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Brain tumor research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#1
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523289/core-canonical-pathways-involved-in-developing-human-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm
#2
Somiranjan Ghosh, Sisir Dutta, Gabriel Thorne, Ava Boston, Alexis Barfield, Narendra Banerjee, Rayshawn Walker, Hirendra Nath Banerjee
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of the primary brain tumors with pathologic hallmarks of necrosis and vascular proliferation. The diagnosis of GBM is currently mostly based on histological examination of brain tumor tissues, after radiological characterization and surgical biopsy. The ability to characterize tumors comprehensively at the molecular level raises the possibility that diagnosis can be made based on molecular profiling with or without histological examination, rather than solely on histological phenotype...
February 2017: Int J Sci Res Sci Eng Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521298/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-axis-supports-the-serum-independent-growth-of-malignant-rhabdoid-tumor-and-is-activated-by-microenvironment-stress
#3
Ting Li, Jin Wang, Pengfei Liu, Jiadong Chi, Han Yan, Lei Lei, Zexing Li, Bing Yang, Xi Wang
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, lethal, pediatric tumors predominantly found in the kidney, brain and soft tissues. MRTs are driven by loss of tumor suppressor SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1/BAF47. The prognosis of MRT is poor using currently available treatments, so new treatment targets need to be identified to expand treatment options for patients experiencing chemotherapy resistance. The growth hormone insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway is a promising target to overcome drug resistance in many cancers...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521179/biological-predictors-of-insulin-resistance-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-young-military-veterans
#4
Esther M Blessing, Victor Reus, Synthia H Mellon, Owen M Wolkowitz, Janine D Flory, Linda Bierer, Daniel Lindqvist, Firdaus Dhabhar, Meng Li, Meng Qian, Duna Abu-Amara, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Rachel Yehuda, Charles R Marmar
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (cardiometabolic disease), warranting research into targeted prevention strategies. In the present case-control study of 160 young (mean age 32.7 years) male military veterans, we aimed to assess whether PTSD status predicted increased markers of cardiometabolic risk in otherwise healthy individuals, and further, to explore biological pathways between PTSD and these increased markers of cardiometabolic risk...
May 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516751/growth-hormone-therapy-and-brain-tumors
#5
Akira Teramoto
As one of the projects of the Adverse Events Study Group of the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, the literatures on the recurrence and / or regrowth or new formation of brain tumors in patients treated with growth hormone (GH) were reviewed. Since the tumor volume of the sellar lesion can be accurately evaluated only by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the related literatures published after 1990 were retrieved by searching under keywords, such as GH, replacement therapy, brain tumor, recurrence, tumor formation, etc...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513420/optimization-of-glioblastoma-mouse-orthotopic-xenograft-models-for-translational-research
#6
Susan M Irtenkauf, Susan Sobiechowski, Laura A Hasselbach, Kevin K Nelson, Andrea D Transou, Enoch T Carlton, Tom Mikkelsen, Ana C deCarvalho
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panelofpatient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508928/embryonal-tumors-in-canadian-children-less-than-36-months-of-age-results-from-the-canadian-pediatric-brain-tumor-consortium-cpbtc
#7
E Story, D L Johnston, U Bartels, A S Carret, B Crooks, D D Eisenstat, C Fryer, L Lafay-Cousin, V Larouche, B Wilson, S Zelcer, M Silva, J Brossard, E Bouffet, D L Keene
Embryonal tumors are a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) tumors whose subgroups have varying incidence and outcome. Despite these differences, they are often grouped as a single entity for study purposes. To date, there are no Canadian multi-institutional studies examining the incidence and outcome of all embryonal subtypes. The current study is an observational study reviewing embryonal tumors in all patients less than 36 months of age diagnosed with a CNS tumor in Canada from 1990 to 2005...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508321/trpc-channels-and-glioma
