enzymes in human astrocytomas often employed less accurate methods or included different types of tumors. Here we analyzed the mRNA levels, activities, and protein levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in control brain tissues and various grades of astrocytomas obtained from 40 patients...
June 3, 2018: Free Radical Research
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