#8
Shanshan Li, Xia Ding
Glioma is the most common type of brain tumors and malignant glioma is extremely lethal, with patients' 5-year survival rate less than 10%. Treatment of gliomas poses remarkable clinical challenges, not only because of their particular localization but also because glioma cells possess several malignant biological features, including highly proliferative, highly invasive, highly angiogenic, and highly metabolic aberrant. All these features make gliomas highly recurrent and drug resistant. Finding new and effective molecular drug targets for glioma is an urgent and critical task for both basic and clinical research...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504422/effects-of-mobile-phones-on-children-s-and-adolescents-health-a-commentary
#9
Lennart Hardell
The use of digital technology has grown rapidly during the last couple of decades. During use, mobile phones and cordless phones emit radiofrequency (RF) radiation. No previous generation has been exposed during childhood and adolescence to this kind of radiation. The brain is the main target organ for RF emissions from the handheld wireless phone. An evaluation of the scientific evidence on the brain tumor risk was made in May 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at World Health Organization...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502261/profiles-of-executive-function-across-children-with-distinct-brain-disorders-traumatic-brain-injury-stroke-and-brain-tumor
#10
Gabriel C Araujo, Tanya N Antonini, Vicki Anderson, Kathryn A Vannatta, Christina G Salley, Erin D Bigler, H Gerry Taylor, Cynthia Gerhardt, Kenneth Rubin, Maureen Dennis, Warren Lo, Mark T Mackay, Anne Gordon, Christine Hajek Koterba, Alison Gomes, Mardee Greenham, Keith Owen Yeates
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. METHODS: Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8-13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6-16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9-18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482030/global-incidence-of-malignant-brain-and-other-central-nervous-system-tumors-by-histology-2003-2007
#11
Rebecca Leece, Jordan Xu, Quinn T Ostrom, Yanwen Chen, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
Background: Previous reports have shown that overall incidence of malignant brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors varied significantly by country. The aim of this study was to estimate histology-specific incidence rates by global region and assess incidence variation by histology and age. Methods: Using data from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents X (including over 300 cancer registries), we calculated the age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) per 100,000 person-years and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for brain and other CNS tumors overall, and by age groups and histology...
May 6, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481580/neurocognitive-deficits-in-children-with-chronic-health-conditions
#12
Bruce E Compas, Sarah S Jaser, Kristen Reeslund, Niral Patel, Janet Yarboi
Over 4 million children in the United States suffer from chronic health conditions, including cancer, sickle cell disease, and diabetes. Because of major advances in the early identification and treatment of these conditions, survival rates for these children continue to rise, and the majority now lives into adulthood. However, increases in survival have come with costs related to long-term effects of disease processes and treatments. Foremost among these consequences is impairment in brain development and neurocognitive function that may affect a substantial portion of children with chronic health conditions and follow many into adulthood...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479263/novel-rodent-model-of-breast-cancer-survival-with-persistent-anxiety-like-behavior-and-inflammation
#13
Leah M Pyter, Lorena P Suarez-Kelly, William E Carson, Jasskiran Kaur, Joshua Bellasario, Savannah R Bever
Breast cancer survivors are an expanding population that is troubled by lasting mental health problems, including depression and anxiety. These issues reduce quality-of-life throughout survivorhood. Research indicates that tumor biology, cancer treatments, and stress contribute to these mood disturbances. Although the mechanisms underlying these various causes remain under investigation, neuroinflammation is a leading hypothesis. To date, rodent models of recurrence-free tumor survival for understanding mechanisms by which these behavioral issues persist after cancer are lacking...
May 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470430/is-mortality-due-to-primary-malignant-brain-and-other-central-nervous-system-tumors-decreasing
#14
Haley Gittleman, Courtney Kromer, Quinn T Ostrom, Rachel Blanda, Jeffrey Russell, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
Primary malignant brain and other central nervous system tumors (BT) are a rare cancer that causes morbidity and mortality disproportionate to their incidence. This study presents the most up-to-date mortality data for malignant BT in the United States (US) by histology groupings, age, race, and sex. Mortality rates for malignant BT were generated using the Center for Disease Control's National Vital Statistics Systems (NVSS, ~100% of US) data from 1975 to 2012. Histology-specific incidence-based mortality rates were calculated using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results 9 (SEER9, ~9...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455788/diagnosis-and-treatment-patterns-for-patients-with-leptomeningeal-metastasis-from-solid-tumors-across-europe
#15
Emilie Le Rhun, Roberta Rudà, Patrick Devos, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Dieta Brandsma, Pedro Pérez Segura, Riccardo Soffietti, Michael Weller
Leptomeningeal metastases are a late manifestation of systemic cancer which affects up to 10% of patients with solid tumors. Prognosis is poor, and overall survival at 1 year is only approximately 10%. Management depends mainly on general and neurological condition, primary tumor, and patterns of metastasis, notably absence or presence of concurrent systemic or solid brain metastases. Here we set out to characterize current practice patterns of diagnosis and treatment of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis in Europe...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455399/drug-blocks-synaptic-hijacking-in-gliomas
#16
(no author information available yet)
An enzyme called ADAM10 cleaves a protein found in synaptic membranes, creating a soluble factor that can fuel the growth of brain tumors. Blocking this enzyme shrinks tumors in xenograft models of pediatric glioblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, two brain cancers with few to no effective drug options, researchers reported at the American Academy of Neurology 2017 Annual Meeting.
April 28, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453467/prognostic-significance-of-mycn-gene-amplification-and-protein-expression-in-primary-brain-tumors-astrocytoma-and-meningioma
#17
Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Firouzeh Javan, Ali Zekri, Masoud Mehrazin, Parvin Mehdipour
BACKGROUND: Astrocytoma and meningioma are the most common primary brain tumors. MYCN as a member of MYC proto-oncogenes has recently appeared as an attractive therapeutic target. Functions of MYCN are critical for growth of nervous system and neural differentiation. OBJECTIVE: We examined MYCN amplification and protein expression in astrocytoma and meningioma cases. METHODS: In this study, we used real-time PCR, FISH assay and flowcytometry to analyze DNA amplification and protein expression of MYCN...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447767/biopsy-versus-resection-for-the-management-of-low-grade-gliomas
#18
REVIEW
Bowen Jiang, Kaisorn Chaichana, Anand Veeravagu, Steven D Chang, Keith L Black, Chirag G Patil
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2013, Issue 4.Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute a class of slow-growing primary brain neoplasms. Patients with clinically and radiographically suspected LGG have two initial surgical options, biopsy or resection. Biopsy can provide a histological diagnosis with minimal risk but does not offer a direct treatment. Resection may have additional benefits such as increasing survival and delaying recurrence, but is associated with a higher risk for surgical morbidity...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440967/toxicity-of-cisplatin-loaded-poly-butyl-cyanoacrylate-nanoparticles-in-a-brain-cancer-cell-line-anionic-polymerization-results
#19
Nejad Mohamadi, S Maryam Kazemi, Mahshid Mohammadian, Attabak Toofani Milani, Younes Moradi, Maryam Yasemi, Meysam Ebrahimi far, Maral Mazloumi Tabrizi, Hasan Ebrahimi Shahmabadi, Azim Akbarzadeh Khiyavi
Cancer is one of the most important issues in modern medicine and the most common cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in many countries. Brain cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death among men and women, ranking third. Chemotherapeutic drugs that aim to prevent uncontrolled proliferation of cells in tissues of the body and induce apoptosis of tumor cells are prominent candidates for development. Since cisplatin has an apoptosisinducing role, it is widely used as an anticancer agent...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440867/the-epileptology-of-koolen-de-vries-syndrome-electro-clinico-radiologic-findings-in-31-patients
#20
Kenneth A Myers, Simone A Mandelstam, Georgia Ramantani, Elisabeth J Rushing, Bert B de Vries, David A Koolen, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes in Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS), a genetic syndrome involving dysmorphic features, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and congenital malformations, that occurs secondary to 17q21.31 microdeletions and heterozygous mutations in KANSL1. METHODS: We were invited to attend a large gathering of individuals with KdVS and their families. While there, we recruited individuals with KdVS and seizures, and performed thorough phenotyping...
April 25, 2017: Epilepsia
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